Angiotensin-convertingenzyme (ace) Inhibitors | Health Dictionary

The ENZYME that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II (see ANGIOTENSIN) is called angiotensin-converting enzyme. Angiotensin II controls the blood pressure and is the most potent endogenous pressor substance produced in the body; angiotensin I has no such pressor activity. Inhibition of the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II will thus have marked e?ects on lowering the blood pressure, and ACE inhibitors have a valuable role in treating heart failure when thiazides and beta blockers cannot be used or fail to work, especially after myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Captopril was the ?rst ACE inhibitor to be synthesised: it reduces peripheral resistance by causing arteriolar dilatation and thus lowers blood pressure. Other drugs such as enalapril, lisinopril, cilazapril, quinapril and ramipril have since been developed. Some kidney disorders increase the production of angiotensin II and so cause HYPERTENSION.


Angiotensin-convertingenzyme (ace) Inhibitors | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Angiotensin Convertingenzyme Ace Inhibitors


ABRUPTIO PLACENTA

Medical Dictionary

Placental bleeding after the 24th week of pregnancy, which may result in complete or partial detachment of the placenta from the wall of the womb. The woman may go into shock. The condition is sometimes associated with raised blood pressure and PRE-ECLAMPSIA. (See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

ACE INHIBITORS

Medical Dictionary

See ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITORS.... Medical Dictionary

ACEBUTOLOL

Medical Dictionary

One of the BETA-ADRENOCEPTOR-BLOCKING DRUGS (beta blockers) used to treat HYPERTENSION and ANGINA. Like other beta blockers, it slows the heart rate and may precipitate heart failure, so should not be given to patients with incipient heart failure. Acebutolol can be used with caution in patients whose heart failure is satisfactorily controlled.... Medical Dictionary

ACEITE DE

Medicinal Plants

Means “oil of (plant or animal name)”; look up the plant or animal name specified for more information. The most common plant-based oils used for medicine include: coconut (coco), castor bean plant (higuereta), sesame (ajonjolí), olive (aceituna) and avocado (aguacate) oils. For certain illnesses (particularly asthma), these oils are taken by the spoonful, sometimes in combination with oils from animal sources such as snake (culebra), turtle (tortuga), shark (tiburón) and cod fish (bacalao). These animal-based oils are reportedly used by some individuals in an asthma remedy called botella de aceites which is typically given to children.... Medicinal Plants

ACELINE

Medical Dictionary

(French) Born into nobility; highborn woman Acelin, Asceline, Ascelin... Medical Dictionary

ACETABULUM

Medical Dictionary

The cup-shaped socket on the pelvis in which rests the head of the femur or thigh-bone, the two forming the HIP-JOINT.... Medical Dictionary

ACETAZOLAMIDE

Medical Dictionary

Acetazolamide is a sulphonamide drug which acts by inhibiting the ENZYME, carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme is of great importance in the production of acid and alkaline secretions in the body. Acetazolamide is sometimes used as a second-line drug for partial seizures in EPILEPSY. It also has a diuretic action (see DIURETICS) and is used to treat GLAUCOMA. The drug has a range of side-e?ects. Related agents include dorzolamide and brinzolamide, used as eye-drops in patients resistant to beta blockers or who have contraindications to them.... Medical Dictionary

ACETOACETIC ACID

Medical Dictionary

An organic acid produced by the LIVER when it is rapidly oxidising fatty acids – a metabolic process which occurs, for example, during starvation. The acid produced is then converted to ACETONE, which is excreted.... Medical Dictionary

ACETONE

Medical Dictionary

Acetone is a volatile, colourless organic compound of the KETONE group produced by the partial oxidation of fatty acids. In some abnormal conditions, such as starvation, uncontrolled diabetes (see DIABETES MELLITUS) or prolonged vomiting, acetone and other ketones can accumulate in the blood. Acetone may then appear in the urine, along with beta-hydroxybutyric and aceotacic acids, presaging developing COMA.... Medical Dictionary

ACETYLCHOLINE

Medical Dictionary

An acetic-acid ester of the organic base choline, acetylcholine is one of the substances which mediates the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve to another, or from a nerve to the organ it acts on, such as muscles. It acts on both muscarinic receptors (blocked by ATROPINE and responsible for ganglionic and parasympathetic transmission and also for sympathetic innervation of sweat glands – see under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM) and nicotinic receptors (responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles and blocked by curare, thus causing paralysis). Acetylcholine is rapidly destroyed by cholinesterase, an ENZYME present in the blood. ANTICHOLINERGIC drugs such as PHYSOSTIGMINE prolong the action of acetylcholine.... Medical Dictionary

ACETYLCYSTEINE

Medical Dictionary

Acetylcysteine is a MUCOLYTIC drug that is used in the treatment of CYSTIC FIBROSIS and PARACETAMOL POISONING.... Medical Dictionary

ACETYLSALICYCLIC ACID

Medical Dictionary

See ASPIRIN.... Medical Dictionary

ACNE ROSACEA

Medical Dictionary

See ROSACEA.... Medical Dictionary

ACONITUM VIOLACEUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Jacq. ex Stapf. 15

Family: Ranunculaceae. ^A

Habitat: The alpine Himalayas of Sikkim, Nepal, the adjoining parts of southern Tibet, between altitudes of 3,000 m and 4,800 m. Ayurvedic: Prativishaa, Shyaamkan- daa, Patis. Folk: Bikhamaa.

Action: Root—antiemetic, antidiar- rhoeal, antirheumatic, antiperiodic.

The root contains diterpenoid alkaloids and a nitrogenous non-alkaloid compound, benzamide. Alkaloids include vakognavine, palmatisine, vaka- tisine, vakatisinine and vakatidine.

The root is intensely bitter, like quinine, is used with Piper longum for diarrhoea and vomiting; used externally as an application for rheumatism.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ACONITUM VIOLACEUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Jacq. ex Stapf.

Family: Ranunculaceae.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ADULT PLACEMENT

Community Health

A type of foster care in which an older person lives with an approved family.... Community Health

AGEING / AGING IN PLACE

Community Health

Meeting the desire and ability of people, through the provision of appropriate services and assistance, to remain living relatively independently in the community in his or her current home or an appropriate level of housing. Ageing in place is designed to prevent or delay more traumatic moves to a dependent facility, such as a nursing home.... Community Health

ANGIOTENSIN

Herbal Medical

A substance formed in tissues or blood vessels when there needs to be local or even massive vasoconstriction. The primary precursor is renin, made by the kidneys, and elevated when the blood seems dehydrated or low in volume; the next substance needed for this reaction is a liver protein, angiotensinogen; when both are present in the blood, local factors can then form this pressor substance. Excess production is often implicated in high blood pressure.... Herbal Medical

ANGIOTENSIN

Medical Dictionary

Angiotensin is a peptide that occurs in two forms: I and II. The former results from the action of the ENZYME, RENIN on alpha globulin (a protein) produced by the liver and passed into the blood. During passage of the blood through the lungs, angiotensin I is converted into an active form, angiotensin II, by an enzyme. This active form constricts the blood vessels and stimulates the release of two hormones – VASOPRESSIN and ALDOSTERONE – which raise the blood pressure. (See also

ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITORS.)... Medical Dictionary

ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTINGENZYME (ACE) INHIBITORS

Medical Dictionary

The ENZYME that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II (see ANGIOTENSIN) is called angiotensin-converting enzyme. Angiotensin II controls the blood pressure and is the most potent endogenous pressor substance produced in the body; angiotensin I has no such pressor activity. Inhibition of the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II will thus have marked e?ects on lowering the blood pressure, and ACE inhibitors have a valuable role in treating heart failure when thiazides and beta blockers cannot be used or fail to work, especially after myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Captopril was the ?rst ACE inhibitor to be synthesised: it reduces peripheral resistance by causing arteriolar dilatation and thus lowers blood pressure. Other drugs such as enalapril, lisinopril, cilazapril, quinapril and ramipril have since been developed. Some kidney disorders increase the production of angiotensin II and so cause HYPERTENSION.... Medical Dictionary

ARACELI

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) From the altar of heaven Aricela, Arcilla, Aracelia, Arcelia, Aracely, Araseli, Arasely, Arceli, Aracelli, Aracele, Aracelea... Medical Dictionary

AROMATASE INHIBITORS

Medical Dictionary

A group of drugs that stop the action of the ENZYME, aromatase. This enzyme converts androgens (see ANDROGEN) to OESTROGENS. If this conversion is inhibited, the concentrations of oestrogens in the body are reduced – so these drugs operate against tumours, such as breast cancer, that depend on oestrogen for their growth. Aromatase inhibitors include anastrazole and formestane, and they are usually prescribed as second-line treatment after TAMOXIFEN, the prime drug treatment for breast cancer.... Medical Dictionary

ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

willd.

Family: Asparagaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia.

English: Asparagus, Sparrow grass.

Ayurvedic: Shataavari, Vari, Shatviryaa, Shatmuuli, Shatpadi, Bhiru, Naaraayani, Bahusutaa, Atirasaa.

Unani: Haliyun.

Family: Asparagaceae.

Habitat: Found wild in tropical and subtropical parts of India, including the Andamans and ascending in the Himalayas to 1,500 m.

English: Indian asparagus.

Ayurvedic: Shataavari, Shatmuuli, Atirasaa, Bahusutaa, Shatpadi, Shatviryaa, Bhiru, Indivari, Vari. (Substitute for Medaa, Mahaamedaa.)

Unani: Sataavar.

Siddha/Tamil: Thanneervittan kizhangu, Sataavari Kizhangu.

Action: Used as a galactagogue and for disorders of female genitourinary tract; as a styptic and ulcer-healing agent; as an intestinal disinfectant and astringent in diarrhoea; as a nervine tonic, and in sexual debility for spermatogenesis.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the tuberous root in gout, puerperal diseases, lactic disorders, haematuria, bleeding disorders and also recommends it for hyperacidity.

The plant contains saponins—sha- tavarins I-IV. Shatavarin IV is a glycoside of sarsasapogenin. The saponin in doses of 20-500 mcg/ml produces a special blockade of syntocinon (oxy- tocin)-induced contraction of rat, guinea-pig and rabbit uteri in vitro and in situ. It also blocks the uterine spontaneous motility.

The dried root yields sitosterol; 4,6- dihydroxy-2-O-(2' hydroxyisobutyl) benzaldehyde and undecanyl cetano- ate, and contains a large amount of saccharine matter, mucilage and miner- als—Ca (0.172), Cu (0.033), Na (14.60), K (8.32), Mg (0.169), Mn (0.0074), Ni (0.105) and Zn (0.072) mg/g(dry weight).

The root was found to reduce gastric emptying time comparable to that of metoclopramide. (J Postgrad Med, 1990, 36(2), 91-94).

The root extracts exhibited antiallergic activity in animal studies.

The root, when fed orally, acted as immunomodulator against induced sepsis and peritonitis in rats and mice.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BAUHINIA RACEMOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Lamk

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts from Ravi eastwards, ascending to 1,000 m. in the Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Central and South India.

Ayurvedic: Ashmantaka, Kanchini.

Unani: Kachnaar.

Folk: Aapataa (Maharashtra), Kachnaala.

Action: Bark—highly astringent, anti-inflammatory (used in glandular inflammations, skin diseases, ulcers), cholagogue. Leaves—anthelmintic; with onion for diarrhoea. Flowers—used in haemorrhages, piles; also in cough. Seed—antibacterial.

Octacosane, beta-amyrin and beta- sitosterol have been isolated from the bark. EtOH (50%) extract of seeds exhibited anticancer activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CANACE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) Born of the wind... Medical Dictionary

CANDACE

Medical Dictionary

(Ethiopian / Greek) A queen / one who is white and glowing Candice, Candiss, Candyce, Candance, Candys, Candyss... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC PACEMAKER

Medical Dictionary

The natural pacemaker is the sinuatrial node, found at the base of the heart. The heart normally controls its rate and rhythm; heart block occurs when impulses cannot reach all parts of the heart. This may lead to ARRHYTHMIA, or even cause the heart to stop (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Arti?cial pacemakers may then be used; in the United Kingdom these are required for around one person in every 2,000 of the population. Usually powered by mercury or lithium batteries, and lasting up to 15 years, they are either ?xed to the outside of the chest or implanted in the armpit, and connected by a wire passing through a vein in the neck to the heart. Normally adjusted to deliver 65–75 impulses a minute, they also ensure a regular cardiac rhythm. Patients with pacemakers may be given a driving licence provided that their vehicle is not likely to be a source of danger to the public, and that they are receiving adequate and regular medical supervision from a cardiologist.

Although there are numerous possible sources of electrical interference with pacemakers, the overall risks are slight. Potential sources include anti-theft devices, airport weapon detectors, surgical diathermy, ultrasound, and short-wave heat treatment. Nevertheless, many pacemaker patients lead active and ful?lling lives.... Medical Dictionary

CHLOROPHYTUM ARUNDINACEUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Baker.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: The Himalaya from Nepal to Bhutan, Assam and Bihar.

Ayurvedic: Shveta-Musali. (Considered different from Asparagus adscendens Roxb.)

Unani: Musali Safed, Biskandri.

Siddha/Tamil: Vallaimusali.

Folk: Nising, Tibbati Ginseng.

Action: Tuber—nervine and general tonic. The plant is used as a substitute for onion. Fried powder of the root is chewed in aphthae of mouth and throat. A decoction of the root with turmeric is given in rheumatism.

The roots contain a bibenzyl xylo- side, the steroidal sapogenins, besides stigmasterol and its glucoside, nona- cosane and tetracosanoic, and triacon- tanoic acids.

The root extract exhibited good adaptogenic properties. The fruits yield a polysaccharide, galactoglucan.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Nutt.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan up to at 3,000-4,000 m.

English: Black Cohosh Root, Black Snake Root.

Folk: Cohosh, Jiuenti (Punjab).

Action: Sedative, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, diuretic, emmenagogue. Used in homoeopathy for rheumatic diseases of nervous, hysterical women, suffering from uterine affections; also for locomotor ataxia.

Key application: In climacteric (menopausal), neurovegetative ailments, premenstrual discomfort and dysmenorrhoea. (German Commission E, ESCOP.)

The rhizome contains triterpene gly- cosides (including actein, cimigoside, cimifugine and racemoside; isofla- ones (including formononetin; isofer- ulic acid; volatile oil, tannin.

Pharmacological studies have shown that the menthol extract binds to oestrogen receptors in vitro and in rat uteri; this activity is thought to be due to the presence of formononetin. Racemoside exhibited antiulcer activity in mice. Isoferulic acid lowered body temperature in rats.

The rhizome is hypotensive in animals; a central nervous system depressant and antispasmodic in mice; causes peripheral vasodilation in human. Also exhibits anti-inflammatory (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia) and hy- poglycaemic activity.

Actein has been studied for use in treating peripheral arterial disease. (Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

Clinically, the rhizome and root constituents of Black Cohosh does not seem to affect hormonal levels, such as estradiol, LH, FSH and pro- lactin. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Cimicifuga foetida L. root is used in bronchial and rheumatic diseases. Aqueous EtOH extract is used in cosmetic preparations for protecting skin; also used for preventing oral diseases and bad breath.

White Cohosh, used for urinogen- ital disorders, is equated with Actea pachypoda, synonym A. alba, A. rubra. Blue Cohosh has been identified as Caulophyllum thalictroides. It is toxic and abortifacient.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CONTRACEPTION

Medical Dictionary

A means of avoiding pregnancy despite sexual activity. There is no ideal contraceptive, and the choice of method depends on balancing considerations of safety, e?ectiveness and acceptability. The best choice for any couple will depend on their ages and personal circumstances and may well vary with time. Contraceptive techniques can be classi?ed in various ways, but one of the most useful is into ‘barrier’ and ‘non-barrier’ methods.

Barrier methods These involve a physical barrier which prevents sperm (see SPERMATOZOON) from reaching the cervix (see CERVIX UTERI). Barrier methods reduce the risk of spreading sexually transmitted diseases, and the sheath is the best protection against HIV infection (see AIDS/HIV) for sexually active people. The e?ciency of barrier methods is improved if they are used in conjunction with a spermicidal foam or jelly, but care is needed to ensure that the preparation chosen does not damage the rubber barrier or cause an allergic reaction in the users. CONDOM OR SHEATH This is the most commonly used barrier contraceptive. It consists of a rubber sheath which is placed over the erect penis before intromission and removed after ejaculation. The failure rate, if properly used, is about 4 per cent. DIAPHRAGM OR CAP A rubber dome that is inserted into the vagina before intercourse and ?ts snugly over the cervix. It should be used with an appropriate spermicide and is removed six hours after intercourse. A woman must be measured to ensure that she is supplied with the correct size of diaphragm, and the ?t should be checked annually or after more than about 7 lbs. change in weight. The failure rate, if properly used, is about 2 per cent.

Non-barrier methods These do not provide a physical barrier between sperm and cervix and so do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. COITUS INTERRUPTUS This involves the man’s withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation. Because some sperm may leak before full ejaculation, the method is not very reliable. SAFE PERIOD This involves avoiding intercourse around the time when the woman ovulates and is at risk of pregnancy. The safe times can be predicted using temperature charts to identify the rise in temperature before ovulation, or by careful assessment of the quality of the cervical mucus. This method works best if the woman has regular menstrual cycles. If used carefully it can be very e?ective but requires a highly disciplined couple to succeed. It is approved by the Catholic church.

SPERMICIDAL GELS, CREAMS, PESSARIES, ETC.

These are supposed to prevent pregnancy by killing sperm before they reach the cervix, but they are unreliable and should be used only in conjunction with a barrier method.

INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE (COIL) This is a small metal or plastic shape, placed inside the uterus, which prevents pregnancy by disrupting implantation. Some people regard it as a form of abortion, so it is not acceptable to all religious groups. There is a risk of pelvic infection and eventual infertility in women who have used coils, and in many countries their use has declined substantially. Coils must be inserted by a specially trained health worker, but once in place they permit intercourse at any time with no prior planning. Increased pain and bleeding may be caused during menstruation. If severe, such symptoms may indicate that the coil is incorrectly sited, and that its position should be checked. HORMONAL METHODS Steroid hormones have dominated contraceptive developments during the past 40 years, with more than 200 million women worldwide taking or having taken ‘the pill’. In the past 20 years, new developments have included modifying existing methods and devising more e?ective ways of delivering the drugs, such as implants and hormone-releasing devices in the uterus. Established hormonal contraception includes the combined oestrogen and progesterone and progesterone-only contraceptive pills, as well as longer-acting depot preparations. They modify the woman’s hormonal environment and prevent pregnancy by disrupting various stages of the menstrual cycle, especially ovulation. The combined oestrogen and progesterone pills are very e?ective and are the most popular form of contraception. Biphasic and triphasic pills contain di?erent quantities of oestrogen and progesterone taken in two or three phases of the menstrual cycle. A wide range of preparations is available and the British National Formulary contains details of the commonly used varieties.

The main side-e?ect is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The lowest possible dose of oestrogen should be used, and many preparations are phasic, with the dose of oestrogen varying with the time of the cycle. The progesterone-only, or ‘mini’, pill does not contain any oestrogen and must be taken at the same time every day. It is not as e?ective as the combined pill, but failure rates of less than 1-per-100 woman years can be achieved. It has few serious side-e?ects, but may cause menstrual irregularities. It is suitable for use by mothers who are breast feeding.

Depot preparations include intramuscular injections, subcutaneous implants, and intravaginal rings. They are useful in cases where the woman cannot be relied on to take a pill regularly but needs e?ective contraception. Their main side-e?ect is their prolonged action, which means that users cannot suddenly decide that they would like to become pregnant. Skin patches containing a contraceptive that is absorbed through the skin have recently been launched.

HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION FOR MEN There is a growing demand by men worldwide for hormonal contraception. Development of a ‘male pill’, however, has been slow because of the potentially dangerous side-e?ects of using high doses of TESTOSTERONE (the male hormone) to suppress spermatogenesis. Progress in research to develop a suitable ANDROGEN-based combination product is promising, including the possibility of long-term STEROID implants. STERILISATION See also STERILISATION – Reproductive sterilisation. The operation is easier and safer to perform on men than on women. Although sterilisation can sometimes be reversed, this cannot be guaranteed and couples should be counselled in advance that the method is irreversible. There is a small but definite failure rate with sterilisation, and this should also be made clear before the operation is performed. POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTION Also known as emergency contraception or the ‘morning after pill’, postcoital contraception can be e?ected by two di?erent hormonal methods. Levonorgesterol (a synthetic hormone similar to the natural female sex hormone PROGESTERONE) can be used alone, with one pill being taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but preferably as soon as possible, and a second one 12 hours after the ?rst. Alternatively, a combined preparation comprising ETHINYLESTRADIOL and levonorgesterol can be taken, also within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. The single constituent pill has fewer side-e?ects than the combined version. Neither version should be taken by women with severe liver disease or acute PORPHYRIAS, but the ethinylestradiol/levonorgesterol combination is unsuitable for women with a history of THROMBOSIS.

In the UK the law allows women over the age of 16 to buy the morning-after pill ‘over the counter’ from a registered pharmacist.... Medical Dictionary

CONTRACEPTIVE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Any agent or device used to prevent conception... Medicinal Plants Glossary

COX-2 INHIBITORS

Medical Dictionary

This stands for cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors – a class of drugs used in treating ARTHRITIS – of which the most well-used is celecoxib. Their main claim is that they are less likely to cause gastrointestinal disturbance than NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS). In 2001, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommended that they should not be used routinely in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis but only in patients with a history of peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding. They should also be considered in persons over the age of 65 taking other drugs which could cause gastrointestinal bleeding, those who are very debilitated, and those who are taking maximum doses of NSAIDs. In 2005, rofecoxib was withdrawn because of concerns about cardiac side-e?ects.... Medical Dictionary

CYPROTERONE ACETATE

Medical Dictionary

An antiandrogen. It inhibits the e?ects of androgens (see ANDROGEN) at receptor level and is therefore useful in the treatment of prostate cancer (see PROSTATE, DISEASES OF), ACNE, HIRSUTISM in women and in the treatment of severe hypersexuality and sexual deviation in men. The drug can have serious side-e?ects. (See OESTROGENS.)... Medical Dictionary

DACEY

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) Woman from the South Daicey, Dacee, Dacia, Dacie, Dacy, Daicee, Daicy, Daci, Daici, Dacea, Daceah... Medical Dictionary

DALMACE

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Women from Dalmatia, a region of Italy

Dalma, Dalmassa, Dalmatia, Dalmase, Dalmatea... Medical Dictionary

DEAD SPACE

Medical Dictionary

Gas exchange only occurs in the terminal parts of the pulmonary airways (see LUNGS). That portion of each breath that is taken into the lungs but does not take part in gas exchange is known as dead space. Anatomical dead space describes air in the airways up to the terminal BRONCHIOLES. Physiological dead space also includes gas in alveoli (air sacs) which are unable to take part in gas exchange because of structural abnormalities or disease.... Medical Dictionary

DISPLACEMENT

Medical Dictionary

A term used in psychological medicine to describe the mental process of attaching to one object, painful emotions associated with another object.... Medical Dictionary

ECHINACEA

Beneficial Teas

Strengthening Spells ... Beneficial Teas

ECHINACEA

ECHINACEA-1 Echinacea is widely used to prevent or cure the common cold. It’s a powerful herb that contains active substances that enhance the activity of the immune system, relieve pain, reduce inflammation and have antioxidant effects. The leaves and flowers of the uppermost part of the plant are the section believed to contain polysaccharides (a substance known to trigger the activity of the immune system)....

ECHINOCHLOA FRUMENTACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Link.

Synonym: Panicumfrumentaceum Roxb.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

English: Japanese Barnyard Millet.

Ayurvedic: Shyaamaaka.

Siddha: Kudrraivali pillu (Tamil).

Folk: Shamaa, Saanvaa.

Action: Plant—cooling and digestible, considered useful in biliousness and constipation.

The millet has a well balanced amino acid composition, but is deficient in lysine. Glutelin is the major constituent of protein.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EULOPHIA HERBACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Lindl.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Bengal and Western parts of Deccan Peninsula.

English: Salep (var.).

Ayurvedic: Munjaataka (substitute), Saalam-misri (substitute).

Action: Tubers—used as a substitute for Salep.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EXTRACELLULAR

Medical Dictionary

An adjective that describes an object or event outside a cell. An example is extracellular ?uid, the medium surrounding a cell.... Medical Dictionary

FACE LIFT

Medical Dictionary

An operation to reduce wrinkles and lift ‘loose’ skin on the face of mature persons with the aim of making them look younger. It can be performed under local anaesthetic as an outpatient or with general anaesthesia as an inpatient. The operation is regarded as cosmetic and is usually done in the private health-care sector in the UK.... Medical Dictionary

FACE VALIDITY

Community Health

See “validity”.... Community Health

FAILLACE

Medical Dictionary

(French) A delicate and beautiful woman

Faillase, Faillaise, Falace, Falase, Fallase, Fallace... Medical Dictionary

FICUS RACEMOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: F. glomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India. Grows wild in forests and hills. Often found around subterranean water streams.

English: Cluster Fig, Country Fig.

Ayurvedic: Udumbara, Sadaaphala, Hema-daudhaka, Jantuphala, Yagyaanga.

Unani: Anjir-e-Aadam, Anjir-e- Ahmak, Gular.

Siddha/Tamil: Atthi.

Action: Astringent and antiseptic; used in threatened abortions, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, urinary disorders, skin diseases, swellings, boils, haemorrhages. Unripe fruits—astringent, carminative, digestive, stomachic; used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, menorrhagia and haemorrhages. Ripe fruits—antiemetic, also

used in haemoptysis. Root and fruit—hypoglycaemic. Bark— decoction is used in skin diseases, inflammations, boils and ulcers.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark in lipid disorders and obesity.

Leaves and fruit contain gluacol. The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol, lupeol acetate, friedelin, higher hydrocarbons and other phytosterols.

Petroleum ether extract of the stem bark significantly reduced blood sugar level of rats with streptozotocin- induced diabetes. It completely inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat liver. Extracts of fruit and latex did not show any significant effect on blood sugar level of diabetic rats, they inhibited only glucose-6- phosphate but not arginase from rat liver.

An alcoholic extract of the bark has been found to be very effective in reducing blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. It helped in improving the damaged beta cells of islets of Langerhans, thus exerting permanent blood sugar lowering effect.

The ethanolic extract of seeds also showed hypoglycaemic activity.

Lignin, the main fiber constituent of the fruit, prevented the rise in serum cholesterol levels of some extent. Fresh whole fruits, used as a source of dietary fibre, exhibited more hypoc- holesterolemic activity than pure cellulose.

Dosage: Bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

English: Asiatic Cotton, Levant Cotton, Uppam Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasa, Kaarpaasi, Kaarpaasaka, Rakta-Kaarpaasa, Shona-Kaarpaasa, Samudraantaa, Tuula, Pichu, Bhaaradwaaji, Tundikeri.

Unani: Pambahdaanaa. (Seed.)

Siddha/Tamil: Paruttikkootam

Action: Root bark—diuretic, oxytocic. Bark—emmenagogue, haemostatic. Seed—demulcent, laxative, expectorant, abortifacient, galactagogue, nervine, anticepha- lalgic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the seed oil for toning up the breast.

The seed contains 21.3-25.2% protein, free gossypol 0.82-1.96%.

Dosage: Seeds, devoid of lint—3- 6 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GRACE

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Having God’s favor; in mythology, the Graces were the personification of beauty, charm, and grace Gracee, Gracella, Gracelynn, Gracelynne, Gracey, Gracia, Graciana, Gracie, Graciela, Graciella, Gracielle, Gracija, Gracina, Gracious, Grata, Gratia, Gratiana, Gratiela, Gratiella, Grayce, Grazia, Graziella, Grazina, Graziosa, Grazyna, Graca, Graciene, Gracinha, Gradana, Gechina, Gratiane, Grazinia, Gricie, Graci, Graece... Medical Dictionary

GRACE PERIOD

Community Health

A period past the due date of an insurance premium, during which coverage may not be cancelled.... Community Health

HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY(HRT)

Medical Dictionary

See under MENOPAUSE.... Medical Dictionary

INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE (IUCD)

Medical Dictionary

A mechanical device, commonly a coil, inserted into the UTERUS to prevent CONCEPTION, probably by interfering with the implantation of the EMBRYO. For many women, IUCDs are an e?ective and acceptable form of contraception, although only about 10 per cent of women in the UK use them. The devices are of various shapes and made of plastic or copper; most have a string that passes through the cervix and rests in the vagina.

About one-third of women have adverse e?ects as the result of IUCD use: common ones are backache and heavy menstrual bleeding (see MENSTRUATION). The frequency of unwanted pregnancies is about 2 per 100 women-years of use. (See CONTRACEPTION.)... Medical Dictionary

INULA RACEMOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Synonym: I. royleana auct. non-DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Temperate and Alpine Himalayas from Chitral to Nepal at 1,500-4,200 m.

English: Elecampane.

Ayurvedic: Pushkaramuula, Pushkara, Paushkara, Padmapatra, Kaashmira, Kushtha-bheda.

Action: Antispasmodic, stomachic, antihistaminic, expectorant, anticatarrhal. Used for asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary disorders.

Key application: Inula helenium— as expectorant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Roots are used in Kashmir as adulterant of Saussurea lappa.

The root contains a volatile oil, about 1-4%; major constituents being in- ulin (10.0) and sesquiterpene lactones, mainly alantolactone, isoalantolactone and their dihydro derivatives. Alan- tolactone and others in the mixture known as helenalin (sesquiterpene lactones) are toxic constituents of the root.

Alantolactone is anti-inflammatory in animals and has been shown to stimulate the immune system. It is also hypotensive and anthelmintic in animals; antibacterial and antifungal in vitro It irritates mucous membranes. It is used as an anthelmintic in Europe and UK.

Plant extract showed potent antispasmodic effect against bronchial spasm induced by histamine and various plant pollens.

The root, when combined with Commiphora mukul gum-resin, acts as a hypolipidaemic agent, exhibits beta- blocking activity and beneficial effect in myocardial ischaemia.

The roots also exhibit sedative and blood pressure lowering activity.

The European species is equated with Inula helenium Linn.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

IPOMOEA HEDERACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(L.) Jacq.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: North American species. Not found wild in India. Grown in Indian gardens.

Folk: Krishna-bija, Kaalaadaanaa. Kakkattan (Tamil Nadu). Jirki (Andhra Pradesh).

Action: Seed—purgative. Used as a substitute for Jalap (Exogonium purga).

The seed gave alkaloids—lysergol, chanoclavine, penniclavine, iso-penni- clavine and elymoclavine.... Indian Medicinal Plants

JACEY

Medical Dictionary

(American) Form of Jacinda, meaning “resembling the hyacinth” Jacee, Jacelyn, Jaci, Jacine, Jacy, Jaicee, Jaycee, Jacie, Jaycey, Jaycie, Jayci, J.C., Jacea, Jaycea... Medical Dictionary

JOINT REPLACEMENT

Medical Dictionary

See ARTHROPLASTY.... Medical Dictionary

KACELA

Medical Dictionary

(African) A great huntress Kacelah, Kacella, Kacellah... Medical Dictionary

KANDACE

Medical Dictionary

(English) Form of Candace, meaning “a queen / one who is white and glowing” Kandee, Kandi, Kandice, Kandis, Kandiss, Kandy, Kandyce, Kandys, Kandyss, Kandake, Kandie, Kandey, Kandea... Medical Dictionary

KNEE-JOINT REPLACEMENT

Medical Dictionary

A surgical operation to replace a diseased – usually osteoarthritic – KNEE with an arti?cial (metal or plastic) implant which covers the worn cartilage. As much of the original joint as possible is retained. The operations, like hip replacements, are usually done on older people (there is some restriction of movement) and about 90 per cent are successful.... Medical Dictionary

LACERATION

Medical Dictionary

A wound to the skin or surface of an organ which results in a cut with irregular edges (cf. an incision produced with a knife, which has smooth, regular edges).... Medical Dictionary

LACEY

Medical Dictionary

(French) Woman from Normandy; as delicate as lace

Lace, Lacee, Lacene, Laci, Laciann, Lacie, Lacina, Lacy, Lacyann, Laicee, Laicey, Laisey, Laycie, Layci, Laycee, Lacea, Laycea, Laicea... Medical Dictionary

MACE

Psychic Powers, Mental Powers...

MACERATION

Medical Dictionary

Maceration is the softening of a solid by soaking in ?uid.... Medical Dictionary

MARANTA ARUNDINACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Marantaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated throughout the country for its edible starch.

English: Arrowroot.

Siddha: Koovaikizhangu, Kookaineer.

Action: Nutritive, demulcent (especially for infants and convalescence). Used as a dietary aid in acute diarrhoea and gastroenteritis. Used as a substitute for Bamboo-manna.

The rhizome contains about 25-27% neutral starch.... Indian Medicinal Plants

MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIS)

Medical Dictionary

These are drugs that destroy, or prevent the action of, monoamine oxidase (MAO). Monoamines, which include NORADRENALINE and tyramine, play an important part in the metabolism of the BRAIN, and there is some evidence that excitement is due to an accumulation of monoamines in the brain. MAO is a naturally occurring ENZYME which is concerned in the breakdown of monoamines. MAOIs were among the earliest ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS used, but they are now used much less than tricyclic and related antidepressants, or SELECTIVE SEROTONIN-REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS) and related antidepressants, because of the dangers of dietary or drug interactions – and because MAOIs are less e?ective than these two groups.

An excessive accumulation of monoamines can induce a dangerous reaction characterised by high blood pressure, palpitations, sweating and a feeling of su?ocation. Hence the care with which MAOI drugs are administered. What is equally important, however, is that in no circumstances should a patient receiving any MAOI drug eat cheese, yeast preparations such as Marmite, tinned ?sh, or high game. The reason for this ban is that all these foodstu?s contain large amounts of tyramine which increases the amount of certain monoamines such as noradrenaline in the body. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)

There are also certain drugs, such as AMPHETAMINES and PETHIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE, which must not be taken by a patient who is receiving an MAOI drug. The MAOIs of choice are phenelzine or isocarboxazid because their stimulant e?ects are less than those of other MAOIs, making them safer.... Medical Dictionary

NEISSERIACEAE

Medical Dictionary

A family of bacteria of which three varieties cause disease. Neisseria meningitidis causes meningococcal MENINGITIS and SEPTICAEMIA. It is divided into three groups: A, B and C; group B accounts for most meningitis cases in the UK, mostly a?ecting children. Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes GONORRHOEA. The bacteria are gram-negative (see GRAM’S STAIN) cocci usually occurring in pairs. A third variety is Moraxella catarrhalis: this occurs in the nose and throat and sometimes causes ear infection and low-grade infection of the respiratory tract.... Medical Dictionary

NEPTUNIA OLERACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Lour.

Synonym: N. prostrata Baill.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in tanks.

Ayurvedic: Lajjaalu (var.), Alam- bushaa. (Provisional synonyms.)

Siddha: Sadai, Sundaikkirai.

Folk: Paani-lajak (Punjab).

Action: Astringent, refrigerant.

Mimosa pudica Linn. is the accepted source of the classical herb Lajjaalu. It is used as astringent and styptic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE

Medical Dictionary

A contraceptive taken by mouth (see CONTRACEPTION). It comprises one or more synthetic female hormones, usually an oestrogen (see OESTROGENS), which blocks normal OVULATION, and a progestogen which in?uences the PITUITARY GLAND and thus blocks normal control of the woman’s menstrual cycle (see MENSTRUATION). Progestogens also make the uterus less congenial for the fertilisation of an ovum by the sperm.... Medical Dictionary

OXALIS ACETOSELLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Oxalidaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim from 2,500 to 4,000 m and Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu.

English: Common Wood-Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chaangeri (related species).

Folk: Tinpatiyaa, Amrul.

Action: Diuretic and refrigerant. Used for urinary affections and fevers. (Sorrel is equated with Rumex acetosa Linn.)

Aerial parts gave 2"-O-(beta-D-glu- copyranosyl) isovitexin. The whole flowering plant contains 0.3-1.25% oxalic acid (high in fresh leaves and roots).... Indian Medicinal Plants

PACE

Medical Dictionary

(American) A charismatic young woman Paice, Payce, Paece, Pase, Paise, Payse, Paese... Medical Dictionary

PACEMAKER

Medical Dictionary

A cardiac or arti?cial pacemaker is a device that helps a faulty HEART to maintain normal rhythm. It consists of a battery that stimulates the heart by an electric current passed through an insulated wire which is attached either to the surface of the ventricle (epicardial pacemaker) or to the heart lining (endocardial pacemaker). In a normal heart, the regular electrical impulses are initiated by a special area of tissue (sinoatrial node). A cardiac pacemaker is used when a person’s sinoatrial node is malfunctioning or when there is interference with the passage of normal impulses. Some devices send out signals at a ?xed rate; others monitor the rate and, when it falters in any way, stimulate regular contractions. Implantation is carried out under a local anaesthetic, and the lithium batteries can last for several years. People with pacemakers should avoid any source of powerful electromagnetic radiation – radio or radar transmitters or airport security screens. (See also CARDIAC PACEMAKER.)... Medical Dictionary

PANACEA

Medical Dictionary

Panacea is a term applied to a remedy for all diseases, or more usually to a remedy which bene?ts many di?erent diseases.... Medical Dictionary

PANICUM MILIACEUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

English: Common Millet, Proso Millet, Hog Millet.

Ayurvedic: Chinaaka, Cheenaa.

Unani: Chinaa Ghaas, Faaluudaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Panivaragu.

Folk: Chenaa, Chi-Tibet.

Action: Seeds (grains)—demul- cent; used in diarrhoea. Plant— antigonorrhoeal.

The seedlings contain an alkaloid hordenine (beta-p-hydroxyphenethyl dimethylamine). Saponins afforded diosgenin and yamogenin isolated from the leaves.

The grains contain 10-18% of proteins which include prolamin, glutelin and smaller amounts of albumin and globulin. The protein has a biological value of 56% and a digestibility coefficient of 91% at 10% level of protein intake.

In Indian medicine, Chinaaka and Kangu (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) are synonyms.

(0.015%). The capsules contain morphine, thebine and narcotine and me- conic acid.

Other species, commonly grown in Indian gardens, are P. nudicaule Linn. (Iceland Poppy) and P. orientale (Oriental Poppy). P. nudicaule plants with yellow flowers are more cyanogenetic than those with red or white flowers. P. orientate contains 0.16% alkaloids, which include the- baine, isothebaine, protopine, glauci- dine and oripavine. Isothebaine stimulates and later depresses the central nervous system.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PARACENTESIS

Medical Dictionary

The puncture by hollow needle or TROCAR and CANNULA of any body cavity (e.g. abdominal, pleural, pericardial), for tapping or aspirating ?uid. (See ASPIRATION.)... Medical Dictionary

PARACETAMOL

Medical Dictionary

(US, acetaminophen.) A non-opioid analgesic (see ANALGESICS) similar in e?cacy to aspirin, but without any demonstrable antiin?ammatory activity. It also has the advantage over aspirin of causing less gastric irritation. It is indicated for mild to moderate pain and pyrexia in a dose of 0.5–1g by mouth (maximum 4 doses every 24 hours).... Medical Dictionary

PARACETAMOL POISONING

Medical Dictionary

Paracetamol is one of the safest drugs when taken in the correct dosage, but overdose may occur inadvertently or deliberately. Initially there may be no symptoms or there may be nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and pallor. Then, 16–24 hours after ingestion, liver damage becomes evident and by 72–120 hours the patient may have JAUNDICE, COAGULATION abnormalities, hepatic failure (see LIVER, DISEASES OF), renal failure (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), ENCEPHALOPATHY and COMA. Treatment involves the administration of antidotes such as METHIONINE (within 8 hours) orally or intravenous ACETYLCYSTEINE.

An overdose of paracetamol is a common choice of those attempting to commit suicide. Since the government restricted the number of paracetamol tablets an individual may purchase over the counter, the incidence of people taking the drug in overdose with the intention of taking their lives has fallen sharply.... Medical Dictionary

PEACE

Medical Dictionary

(American) A harmonious woman... Medical Dictionary

PERLACE

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) Resembling a small pearl Perlase, Perlaice, Perlaise, Perlayce, Perlayse... Medical Dictionary

PETIVERIA ALLIACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Habitat: Native to America; introduced into India, grown in gardens.

Action: Root—diuretic, antispas- modic, emmenagogue, abortifa- cient. Used for whooping cough, also for rheumatism and nervous diseases. (Long term use in high doses causes brain damage.)

Ethanolic extract of the leaves contains leridal, leridol, 5-O-methylleri- dol and 3-O-rhamnosides of dihydro- kaempferol, dihydroquercetin and my- ricetin. The presence of high nitrate content in the plant has been reported and is considered a risk factor in humans.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PLACEBO

Community Health

Any dummy medical treatment or intervention. Originally, a medicinal preparation having no specific pharmacological activity against the person’s illness or complaint and given solely for the psychophysiological effects of the treatment. More recently, a dummy treatment administered to the control group in a controlled clinical trial in order that the specific and non-specific effects of the experimental treatment can be distinguished.... Community Health

PLACEBO

Medical Dictionary

An inert substance with no actual effect, but administration of which may produce a beneficial effect to help a patient (eg pain relief).... Medical Dictionary

PLACEBO

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Placebo is the Latin for ‘I will please’ and implies giving an inactive treatment. Traditionally, placebos were used to pacify without actually bene?ting the patient. They were inactive, often highly coloured, substances formerly given to please or gratify the patient but without pharmacological bene?t. Nowadays they are used in controlled studies, approved by ETHICS COMMITTEES and with patient consent, to determine the e?cacy of drugs.

However, pharmacologically inert compounds can relieve symptoms, and this is called the placebo e?ect. The reassurance that is associated with placebo administration is accompanied by measurable changes in body function which are a?ected through autonomic pathways and humoral mechanisms. Alterations in blood pressure and pulse frequency are especially common. Placebos have the ability to relieve a variety of symptoms in a consistent proportion of the population – in some studies in as many as 30 per cent. Some patients with symptoms such as pain or cough will respond to placebo medications, and an even higher proportion of patients with psychological symptoms such as anxiety or insomnia may bene?t. In judging the e?ectiveness of a drug, the comparison must be with a placebo rather than with no treatment at all.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

PLACEBO EFFECT

Community Health

The placebo effect (usually but not necessarily beneficial) is attributable to the expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e. the effect is due to the power of suggestion.... Community Health

PLACEMENT

Community Health

The act of finding a source of care, usually residential.... Community Health

PLACENTA

Medical Dictionary

The thick, spongy, disc-like mass of tissue which connects the EMBRYO with the inner surface of the UTERUS, the embryo otherwise lying free in the amniotic ?uid (see AMNION). The placenta is mainly a new structure growing with the embryo, but, when it separates, a portion of the inner surface of the womb – called the maternal placenta – comes away with it. It is mainly composed of loops of veins belonging to the embryo, lying in blood-sinuses, in which circulates maternal blood. Thus, although no mixing of the blood of embryo and mother takes place, there is ample opportunity for the exchange of ?uids, gases, and the nutrients brought by the mother’s blood. The width of the full-sized placenta is about 20 cm (8 inches), its thickness 2·5 cm (1 inch). One surface is rough and studded with villi, which consist of the loops of fetal veins; the other is smooth, and has implanted in its centre the umbilical cord, or navel string, which is about as thick as a ?nger and 50 cm (20 inches) long. It contains two arteries and a vein, enters the fetus at the navel, and forms the sole connection between the bodies of mother and fetus. The name ‘afterbirth’ is given to the structure because it is expelled from the womb in the third stage of labour (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR).... Medical Dictionary

PLACENTA PRAEVIA

Medical Dictionary

Implantation of the PLACENTA in the bottom part of the UTERUS adjacent to or over the CERVIX. The condition may cause few problems during pregnancy or labour; it may, however, cause vaginal bleeding late in pregnancy or hinder vaginal delivery of the baby and this may necessitate obstetric intervention.... Medical Dictionary

PLACENTOGRAPHY

Medical Dictionary

The procedure of rendering the PLACENTA visible by means of X-rays. This can be done either by using what is known as soft-tissue radiography, or by injecting a radio-opaque substance into the bloodstream or into the amniotic cavity (see AMNION). The procedure has some risk to both mother and fetus, and is carried out under expert supervision. It can help to assess the cause of antepartum haemorrhage. The placenta and fetus can now be visualised by the non-invasive and safe method of ULTRASOUND.... Medical Dictionary

POPLITEAL SPACE

Medical Dictionary

The name given to the region behind the knee. The muscles attached to the bones immediately above and below the knee bound a diamond-shaped space through which pass the main artery and vein of the limb (known in this part of their course as the popliteal artery and vein); the tibial and common peroneal nerves (which continue the sciatic nerve from the thigh down to the leg); the external saphenous vein; and several small nerves and lymphatic vessels. The muscles – which bound the upper angle of the space and which are attached to the leg bones by strong prominent tendons – are known as the hamstrings. The lower angle of the space lies between the two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, which makes up the main bulk of the calf of the leg.... Medical Dictionary

PORTULACA OLERACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Portulacaceae.

Habitat: All over India, cultivated as a vegetable.

English: Common Purslane.

Ayurvedic: Brihat Lonikaa, Lonaa, Loni, Ghoddhika, Ghotikaa, Upodika, Khursaa.

Unani: Khurfaa, Kulfaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Pulli-keerai, Parup- pukirai.

Action: Refrigerant (reduces body heat), mild spasmodic, diuretic, antiscorbutic. Used in scurvy and in diseases of liver, spleen, kidney and bladder; also in dysuria, stomatitis and dysentery. A paste of leaves is applied to swellings, erysipelas, burns and scalds. Seeds—diuretic, antidysenteric; applied externally to burns and scalds.

A crude protein-free extract of the herb contained l-nor-adrenaline, do- pamine and l-dopa, also catechol. (The fresh plant contained 2.5 mg/g l-nor- adrenaline in one sample.) The extract gave a strong pressor response when injected intravenously into anaesthetized dogs.

The oral administration of the ho- mogenates of P. oleracea reduced the blood sugar level of alloxan-diabetic rabbits to normal.

The extract of the leaves and stems reduced muscle tone in individuals suffering from spasticity and exhibited skeletal muscle relaxant activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extract produced dose-dependent negative in- otropic and chronotropic effects and pressor response on rat blood pressure.

The diuretic action of the herb is attributed to the presence of high percentage of potassium salts.

Dosage: Plant-125-400 mg powder; juice—1-20 ml (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

POST-COITAL CONTRACEPTION

Medical Dictionary

Action taken to prevent CONCEPTION after sexual intercourse. The type of contraception may be hormonal, or it may be an intrauterine device (see below, and under CONTRACEPTION). Pregnancy after intercourse without contraception – or where contraception has failed as a result, for example, of a leaking condom – may be avoided with a course of ‘morning-after’ contraceptive pills. Such preparations usually contain an oestrogen (see OESTROGENS) and a PROGESTOGEN. Two doses should be taken within 72 hours of ‘unprotected’ intercourse. An alternative for the woman is to take a high dose of oestrogen on its own. The aim is to postpone OVULATION and to a?ect the lining of the UTERUS so that the egg is unable to implant itself.

Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) This, in e?ect, is a form of post-coital contraception. The IUCD is a plastic shape up to 3 cm long around which copper wire is wound, carrying plastic thread from its tail. Colloquially known as a coil, it acts by inhibiting implantation and may also impair migration of sperm. Devices need changing every 3–5 years. Coils have generally replaced the larger, non-copper-bearing ‘inert’ types of IUCD, which caused more complications but did not need changing (so are sometimes still found in situ). They tend to be chosen as a method of contraception (6 per cent) by older, parous women in stable relationships, with a generally low problem rate.

Nevertheless, certain problems do occur with IUCDs, the following being the most common:

They tend to be expelled by the uterus in women who have never conceived, or by a uterus distorted by, say, ?broids.

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY is more likely.

They are associated with pelvic infection and INFERTILITY, following SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) – or possibly introduced during insertion.

They often produce heavy, painful periods (see MENSTRUATION), and women at high risk of these problems (e.g. women who are HIV positive [see AIDS/HIV], or with WILSON’S DISEASE or cardiac lesions) should generally be excluded – unless the IUCD is inserted under antibiotic cover.... Medical Dictionary

PREMNA HERBACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: Pygmaeopremna herbacea Moldenke.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: The sub-tropical Himalayas and in Assam, extending southwards through West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa into Deccan Peninsula. Roots are usually confused with those of Clerodendrum serratum and are sold as Bhaarangi.

Siddha/Tamil: Siru Thekku.

Folk: Gethiaa, Ghantu Bhaarangi. Baaman-haati (Bengal). Fruits are known as Bhuumi-jambu, Phin Jaamun. The root is known as Bhaarangamuula; in Andhra Pradesh, Gandu Bhaarangi.

Action: Root and leaves—given in asthma, rheumatism.

The root contains several diterpe- noids. Quinonemethide (bharangin) is reported from the plant. controlling the activity of the adreno- corticotropic hormone.

Dosage: Leaf, root bark—50- 100 ml decoction, powder—1-3 g. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PROTEASE INHIBITORS

Medical Dictionary

A new group of drugs which, in combination with antiviral agents, are used to treat AIDS (see AIDS/HIV). They inhibit the activity of PROTEASE, an enzyme produced by HIV, and which breaks down proteins. The drugs have recently been introduced: those in use are indinavir, nel?navir, ritonavir and saquinavir.... Medical Dictionary

PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS

Medical Dictionary

These are drugs that inhibit the production of acid in the stomach by blocking a key enzyme system, known as the PROTON PUMP, of the parietal cells of the stomach. The drugs include omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole, and they are the treatment of choice for oesophagitis (erosion and stricture – see under OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF); for the short-term treatment for gastric ulcer (see under STOMACH, DISEASES OF) and DUODENAL ULCER; and, in combination with ANTIBIOTICS, for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.... Medical Dictionary

PTEROSPERMUM ACERIFOLIUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Willd.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Maharashtra, Manipur, North Bengal, Bihar and Assam, Western Ghats and Andaman Islands.

English: Hathipaila.

Ayurvedic: Muchukun- da, Muchakunda, Kshatra- vriksha, Chivuka, Prativishnuka, Muchukunda Champaa. Karnikaara (also equated with Cassia fistula).

Unani: Gul-e-Muchkun.

Siddha/Tamil: Vennangu.

Action: Flower—anti-inflammatory, styptic (used for bleeding piles, haematuria, ulcers). Charred flowers and bark, mixed with the powder of Mallotus philippinensis, are applied to smallpox eruptions.

The fresh flowers yielded kaempfe- rol- 3 - O -beta - D -galactoside, along with luteolin and its 7-O-glucoside. The leaves also contain betulin, lu- peol, bauerenol, friedelin and beta- sitosterol.

Dosage: Flower—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PYGMAEOPEMNA HERBACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Roxb.) Mold.

Synonym: Premna herbacea Roxb.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Orissa and in some parts of Kerala.

Ayurvedic: Bhumi-jambu.

Siddha/Tamil: Siru Thekku.

Action: Rootstock—antiasthmatic. Leaf— bechic, febrifuge. Rootstock and leaf—antirheumatic. (Sold in South Indian market as Bhaarangi.)

A diterpenoid quinonemethide (bharangin) is reported from the plant.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RACEME

Herbal Medical

A flowering spike or cluster where the flowers are borne along the peduncle on pedicels of similar length.... Herbal Medical

ROSACEA

Medical Dictionary

Common chronic in?ammation of the facial skin, this condition is seen in middle and late life. Redness, obvious dilatation of venules and crops of ACNE-like papules and pustules a?ect mainly the central forehead, cheeks, nose and chin. A keratoconjunctivitis (combined in?ammation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the EYE) may be associated. Subjects ?ush easily, especially after alcohol or hot drinks. Eventually the a?ected areas may become thickened and oedematous, and in men, proliferation of ?brous and sebaceous tissue may lead to gross thickening and enlargement of the nose (RHINOPHYMA).

Treatment Long-term, low-dose, oral tetracycline (see ANTIBIOTICS; TETRACYCLINES) is the treatment of choice. In mild cases, METRONIDAZOLE gel can be helpful. Potent topical CORTICOSTEROIDS are contraindicated and make rosacea worse.... Medical Dictionary

RUMEX ACETOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Garden Sorrel, Sorrel Dock.

Ayurvedic: Chukram, Chuukaa.

Unani: Hammaaz-Barri.

Action: Laxative, diuretic, antiscorbutic, refrigerant. Used for scurvy, as a cooling drink in febrile disorders, as a corrective of scrofulous deposits. Seeds—astringent (in haemorrhages).

Flowers—hepatoprotective and an- tihaemorrhagic. Root—used for jaundice, also for gravel and stone in the kidneys.

Aerial parts gave rutin, hyperin and vitexin and traces of oxymethy- lanthraquinone. The roots contain anthraquinones—chrysophanol, phys- cion and emodin anthrones.

The leaves contain 124.0 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, about 0.3% oxalic acid. Free oxalic acid caused fatal hypogly- caemia in rabbits.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RUMEX ACETOSELLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim and the Nilgiris.

English: Sheep Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chukrikaa, Chuko.

Unani: Hammaaz, Shaaka-turshak, Tursh, Jangali Paalak.

Action: Diuretic, diaphoretic, antiscorbutic, refrigerant. Fresh plant is used in urinary and kidney diseases.

The herb contains anthraquinones, chrysophanol, emodin and physcion.

Free ascorbic acid content (50-150 mg/100 g) remains constant throughout the year.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SEBACEOUS CYST

Medical Dictionary

A misnomer applied to epidermoid cysts of the skin whose contents are kerateous not sebaceous. The common ‘wen’ of the scalp arises from follicular epithelium and is similar.... Medical Dictionary

SEBACEOUS GLAND

Herbal Medical

Oil secreting glands, mostly clustered around hair follicles. The oil, sebum, is released into the oil glands from the disintegrated cytoplasm of shedding holocrine cells that line the alveolar surfaces. The nature of the secretion is a direct reflection of the state of the body’s lipid metabolism.... Herbal Medical

SEBACEOUS GLANDS

Medical Dictionary

The minute glands situated alongside hairs and opening into the follicles of the latter a short distance below the point at which the hairs emerge on the surface. These glands secrete an oily material, and are especially large upon the nose, where their openings form pits that are easily visible. In the mouth the glands open directly on the mucosal surface. (See also SKIN.)... Medical Dictionary

SELECTIVE SEROTONIN-REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS)

Medical Dictionary

These ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS have few antimuscarinic e?ects (see ANTIMUSCARINE), but do have adverse e?ects of their own – predominantly gastrointestinal. They are, however, much safer in overdose than the tricyclic antidepressants, which is a major advantage in patients who are potentially suicidal. Examples are citalopram, used to treat panic disorders, as well as depressive illness; FLUOXETINE; and PAROXETINE. (See also MENTAL ILLNESS.)... Medical Dictionary

SOLACE

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) One who gives comfort Solase... Medical Dictionary

SONCHUS OLERACEUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Waste places throughout India, up to elevation of 2,400 m.

English: Milk Thistle (a confusing synonym. Silybum marianum has been equated with Milk Thistle.)

Folk: Duudhi, Dodaka, Dudhaali.

Action: Galactagogue, febrifuge, sedative, vermifuge. Used in indigestion and in the treatment of diseases of the liver. An ointment is made from the decoction for wounds and ulcers.

The leaves contain luteolin, luteolin- 7-O-glucoside; hydroxycoumarins, cichoriin and scopoletin. Apigenin-7-O- glucoside was also obtained from the leaves and stems. Young leaves are reported to contain 4.1 mg/100 g of vitamin C.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SPACE MEDICINE

Medical Dictionary

A medical specialty dealing with the physiological, PSYCHOLOGICAL and pathological consequences of space ?ight in which the body has to cope with unusual variations in gravitational forces, including weightlessness, a constricted environment, prolonged close contact with work colleagues in very demanding technical circumstances, and sustained periods of emotional pressure including fear. Enormous progress has been made in providing astronauts with as normal an environment as possible, and they have to undergo prolonged physical and mental training before embarking on space travel.... Medical Dictionary

SPILANTHES OLERACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Murr.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Introduced from Brazil; often cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Brazilian Cress, Para Cress.

Ayurvedic: Mahaaraashtri, Marethi, Desi Akarkaraa. Aakaarakarab- ha of Ayurvedic medicine and Aaqarqarha of Unani medicine is equated with Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (root is used); S. acmella and S. oleracea flowering heads are used as Desi Akarkaraa and should not be confused with the original drug.

Action: Flowers—used against scurvy, gum troubles, toothache and against bladder pains and gout.

The flower heads yield 1.25% of spilanthol from the pentane extract.

The fresh plant yields an essential oil consisting mainly of spilanthol and a hydrocarbon, spilanthene. The plant also contains cerotic acid, crystalline phytosterols, tannic acid, resin, potassium malate and large amounts of choline and potassium nitrate.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SPINACIA OLERACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: S. tetrandra Roxb.

Family: Chenopodiaceae.

Habitat: Native to South-west Asia; cultivated throughout India.

English: Garden Spinach.

Ayurvedic: Paalankikaa, Paalankya, Paalakyaa.

Unani: Paalak.

Siddha/Tamil: Vasaiyila-keerai.

Action: Seeds—cooling and laxative; given during jaundice. Spinach, as a potherb, is rich in nitrogenous substances, hydrocarbons and iron sesqui-oxide.

Aerial parts afforded rutin, hyperoside, astragalin and caffeic, chloro- genic, neochlorogenic and protocate- chuic acids. Seeds contain glycopro- tein-bound hexosamine. Roots contain spirasaponins.... Indian Medicinal Plants

STACEY

Medical Dictionary

(English) Form of Anastasia, meaning “one who shall rise again” Stacy, Staci, Stacie, Stacee, Stacia, Stasia, Stasy, Stasey, Stasi, Stasie, Stasee, Steise, Stacea, Stasea... Medical Dictionary

SUBARACHNOID SPACE

Medical Dictionary

The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater – two of the membranes covering the BRAIN. (See also MENINGES.)... Medical Dictionary

SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: S. beddomei C. B. Clarke S. candolleana Brand.

Family: Symplocaceae.

Habitat: Throughout North and eastern India, extending southwards to Peninsular India.

English: Lodh tree, Sapphire Berry

Ayurvedic: Lodhra, Rodhra, Shaavara., Sthulavalkal, Trita, Pattikaa Lodhra, Shaabara Lodhra.

Unani: Lodh Pathaani.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellilethi, Velli- lothram.

Action: Bark—used as specific remedy for uterine complaints, vaginal diseases and menstrual disorders; menorrhagia, leucorrhoea (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India); also used in diarrhoea, dysentery, vaginal ulcers, inflammatory affections and liver disorders.

The bark gave colloturine, harman (loturine) and loturidine. Stem bark gave proanthocyanidin-3-monogluco- furanosides of 7-O-methyl-and 4'-O- methyl-leucopelargonidin. Betulinic, oleanolic, acetyl oleanolic and ellagic acids are reported from the plant.

Glycosides, isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark, are highly astringent and are reported to be responsible for the medicinal properties of the bark.

The bark extracts have been reported to reduce the frequency and intensity of the contractions in vitro of both pregnant and non-pregnant uteri of animals. A fraction from the bark, besides showing action on uteri, was spasmogenic on various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and could be antagonized by atropine.

The bark extracts were found to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus, and enteric and dysenteric groups of organisms.

Dosage: Stem bark—3-5 g powder; 20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.)

S. laurina Wall., synonym S. spica- ta Roxb. (North and East Idia, Western and Eastern Ghats); S. ramosis- sima Wall. (the temperate Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan); S. sumuntia Buch.-Ham. (Nepal to Bhutan) are also equated with Lodhra.

The powdered bark is used in folk medicine for biliousness, haemorrhages, diarrhoea, dysentery and genitourinary diseases.

Symplocos theaefolia Buch-Ham. ex D. Don (the Eastern Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan and in the Khasi Hills at altitudes between 1,200 and 2,500 m) is known as Kharanl in Nepal and Dieng-pei or Dieng-twe-pe in khasi.

The ethanolic extract of leaves showed hypoglycaemic activity in rats and anticancer activity against Friend- virus-leukaemia (solid) in mice. The extract of the leaves and of stems showed activity against human epider- moid carcinoma of the nasopharynx in tissue-culture.

The Wealth of India equated S. laurina with Lodh Bholica (Bengal) and S. sumuntia with Pathaani Lodh.

The wood of Symplocos phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke is known as Chandan and Laal-chandan. It should not be confused with Santalum album or Ptero- carpus santalinus.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TANACETUM VULGARE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: Chrysanthemum vulgare (L.) Bernh.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; found as an escape in some parts of Kashmir.

English: Tansy.

Folk: Peilmundi (Kashmir).

Action: Plant—anthelmintic, bitter tonic, emmenagogue. Used for migraine, neuralgia and nausea; as a lotion for scabies. Toxicity depends upon thujone content of the part used. Tansy oil is used as a liniment for gout and rheumatism.

Aerial parts afforded terpenoids— tanacetin, vulgarones A and B, tamirin, tanacin and tanavulgarol; germacano- lides, stearic acid, and flavonoids— apigenin trimethyl ether, apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, diometin, iso- rhamnetin, quercetin and axillarin. The leaves contain parthenolide, caffe- ic, chlorogenic, iso-chlorogenic acids and vibernitol.

Indian chemotype contains beta- thujone (28.1%) as the major constituent of the essential oil. Other constituents are: beta-thujyl alcohol 8.7, /-camphor 10.0 and cineol 11.8%. The leaves contain parthenolide, caf- feic, chlorogenic, isochlorogenic acid and vibernitol.

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. (native to Europe and British Isles), known as Feverfew, is available in India for prophylactic treatment of migraine. The characteristic constituents of the herb (dried, whole or fragmented parts) are sesquiterpene lactones of which parthenolide, a ger- macanolide, is the major component. (Indian species, T. vulgare leaf also contains parthenolide).

ESCOP recommends the herb for the management of migraine for at least a few months.

(See ESCOP and WHO monographs.)

It has been shown that Feverfew extract inhibits prostaglandin production and arachidonic acid release (this activity, at least partly, explains the herb's antiplatelet and antifebrile action). The extracts also inhibit secretion of serotonin from platelet granules and proteins from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN's). Since serotonin is implicated in the aetiology of migraine and PMN secretion is increased in rheumatoid arthritis. Feverfew is used in migraine and rheumatoid arthritis. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.) Somehow, beneficial effects were not observed in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial on 40 women with rheumatoid arthritis. (WHO.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

TERMINALIA CORIACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wight & Arn.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Western Andhra Pradesh and Central India.

English: Leathery Murdah.

Folk: Tani (Andhra Pradesh)

Action: Bark—cardiac stimulant.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TETRACERA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Merrill.

Synonym: T. assa DC.

Family: Dilleniaceae.

Habitat: Assam.

Siddha/Tamil: Anaittichal. (A related species T. laevis Vahl, is found in the forests of Kerala.)

Action: Leaves—an infusion of shoots is given in pulmonary haemorrhages and is used as a gargle in aphthae.

The leaves yielded beta-sitosterol, lupeol, betulin and betulinic acid.

T. laevis (Vennelvalli, Piripul) also possesses similar properties. A decoction of leaves, mixed with rice-gruel, is given for the treatment of aphthae.... Indian Medicinal Plants

THEMEDA ARUNDINACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Roxb.) Ridley.

Synonym: Anthistiria gigantea Hack. subspecies arundinacea Hack.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas and plains of India.

English: Ulla Grass. Karad grass is equated with T. quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze.

Folk: Sarkharaa, Kapoor Ghass.

Action: Febrifuge.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TRACE ELEMENTS

Medical Dictionary

Chemical elements that are distributed throughout the tissues of the body in very small amounts and are essential for the nutrition of the body. Nine such elements are now recognised: cobalt, copper, ?uorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc.... Medical Dictionary

TRACER

Medical Dictionary

A compound introduced into the body, the progress of which can subsequently be followed and information obtained about the body’s metabolic activities. Radioactive tracers are compounds labelled with RADIONUCLIDE which give o? radiation. This can be measured with a gamma camera or a scintigram. The information is used in the investigation of suspected tumours in the BRAIN or malfunctioning of the THYROID GLAND.... Medical Dictionary

TRACEY

Medical Dictionary

(Latin / English) A woman warrior / one who is brave

Tracy, Traci, Tracie, Tracee, Trace, Tracen, Tracea, Tracia, Traicey, Traicee, Traicy, Traisey, Traisee, Traisy, Tracie, Trasie, Traycie, Trayci, Traysie, Traysi, Tracilee, Tracilyn, Tracina, Tracell... Medical Dictionary

ULOCACE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Ulceration of the gums... Medicinal Plants Glossary

VALLARIS SOLANACEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Kuntze

Synonym: V. heynei Spreng. V. dichotoma (Roxb.) Wall. ex G. Don.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; cultivated in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Aasphotaa, Asphuka, Bhadravalli, Saarivaa-utpala (white var.).

Folk: Haapharamaali var. Dudhi-bel (Garhwal).

Action: Latex—applied to old wounds and sores (mildly irritant). Bark—astringent. Seeds—cardiac tonic.

Seeds are rich in cardiac glyco- sides; contain acoschimperoside P, mono-O-acetylvallaroside, mono-O- acetylsolanoside, mono-O-acetylaco- schimperoside P, vallaroside, valla- rosolanoside, solanoside and 16-deace- tyl-16-anhydroacoschimperoside P. O- acetylsolanoside is a potent cardioton- ic.

The seed oil contains palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. The leaves gave beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin and urso- lic acid.

Vallaris glabra Kuntze (West Bengal) is also equated with Aasphotaa.... Indian Medicinal Plants

VIBURNUM CORIACEUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Blume.

Family: Caprifoliaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Punjab and Bhutan at altitudes of 1,200-2,500 m, also in the Nilgiris.

Ayurvedic: Tilvaka (related species).

Folk: Kaalaa Titmuliyaa, Tita, Karwaa (Kumaon).

Action: The root and stem bark— antispasmodic, uterine sedative.

Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts shows antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba hystolytica.

The root and stem bark (also of V. foetidum) possess distinct odour of the root of valerian. The extracts of root and stem bark exhibited antispas- modic activity and were comparable with those of the bark of V. opulus var. americanum and V. prunifolium.

Laal Titmuliyaa (Kumaon) is equated with Viburnum mullaha Buch-Ham. ex D. Don syn. V. stellulatum Wall ex DC.... Indian Medicinal Plants

WEDELIA CALENDULACEAE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Less. non-Rich.

Synonym: W chinensis Merrill.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Bengal, Assam, Konkan, and Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Bhringaraaja (yellow- flowered var.), Pitabhringi, Pitabhringa-raaja, Avanti, Ke- sharaaja, Kesharaaga.

Siddha/Tamil: Manjal karisaalai, Potralai kaiyan tagarai, Patalai Kaiantakerai.

Action: Leaves—bechic; used in alopecia, juice used for dyeing hair and for promoting hair growth. Plant—deobstruent; used in menorrhagia and abdominal swellings, as a tonic for hepatic and splenic enlargement.

See Eclipta alba.

The expressed juice of the herb contained an oil-soluble black dye 11.2; tannin 220; saponin 500 (contradictory reports) and phytosterol 3.75 mg/100 g among other constituents. The leaves contain isoflavonoids.

The bisdesmosidic oleanolic acid saponins have been isolated from the fresh leaves. Significant hepatoprotec- tive activity has been found in the pro- saponin from ginsenoside Ro (chiku- setsusaponinV); and in coumestans, wedelolactone and demethyl wedelo- lactone, isolated from the methanol extract of the herb.

Wedelolactone has also been found to be a potent and selective 5-lipoxy- genase-inhibitor, the process being an oxygen radical scavenger mechanism.

Wedelolactone (0.05%), isolated from the leaves, is analogous in structure to coumestrol, an estrogen from Melilotus sp. (clover).

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan region, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Ayurvedic: Tilaka.

Folk: Tiliyaa (Bihar), Tilki, Mimri (Bengal).

Action: Bark—administered in urinary affections.... Indian Medicinal Plants

WOOD BETONY TEA PANACEA

Beneficial Teas

Wood Betony Tea has been known since ancient time as an herb able to cure almost any affection (cure-all), from gastric aliments to nervous system deviations. Wood Betony is a perennial herb that grows mainly in areas like Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. You can recognize it by its oval toothed-like green leaves and bright purple flowers. Also known as stachys officinalis, this herb never grows taller than 70 cm and it can be harvested for medical purposes only during the summer. In ancient times, people believed that wood betony had magical powers and that a ritual made using it could fulfill wishes. Wood Betony Tea Properties Scientific research showed that Wood Betony Tea is a good remedy not only when it comes to external and internal use, but also as a stress releaser and a great purifier. Its main ingredients include betaine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, harpagide, rosmarinic acid, stachydrine and tannin, which, through their simultaneous action, can heal a large variety of diseases and aliments. Wood Betony Tea Benefits Wood Betony Tea shows its benefits in many areas of the alternative medicine. Not only that is a very good adjuvant in case you want to maintain a good general health, but it also triggers positive reactions from your body in cases of chronic and serious diseases. You may find Wood Betony Tea useful if you suffer from one of the following conditions: - Sore throat, due to flu or long term smoking. Wood Betony tea can clear your respiratory system and also give you a boost of energy. - Headaches or severe migraines, thanks to its wonderful ingredients that prevent inflammations and treat localized pain. - Anxiety, by calming the nerves and increasing the natural endorphins level. - Elevated blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and elevated blood flow. Wood Betony Tea can ease your natural reactions down by inhibiting negative reactions from your heart and brain. - Severe diarrhea and other problems of the digestive track, by fighting bacteria and all possible microbial accumulations. How to make Wood Betony Tea Infusion When preparing Wood Betony Tea infusion, you need freshly picked or dried herbs that you can buy from almost any teashop. Use about 1 teaspoon of herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait for 10 minutes. Strain and drink it hot or cold, keeping in mind the fact that this is a medical treatment and cannot replace your coffee habit. Wood Betony Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Wood Betony Tea has no side effects at all. However, high dosages may lead to a series of health problems, such as ulcers, gastritis and nausea. If you’ve been taking Wood Betony Tea for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical help as soon as possible! Wood Betony Tea Contraindications Don’t take Wood Betony Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. It may lead to uterine contractions and internal bleeding. Also, avoid any treatment based on Wood Betony Tea if you’re preparing for a surgery or need to take blood thinners or anti-coagulant. Children under 2 years should not take this tea since the risks in this case remain unknown. However, if you have your doctor’s approval and you feel confident enough to give it a try, add it to your shopping cart next time you’re in a teashop and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... Beneficial Teas