Astatin 20 "indian Substitute | Health Dictionary

Astatin 20 "indian Substitute | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Astatin Indian Substitute


CHAI TEA - A FAMOUS INDIAN BLEND

Beneficial Teas

Discover the unique features of this Indian blend and learn more about how to get an interesting Chai tea every time and how to combine its ingredients for a special tasty experience. What is Chai tea Many people think Chai tea comes from China like most other types of tea. In fact, the word chai means tea in Hindi where it has its origin. Chai tea is actually a blend that combines black tea with milk, spices (like cinnamon, cloves, pepper and ginger) and sweeteners, creating a full tasty drink, perfect for you and your family. This Indian type of tea is also called “masala tea” and “spyce tea”. The smell of it draws plenty of attention and many people say that it helps them to relax. Drink Chai tea The way you make Chai tea is very important to get the right taste. Being a mixture of spices in different combinations, the brewing methods vary widely. There are traditional methods together with customized ones, depending on the spices contained in the blend. The milk should be added to the black tea while it is still boiling. This will make the tea turn darker and it will get a stronger flavor than many other type of teas. Chai Tea Benefits Learn how the amazing benefits of black tea combine successfully with those of other herbs and spices that form this unique mixture and how can they help you lead a healthier life. Chai tea prevents cardiovascular diseases. Catechins and polyphenols from the black tea lowers blood pressure and reduces bad cholesterol, thus preventing the formation of blood clots. Spices contained are perfect to fight viruses and bacteria. If you suffer from digestion problems, be sure that drinking this tea will help you in this regard. Chai tea is good if you want to treat colds, flu or even fever. It is a very good coffee substitute and the addition of milk and honey provide you even more health benefits within each cup. Chai Tea Side Effects Because it contains many ingredients in one mixture, Chai tea may have some precautions. For example, if you suffer from ulcers and heartburns you shouldn’t drink it as it may worsen your condition. If you have intolerance to lactose, you can abandon the idea of adding milk into it. If you have problems with caffeine, try to chose another blend, based or green tea or anything but black tea. Chai tea is an interesting tea with lots of health benefits. Its numerous ways of mixing its ingredients and the different flavor according to it will certainly not bore you, because you can create a new one every time you drink it.... Beneficial Teas

DUCHESNEA OR INDIAN STRAWBERRY

Medicinal Plants

Duchesnea indica

Description: The duchesnea is a small plant that has runners and three-parted leaves. Its flowers are yellow and its fruit resembles a strawberry.

Habitat and Distribution: It is native to southern Asia but is a common weed in warmer temperate regions. Look for it in lawns, gardens, and along roads.

Edible Parts: Its fruit is edible. Eat it fresh.... Medicinal Plants

FLUVASTATIN

Medical Dictionary

One of the STATINS group of drugs used to reduce the levels of LDL-CHOLESTEROL in the blood and thus help to prevent coronary heart disease, which is more prevalent in people with raised blood cholesterol levels (see HEART, DISEASES OF).... Medical Dictionary

INDIAN BDELLIUM

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Commiphora mukul

Burseraceae

San: Gugulu, Mahisaksah, Koushikaha, Devadhupa

Hin: Gugal Mal:Gulgulu Tam,

Tel: Gukkulu

Kan: Guggul

Ben: Guggul

Importance: Indian bdellium is a small, armed, deciduous tree from the bark of which gets an aromatic gum resin, the ‘Guggul’ of commerce. It is a versatile indigenous drug claimed by ayurvedists to be highly effective in the treatment of rheumatism, obesity, neurological and urinary disorders, tonsillitis, arthritis and a few other diseases. The fumes from burning guggul are recommended in hay- fever, chronic bronchitis and phytises.

The price of guggulu gum has increased ten fold in ten years or so, indicating the increase in its use as well as decrease in natural plant stand. It has been listed as a threatened plant by Botanical Survey of India (Dalal, 1995) and is included in the Red Data Book (IUCN) and over exploited species in the country (Billare,1989).

Distribution: The center of origin of Commiphora spp. is believed to be Africa and Asia. It is a widely adapted plant well distributed in arid regions of Africa (Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia in north east and Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zaire in south west Africa), Arabian peninsula (Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Oman). Different species of Commiphora are distributed in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India and Sind and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan (Tajuddin et al, 1994). In India, the main commercial source of gum guggul is Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Botany: The genus Commiphora of family Burseraceae comprises about 185 species. Most of them occur in Africa, Saudi Arabia and adjoining countries. In India only four species have been reported. They are C. mukul(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. syn. Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. ex Stocks), C. wightii (Arnott) Bhandari, C.stocksiana Engl., C. berryi and C.agallocha Engl.

In early studies about the flora of India, the ‘guggul’ plant was known as Commiphora mukul(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. or Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. ex Stocks). It was renamed as C. roxburghii by Santapau in 1962. According to Bhandari the correct Latin name of the species is C. wightii(Arnott) Bhandari, since the specific name ‘wightii’ was published in 1839, prior to ‘roxburghi’ in 1848 (Dalal and Patel, 1995).

C. mukul is a small tree upto 3-4m height with spinescent branching. Stem is brownish or pale yellow with ash colored bark peeling off in flakes. Young parts are glandular and pubescent. Leaves are alternate, 1-3 foliate, obovate, leathery and serrate (sometimes only towards the apex). Lateral leaflets when present only less than half the size of the terminal ones. Flowers small, brownish red, with short pedicel seen in fascicles of 2-3. Calyx campanulate, glandular, hairy and 4-5 lobed. Corolla with brownish red, broadly linear petals reflexed at apex. Stamens 8-10, alternatively long and short. Ovary oblong, ovoid and stigma bifid. Fruit is a drupe and red when ripe, ovate in shape with 2-3 celled stones. The chromosome number 2n= 26 (Warrier et al, 1994; Tajuddin et al, 1994).

Agrotechnology: Guggal being a plant of arid zone thrives well in arid- subtropical to tropical climate.

The rainfall may average between 100mm and 500mm while air temperature may vary between 40 C in summer and 3 C during winter. Maximum relative humidity prevails during rainy season (83% in the morning and 48% in the evening).Wind velocity remains between 20-25 km/hour during the year is good. Though they prefer hard gypseous soil, they are found over sandy to silt loam soils, poor in organic matter but rich in several other minerals in arid tracks of western India (Tajuddin et al, 1994).

Plants are propagated both by vegetatively and seeds. Plants are best raised from stem cuttings from the semi woody (old) branch. For this purpose one metre long woody stem of 10mm thickness is selected and the cut end is treated with IBA or NAA and planted in a well manured nursery bed during June-July months; the beds should be given light irrigation periodically. The cuttings initiate sprouting in 10-15 days and grow into good green sprout in 10-12 months. These rooted plants are suitable for planting in the fields during the next rainy season. The cuttings give 80-94% sprouting usually. Air layering has also been successfully attempted and protocol for meristem culture is available in literature. Seed germination is very poor (5%) but seedling produce healthier plants which withstand high velocity winds.

The rooted cuttings are planted in a well laid-out fields during rainy season. Pits of size 0.5m cube are dug out at 3-4 m spacing in rows and given FYM and filler soil of the pit is treated with BHC (10%) or aldrin (5%) to protect the new plants from white ants damage. Fertilizer trials have shown little response except due to low level of N fertilization. Removal of side branches and low level of irrigation supports a good growth of these plants. The plantation does not require much weeding and hoeing. But the soil around the bushes be pulverised twice in a year to increase their growth and given urea or ammonium sulphate at 25- 50g per bush at a time and irrigated. Dalal et al (1989) reported that cercospora leaf spot was noticed on all the cultures. Bacterial leaf blight was also noticed to attack the cultures. A leaf eating caterpillar (Euproctis lanata Walker) attack guggal, though not seriously. White fly (Bemisia tabaci) is observed to suck sap of leaves and such leaves become yellowish and eventually drop. These can be effectively controlled by using suitable insecticide.

Stem or branch having maximum diameter of about 5cm at place of incision, irrespective of age is tapped. The necrotic patch on the bark is peeled off with a sharp knife and Bordeaux paste is applied to the exposed (peeled off) surface of the stem or branch. A prick chisel of about 3cm width is used to make bark- deep incisions and while incising the bark, the chisel is held at an acute angle so that scooped suspension present on the body of the chisel flows towards the blade of the chisel and a small quantity of suspension flows inside the incised bark. If tapping is successful, gum exudation ensures after about 15-20 days from the date of incision and continues for nearly 30-45 days. The exuded gum slides down the stem or branch, and eventually drops on the ground and gets soiled. A piece of polythene sheet can be pouched around the place of incision to collect gum. Alternatively, a polythene sheet can be spread on the ground to collect exuded gum. A maximum of about 500g of gum has been obtained from a plant (Dalal, 1995).

Post harvest technology: The best grade of guggul is collected from thick branches of tree. These lumps of guggul are translucent. Second grade guggul is usually mixed with bark, sand and is dull coloured guggul. Third grade guggul is usually collected from the ground which is mixed with sand, stones and other foreign matter. The final grading is done after getting cleansed material. Inferior grades are improved by sprinkling castor oil over the heaps of the guggul which impart it a shining appearance (Tajuddin et al, 1994).

Properties and activity: The gum resin contains guggul sterons Z and E, guggul sterols I-V, two diterpenoids- a terpene hydrocarbon named cembreneA and a diterpene alcohol- mukulol, -camphrone and cembrene, long chain aliphatic tetrols- octadecan-1,2,3,4-tetrol, eicosan-1,2,3,4-tetrol and nonadecan-1,2,3,4-tetrol. Major components from essential oil of gum resin are myrcene and dimyrcene. Plant without leaves, flowers and fruits contains myricyl alcohol, -sitosterol and fifteen aminoacids. Flowers contain quercetin and its glycosides as major flavonoid components, other constituents being ellagic acid and pelargonidin glucoside (Patil et al, 1972; Purushothaman and Chandrasekharan, 1976).

The gum resin is bitter, acrid, astringent, thermogenic, aromatic, expectorant, digestive, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, anodyne, antiseptic, demulcent, carminative, emmenagogue, haematinic, diuretic, lithontriptic, rejuvenating and general tonic. Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic (Husain et al, 1992; Warrier et al, 1994).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN BEECH

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Pongamia pinnata

Papilionaceae

San: Karanj;

Hin: Karanja, Dittouri;

Ben: Dehar karanja;

Mal: Ungu, Pongu; Guj, Mar, Pun: Karanj;

Kan: Hongae;

Tel: Kangu;

Tam: Puggam; Ass: Karchaw; Ori: Koranjo

Importance: Indian beech, Pongam oil tree or Hongay oil tree is a handsome flowering tree with drooping branches, having shining green leaves laden with lilac or pinkish white flowers. The whole plant and the seed oil are used in ayurvedic formulations as effective remedy for all skin diseases like scabies, eczema, leprosy and ulcers. The roots are good for cleaning teeth, strengthening gums and in gonorrhoea and scrofulous enlargement. The bark is useful in haemorhoids, beriberi, ophthalmopathy and vaginopathy. Leaves are good for flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, leprosy, gonorrhoea, cough, rheumatalgia, piles and oedema. Flowers are given in diabetes. Fruits overcomes urinary disease and piles. The seeds are used in inflammations, otalgia, lumbago, pectoral diseases, chronic fevers, hydrocele, haemorrhoids and anaemia. The seed oil is recommended for ophthalmia, haemorrhoids, herpes and lumbagoThe seed oil is also valued for its industrial uses. The seed cake is suggested as a cheap cattle feed. The plant enters into the composition of ayurvedic preparations like nagaradi tailam, varanadi kasayam, varanadi ghrtam and karanjadi churna.

It is a host plant for the lac insect. It is grown as a shade tree. The wood is moderately hard and used as fuel and also for making agricultural implements and cart- wheels.

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout India from the central or eastern Himalaya to Kanyakumari, especially along the banks of streams and rivers or beach forests and is often grown as an avenue tree. It is distributed in Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaya, Australia and Polynesia.

Botany: Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre syn. P. glabra Vent., Derris indica (Lam.) Bennet, Cystisus pinnatus Lam. comes under family Papilionaceae. P. pinnata is a moderate sized, semi -evergreen tree growing upto 18m or more high, with a short bole, spreading crown and greyish green or brown bark. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, leaflets 5-7, ovate and opposite. Flowers lilac or pinkish white and fragrant in axillary recemes. Calyx cup-shaped, shortly 4-5 toothed, corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10 and monadelphous, ovary subsessile, 2-ovuled with incurved, glabrous style ending in a capitate stigma. Pod compressed, woody, indehiscent, yellowish grey when ripe varying in size and shape, elliptic to obliquely oblong, 4.0-7.5cm long and 1.7-3.2cm broad with a short curved beak. Seeds usually 1, elliptic or reniform, wrinkled with reddish brown, leathery testa.

Agrotechnology: The plant comes up well in tropical areas with warm humid climate and well distributed rainfall. Though it grows in almost all types of soils, silty soils on river banks are most ideal. It is tolerant to drought and salinity. The tree is used for afforestation, especially in watersheds in the drier parts of the country. It is propagated by seeds and vegetatively by rootsuckers. Seed setting is usually in November. Seeds are soaked in water for few hours before sowing. Raised seed beds of convenient size are prepared, well rotten cattle manure is applied at 1kg/m2 and seeds are uniformly broadcasted. The seeds are covered with a thin layer of sand and irrigated. One month old seedlings can be transplanted into polybags, which after one month can be planted in the field. Pits of size 50cm cube are dug at a spacing of 4-5m, filled with top soil and manure and planted. Organic manure are applied annually. Regular weeding and irrigation are required for initial establishment. The trees flower and set fruits in 5 years. The harvest season extends from November- June. Pods are collected and seeds are removed by hand. Seed, leaves, bark and root are used for medicinal purposes. Bark can be collected after 10 years. No serious pests and diseases are reported in this crop.

Properties and activity: The plant is rich in flavonoids and related compounds. Seeds and seed oil, flowers and stem bark yield karanjin, pongapin, pongaglabrone, kanugin, desmethoxykanugin and pinnatin. Seed and its oil also contain kanjone, isolonchocarpin, karanjachromene, isopongachromene, glabrin, glabrachalcone, glabrachromene, isopongaflavone, pongol, 2’- methoxy-furano 2”,3”:7,8 -flavone and phospholipids. Stem-bark gives pongachromene, pongaflavone, tetra-O-methylfisetin, glabra I and II, lanceolatin B, gamatin, 5-methoxy- furano 2”,3”:7,8 -flavone, 5-methoxy-3’,4’-methelenedioxyfurano 2”,3”:7,8 -flavone and - sitosterol. Heartwood yields chromenochalcones and flavones. Flowers are reported to contain kanjone, gamatin, glabra saponin, kaempferol, -sitosterol, quercetin glycocides, pongaglabol, isopongaglabol, 6-methoxy isopongaglabol, lanceolatin B, 5-methoxy-3’,4’- methelenedioxyfurano 8,7:4”,5” -flavone, fisetin tetramethyl ether, isolonchocarpin, ovalichromene B, pongamol, ovalitenon, two triterpenes- cycloart-23-ene,3 ,25 diol and friedelin and a dipeptide aurantinamide acetate.

Roots and leaves give kanugin, desmethoxykanugin and pinnatin. Roots also yield a flavonol methyl ether-tetra-O-methyl fisetin. The leaves contain triterpenoids, glabrachromenes I and II, 3’-methoxypongapin and 4’-methoxyfurano 2”,3”:7,8 -flavone also. The gum reported to yield polysaccharides (Thakur et al, 1989; Husain et al, 1992).

Seeds, seed oil and leaves are carminative, antiseptic, anthelmintic and antirheumatic. Leaves are digestive, laxative, antidiarrhoeal, bechic, antigonorrheic and antileprotic. Seeds are haematinic, bitter and acrid. Seed oil is styptic and depurative. Karanjin is the principle responsible for the curative properties of the oil. Bark is sweet, anthelmintic and elexteric.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN CROCUS

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Kaempferia rotunda

Zingiberaceae

San: Bhumicampaka, Bhucampaka, Hallakah

Hin: Abhuyicampa

Mal: Chengazhuneerkizhengu, Chengazhuneerkuva

Tam: Nerppicin

Kan: Nelasampiga

Tel: Bhucampakamu, Kondakaluva Mar: Bhuichampa

Importance: The tubers of Indian crocus are widely used as a local application for tumours, swellings and wounds. They are also given in gastric complaints. They help to remove blood clots and other purulent matter in the body. The juice of the tubers is given in dropsical affections of hands and feet, and of effusions in joints. The juice causes salivation and vomiting. In Ayurveda, the improvement formulations using the herb are Chyavanaprasam, Asokarishtam, Baladthatryaditailam, Kalyanakaghritham, etc. The drug “HALLAKAM” prepared from this is in popular use in the form of powder or as an ointment application to wounds and bruises to reduce swellings. It also improves complexion and cures burning sensation, mental disorders and insomnia (NRF, 1998; Sivarajan et al, 1994).

Distribution: The plant is distributed in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa. The plant grows wild in shaded areas which are wet or humid, especially in forests in South India. It grows in gardens and is known for their beautiful flowers and foliage. It is also cultivated as an intercrop with other commercial crops.

Botany: Kaempferia rotunda Linn. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is an aromatic herb with tuberous root-stalk and very short stem. Leaves are simple, few, erect, oblong or ovate- lanceolate, acuminate, 30cm long, 10cm wide, variegated green above and tinged with purple below. Flowers are fragrant, white, tip purple or lilac arranged in crowded spikes opening successively. The plant produces a subglobose tuberous rhizome from which many roots bearing small oblong or rounded tubers arise (Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: The plant is a tropical one adapted for tropical climate. Rich loamy soil having good drainage is ideal for the plant. Laterite soil with heavy organic manure application is also well suited. Planting is done in May-June with the receipt of 4 or 5 pre-monsoon showers. The seed rate recommended is 1500-2000kg rhizomes/ha. Whole or split rhizome with one healthy sprout is the planting material. Well developed healthy and disease free rhizomes with the attached root tubers are selected for planting. Rhizomes can be stored in cool dry place or pits dug under shade plastered with mud or cowdung. The field is ploughed to a fine tilth, mixed with organic manure at 10-15t/ha. Seed beds are prepared at a size of 1m breadth and convenient length. Pits are made at 20cm spacing in which 5cm long pieces of rhizomes are planted. Pits are covered with organic manure. They are then covered with rotten straw or leaves. Apply FYM or compost as basal dose at 20 t/ha either by broadcasting and ploughing or by covering the seed in pits after planting. Apply fertilisers at the rate of 50:50:50 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha at the time of first and second weeding. After planting, mulch the beds with dry or green leaves at 15 t/ha. During heavy rainy months, leaf rot disease occurs which can be controlled by drenching 1% Bordeaux mixture. The crop can be harvested after 7 months maturity. Drying up of the leaves is the indication of maturity. Harvest the crop carefully without cutting the rhizome, remove dried leaves and roots. Wash the rhizome in water. They are stored in moisture-proof sheds. Prolonged storage may cause insect and fungus attack (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: The tubers contain crotepoxide and -sitosterol. Tuber contains essential oil which give a compound with melting point 149oC which yielded benzoic acid on hydrolysis.

The tubers are acrid, thermogenic aromatic, stomachic, antiinflammatory, sialagogue, emetic, antitumour and vulnerary.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN GINSENG

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Withania somnifera

Solanceae

San: Aswagandha, Varahakarni

Hin: Asgandh, Punir Mal: Amukkuram

Tam: Amukkira

Tel: Vajigandha

Mar: Askandha

Guj: Ghoda

Kan: Viremaddinagaddi

Importance: Indian ginseng or Winter cherry is an erect branching perennial undershrub which is considered to be one of the best rejuvenating agents in Ayurveda. Its roots, leaves and seeds are used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines, to combat diseases ranging from tuberculosis to arthritis. The pharmacological activity of the plant is attributed to the presence of several alkaloids and withaniols. Roots are prescribed in medicines for hiccup, several female disorders, bronchitis, rheumatism, dropsy, stomach and lung inflammations and skin diseases. Its roots and paste of green leaves are used to relieve joint pains and inflammation. It is also an ingredient of medicaments prescribed for curing disability and sexual weakness in male. Leaves are used in eye diseases. Seeds are diuretic. It is a constituent of the herbal drug ‘Lactare’ which is a galactagogue.

Aswagandha was observed to increase cell-mediated immunity, prevent stress induced changes in adrenal function and enhance protein synthesis. Milk fortified with it increases total proteins and body weight. It is a well known rejuvenating agent capable of imparting long life, youthful vigour and intellectual power. It improves physical strength and is prescribed in all cases of general debility. Aswagandha powder (6-12g) twice a day along with honey and ghee is advised for tuberculosis in Sushruta Samhita. It also provides sound sleep (Prakash, 1997).

Distribution: Aswagandha is believed to have oriental origin. It is found wild in the forests of Mandsaur and Bastar in Mandhya Pradesh, the foot hills of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and western Himalayas in India. It is also found wild in the Mediterranean region in North America. In India it is cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Rajastan and other drier parts of the country.

Botany: Aswagandha belongs to the genus Withania and family Solanaceae. Two species, viz, W. coagulans Dunal and W. somnifera Dunal are found in India. W. coagulans is a rigid grey under shrub of 60-120cm high. W. somnifera is erect, evergreen, tomentose shrub, 30-75cm in height. Roots are stout, fleshy, cylindrical, 1-2cm in diameter and whitish brown in colour. Leaves are simple, ovate, glabrous and opposite. Flowers are bisexual, inconspicuous, greenish or dull yellow in colour born on axillary umbellate cymes, comprising 5 sepals, petals and stamens each; the two celled ovary has a single style and a bilobed stigma. The petals are united and tubular. The stamens are attached to the corolla tube and bear erect anthers which form a close column or cone around the style. Pollen production is poor. The fruit is a small berry, globose, orange red when mature and is enclosed in persistent calyx. The seeds are small, flat, yellow and reniform in shape and very light in weight. The chromosome number 2n = 48.

The cultivated plants have sizable differences from the wild forms not only in their morphological characters but also in the therapeutical action, though the alkaloids present are the same in both (Kaul, 1957). Some botanists, therefore, described the cultivated plant distinct from wild taxa and have coined a new name W. aswagandha (Kaul, 1957) which is contested by Atal and Schwarting (1961).

Agrotechnology: Asgandh is a tropical crop growing well under dry climate. The areas receiving 600 to 750mm rainfall is best suited to this crop. Rainy season crop requires relatively dry season and the roots are fully developed when 1-2 late winter rains are received. Sandy loam or light red soils having a pH of 7.5- 8.0 with good drainage are suitable for its cultivation. It is usually cultivated on poor and marginal soils. Withania is propagated through seeds. It is a late kharif crop and planting is done in August. Seeds are either broadcast-sown or seedlings are raised in nursery and then transplanted. Seed rate is 10-12 kg/ha for broadcasting and 5kg/ha for transplanting. In direct sown crop plants are thinned and gap filling is done 25-30 days after sowing. Seeds should be treated with Dithane M-45 at 3g/kg of seeds before sowing. Seeds are sown in the nursery just before the onset of rainy season and covered with light soil. Seeds germinate in 6-7 days. When seedlings are six weeks old they are transplanted at 60cm in furrows taken 60cm apart. The crop is mainly grown as a rainfed crop on residual fertility and no manure or fertilizers are applied to this crop generally. However, application of organic manure is beneficial for realizing better yields. It is not a fertilizer responsive crop. One hand weeding 25-30 days after sowing helps to control weeds effectively. No serious pest is reported in this crop. Diseases like seedling rot and blight are observed. Seedling mortality becomes serious under high temperature and humid conditions. The disease can be minimized by use of disease free seeds and treatment with thiram or deltan at 3-4g/kg seed before sowing. Further, use of crop rotation, timely sowing and keeping field well drained also protect the crop. Spraying with 0.3% fytolan, dithane Z-78 or dithane M-45 will help controlling the disease incidence. Spraying is repeated at 15 days interval if the disease persists. Aswagandha is a crop of 150-170 days duration. The maturity of the crop is judged by the drying of the leaves and reddening of berries. Harvesting usually starts from January and continues till March. Roots, leaves and seeds are the economical parts. The entire plant is uprooted for roots, which are separated from the aerial parts. The berries are plucked from dried plants and are threshed to obtain the seeds. The yield is 400-500kg of dry roots and 50-75kg seeds per hectare.

Post harvest technology: The roots are separated from the plant by cutting the stem 1-2cm above the crown.

Roots are then cut into small pieces of 7-10cm to facilitate drying. Occasionally, the roots are dried as a whole. The dried roots are cleaned, trimmed, graded, packed and marketed. Roots are carefully hand sorted into the following four grades.

Grade A: Root pieces 7cm long, 1-1.5cm diameter, brittle, solid, and pure white from outside.

Grade B: Root pieces 5cm long, 1cm diameter, brittle, solid and white from outside.

Grade C: Root pieces 3-4cm long, less than 1cm diameter and solid. Lower grade: Root pieces smaller, hollow and yellowish from outside.

Properties and activity: Aswagandha roots contain alkaloids, starch, reducing sugar, hentriacontane, glycosides, dulcital, withaniol acid and a neutral compound. Wide variation (0.13-0.31%) is observed in alkaloid content. Majumdar (1955) isolated 8 amorphous bases such as withanine, somniferine, somniferinine, somnine, withananine, withananinine, pseudowithanine and withasomnine. Other alkaloids reported are nicotine, tropine, pseudotropine, 3, -tigloyloxytropane, choline, cuscudohygrine, anaferine, anahygrine and others. Free aminoacids in the roots include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine. Leaves contain 12 withanolides, alkaloids, glycosides, glucose and free amino acids. Berries contain a milk coagulating enzyme, two esterases, free amino acids, fatty oil, essential oil and alkaloids. Methods for alkaloid’s analysis in Asgandh roots have also been reported (Majumdar, 1955; Mishra, 1989; Maheshwari, 1989). Withania roots are astringent, bitter, acrid, somniferous, thermogenic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, diuretic and tonic. Leaf is antibiotic, antitumourous, antihepatotoxic and antiinflammatory. Seed is milk coagulating, hypnotic and diuretic.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN GOOSEBERRY

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Phyllanthus emblica

Euphorbiaceae

San: Amalaka, Adiphala

Tel: Amalakam

Hin, Mar: Amla

Kan: Amalaka

Ben: Amlaki

Guj: Ambala

Mal,

Tam: Nelli

Kas: Aonla

Importance: Indian gooseberry or emblic myrobalan is a medium sized tree the fruit of which is used in many Ayurvedic preparations from time immemorial. It is useful in haemorrhage, leucorrhaea, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and dysentery. In combination with iron, it is useful for anaemia, jaundice and dyspepsia. It goes in combination in the preparation of triphala, arishta, rasayan, churna and chyavanaprash. Sanjivani pills made with other ingredients is used in typhoid, snake-bite and cholera. The green fruits are made into pickles and preserves to stimulate appetite. Seed is used in asthma, bronchitis and biliousness. Tender shoots taken with butter milk cures indigestion and diarrhoea. Leaves are also useful in conjunctivitis, inflammation, dyspepsia and dysentery. The bark is useful in gonorrhoea, jaundice, diarrhoea and myalgia. The root bark is astringent and is useful in ulcerative stomatitis and gastrohelcosis. Liquor fermented from fruit is good for indigestion, anaemia, jaundice, heart complaints, cold to the nose and for promoting urination. The dried fruits have good effect on hair hygiene and used as ingredient in shampoo and hair oil. The fruit is a very rich source of Vitamin C (600mg/100g) and is used in preserves as a nutritive tonic in general weakness (Dey, 1980).

Distribution: Indian gooseberry is found through out tropical and subtropical India, Sri Lanka and Malaca. It is abundant in deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh and Darjeeling, Sikkim and Kashmir. It is also widely cultivated.

Botany: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. syn. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. It is a small to medium sized deciduous tree growing up to 18m in height with thin light grey, bark exfoliating in small thin irregular flakes. Leaves are simple, many subsessile, closely set along the branchlets, distichous light green having the appearance of pinnate leaves. Flowers are greenish yellow in axillary fascicles, unisexual; males numerous on short slender pedicels; females few, subsessile; ovary 3-celled. Fruits are globose, 1-5cm in diameter, fleshy, pale yellow with 6 obscure vertical furrows enclosing 6 trigonous seeds in 2-seeded 3 crustaceous cocci. Two forms Amla are generally distinguished, the wild ones with smaller fruits and the cultivated ones with larger fruits and the latter are called ‘Banarasi’(Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Gooseberry is quite hardy and it prefers a warm dry climate. It needs good sunlight and rainfall. It can be grown in almost all types of soils, except very sandy type. A large fruited variety “Chambakad Large“ was located from the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats for cultivation in Kerala. Amla is usually propagated by seeds and rarely by root suckers and grafts. The seeds are enclosed in a hard seed coat which renders the germination difficult. The seeds can be extracted by keeping fully ripe fruits in the sun for 2-3 days till they split open releasing the seeds. Seeds are soaked in water for 3-4 hours and sown on previously prepared seed beds and irrigated. Excess irrigation and waterlogging are harmful. One month old seedlings can be transplanted to polythene bags and one year old seedlings can be planted in the main field with the onset of monsoon. Pits of size 50 cm3 are dug at 6-8m spacing and filled with a mixture of top soil and well rotten FYM and planting is done. Amla can also be planted as a windbreak around an orchard. Irrigation and weeding are required during the first year. Application of organic manure and mulching every year are highly beneficial. Chemical fertilisers are not usually applied. No serious pests or diseases are generally noted in this crop. Planted seedlings will commence bearing from the 10th year, while grafts after 3-4 years. The vegetative growth of the tree continues from April to July. Along with the new growth in the spring, flowering also commences. Fruits will mature by December-February. Fruit yield ranges from 30-50kg/tree/year when full grown (KAU,1993).

Properties and activity: Amla fruit is a rich natural source of vitamin C. It also contains cytokinin like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin riboside and zeatin nucleotide. The seeds yield 16% fixed oil, brownish yellow in colour. The plant contains tannins like glucogallia, corilagin, chebulagic acid and 3,6-digalloyl glucose. Root yields ellagic acid, lupeol, quercetin and - sitosterol (Thakur et al, 1989).

The fruit is diuretic, laxative, carminative, stomachic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, antihaemorrhagic and antianaemic.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN HEMP

Medical Dictionary

See CANNABIS.... Medical Dictionary

INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Indian Medicinal Plants

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... Indian Medicinal Plants

INDIAN POTATO OR ESKIMO POTATO

Medicinal Plants

Claytonia species

Description: All Claytonia species are somewhat fleshy plants only a few centimeters tall, with showy flowers about 2.5 centimeters across.

Habitat and Distribution: Some species are found in rich forests where they are conspicuous before the leaves develop. Western species are found throughout most of the northern United States and in Canada.

Edible Parts: The tubers are edible but you should boil them before eating.... Medicinal Plants

INDIAN SARASAPARILLA

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Hemidesmus indicus

Asclepiadaceae

San: Anantamulah, Sariba;

Hin: Anantamul, Magrabu;

Ben: Anantamul;

Mal: Nannari, Naruninti, Narunanti;

Tam: Nannari, Saribam;

Tel: Sugandipala;

Kan: Namadaballi

Importance: Indian Sarasaparilla or Country Sarasaparilla is a climbing slender plant with twining woody stems and a rust-coloured bark. The roots are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, leucoderma, leprosy, skin diseases, pruritus, asthma, bronchitis, hyperdipsia, opthalmopathy, hemicrania, epileptic fits, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, strangury, leucorrhoea, syphilis, abcess, arthralgia, fever and general debility. The leaves are useful in vomiting, wounds and leucoderma. The stems are bitter, diaphoretic and laxative and are useful in inflammations, cerebropathy, hepatopathy, nephropathy, syphilis, metropathy, leucoderma, odontalgia, cough and asthma. The latex is good for conjunctivitis (Warrier et al, 1995). The important formulations using the drug are Saribadyasava, Pindataila, Vidaryadi lehya, Draksadi kasaya, Jatyadi ghrita, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The Hemidesmus root powdered and mixed with cow’s milk is given with much benefit in the case of strangury. In the form of syrup, it has demulcent and diuretic proportions. The root, roasted in plantain leaves, then beaten into a mass with cumin and sugar and mixed with ghee is a household remedy in genito-urinary diseases. The hot infusion of the root-bark with milk and sugar is a good alterative tonic especially for children in cases of chronic cough and diarrhoea (Nadkarni, 1998). It has been successfully used in the cure of venereal diseases where American Sarasaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis Linn.) has failed. Native doctors utilize it in nephritic complaints and for sore mouths of children (Grieve and Leyel, 1992).

Distribution: Hemidesmus is distributed throughout India, the Moluccas and Sri Lanka.

Botany: Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br. syn. Periploca indica Linn. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is a perennial, slender, laticiferous, twining or prostrate, wiry shrub with woody rootstock and numerous slender, terete stems having thickened nodes. Leaves are simple, opposite, very variable from elliptic-oblong to linear-lanceolate, variegated with white above and silvery white and pubescent beneath. Flowers are greenish purple crowded in sub-sessile cymes in the opposite leaf-axils. Fruits are slender follicles, cylindrical, 10cm long, tapering to a point at the apex. Seeds are flattened, black, ovate-oblong and coma silvery white. The tuberous root is dark-brown, coma silvery white, tortuous with transversely cracked and longitudinally fissured bark. It has a strong central vasculature and a pleasant smell and taste (Warrier et al, 1995).

The Ayurvedic texts mention two varieties, viz. a krsna or black variety and a sveta or white variety (Aiyer, 1951) which together constitute the pair, Saribadvayam. The drug is known as Sariba. Svetasariba is H. indicus. Two plants, namely, Ichnocarpus fructescens (Apocynaceae) known as pal-valli in vernacular and Cryptolepis buchanani (Asclepidaceae) known as Katupalvalli (Rheeds, 1689) are equated with black variety or Krsnasariba (Chunekar, 1982; Sharma, 1983).

Agrotechnology: Hemidesmus is propagated through root cuttings. The root cuttings of length 3-5cm can be planted in polybags or in the field. They can be planted in flat beds or on ridges. Planting is done usually at a spacing of 50x20cm. Heavy application of organic manure is essential for good growth and root yield. Inorganic fertilizers are not usually applied. Frequent weeding and earthing up are required, as the plant is only slow growing. Provision of standards for twining will further improve the growth and yield of the plant.

Properties and activity: The twigs of the plant give a pregnane ester diglycoside named desinine. Roots give -sitosterol, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde, -amyrin, -amyrin and its acetate, hexatriacontane, lupeol octacosonate, lupeol and its acetate. Leaves, stem and root cultures give cholesterol, campesterol, -sitosterol and 16-dehydro-pregnenolone. Leaves and flowers also give flavonoid glycosides rutin, hyperoside and iso-quercitin (Husain et al,1992). “Hemidesmine”- a crystallizible principle is found in the volatile oil extracted from roots. Some suggest that it is only a stearoptene. It also contains some starch, saponin and in the suberous layer, tannic acid (Grieve and Leyel, 1992). The root is alterative, febrifuge, antileucorrhoeic, antisyphilitic, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic, galactogenic, antidote for scorpion-sting and snake-bite, antidiarrhoeal, blood purifier, antirheumatic and aperitive. Essential oil from root is anti-bacterial and the plant is antiviral (Husain et al, 1992).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN SENNA

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Cassia senna

Caesalpiniaceae

San: Svarnapatri;

Hin: Sanay, Sana Ka Patt;

Ben: Sonamukhi;

Mal: Sunnamukki, Chonnamukki, Nilavaka;

Tam: Nilavirai, Nilavakai;

Tel: Netatangedu

Importance: Indian Senna or Tinnevelly senna is a shrub very highly esteemed in India for its medicinal value. The leaves are useful in constipation, abdominal disorders, leprosy, skin diseases, leucoderma, splenomegaly, hepatopathy, jaundice, helminthiasis, dyspepsia, cough, bronchitis, typhoid fever, anaemia, tumours and vitiated conditions of pitta and vata (Warrier et al,1994). It is used in Ayurvedic preparations; “Pancha Sakara Churna”, “Shat Sakara Churna” and “Madhu Yastyadi Churna” used for constipation. Its use is widespread in Unani system and some of the important products of this system containing senna are “Itrifal Mulayyin”, “Jawarish Ood Mulayyin”, “Hab Shabyar”, “Sufuf Mulliyin”, “Sharbat Ahmad Shahi”, etc. used as a mild laxative (Thakur et al, 1989).

Distribution: The plant is of Mediterranean origin. It is found in Somalia, Saudi Arabia, parts of Pakistan and Kutch area of Gujarat. It is largely cultivated in Tirunelveli, Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu.

Botany: The genus Cassia, belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae, comprises of a number of species, namely,

C. senna Linn. syn. C. angustifolia Vahl.

C. absus Linn.

C. alata Linn.

C. auriculata Linn.

C. burmanni Wight. syn. C. obovata (Linn.) Collad.

C. glauca Lam.

C. javanica Linn.

C. mimosoides Linn.

C. obtusifolia Linn. syn. C. tora Linn.

C. occidentalis Linn.

C. pumila Lam.

C. slamea Lam.

C. acutifolia Delile.

C. sophera Linn.

C. senna is a shrub or undershrub, 60-75cm in height with pale subterete or obtusely angled erect or spreading branches. Leaves are paripinnate. Leaflets are 5-8 in number, ovate-lanceolate and glabrous. Flowers are yellowish, many and arranged in axillary racemes. Fruits are flat legumes, greenish brown to dark brown and nearly smooth (Chopra et al,1980, Warrier et al,1994).

In commerce, the leaves and pods obtained from C. senna are known as “ Tinnevelly Senna” and those from C. acutifolia Delile. as “Alexandrian Senna”. The leaves of C. acutifolia are narrower than C. senna, otherwise both resemble to a large extent (Thakur et al, 1989). All the true Sennas have the portions of their leaves unequally divided. In some kinds the lower part of one side is reduced to little more than a line in breadth, while the other is from a quarter to half an inch in breadth. The drug known under the name of East Indian Senna is nearly free from adulteration; and as its properties appear identical with those of the Alexandrian and the price being less, it probably will supersede it in general practice. Its size and shape readily identify it (Graves, 1996).

Agrotechnology: The plant requires a mild subtropical climate with warm winters which are free from frost for its growth. Semiarid areas with adequate irrigation facilities are ideal for cultivation. Areas having high rainfall, humidity and poor drainage are not suitable. Light or medium loamy soils with adequate drainage and pH varying from 7.0-8.2 are preferable. In South India both summer and winter crops are possible. The plant is propagated by seeds. The seed rate required is 15-20kg/ha. Seeds are sown in October-November (winter rainfed crop) or in February-March (irrigated crop). Higher seed rate is required for unirrigated crop. Seeds are sown in lines 30cm apart. Application of 5-10t of FYM/ha before planting or raising a green manure crop is beneficial. About 40kg N and 25-50kg P2O5/ha applied as basal dressing and 40kg N/ha applied in 2 split dozes as top dressing gave better yield. While the rainfed crop is grown without irrigation, the irrigated crop requires 5-8 light irrigations during the entire growing season. The crop requires 2-3 weedings and hoeings in order to keep it free from weeds. Alternaria alternata causes leaf spot and dieback but the disease is not serious. In North India, the plant is attacked by the larvae of butterfly Catopsilia pyranthe which can be controlled by planting the crop in March-April instead of June-July. Under irrigated conditions, the first crop is obtained after 90 days of planting. The leaves are stripped by hand when they are fully green, thick and bluish-green in colour. The second crop is taken 4 weeks after the first harvest and the third 4-6 weeks after the second one. The last harvest of leaves is done when the entire crop is harvested along with the pods. Yield under irrigated conditions is nearly1.4t of leaves and 150kg pods/ha and under unirrigated conditions is 500-600kg leaves and 80-100kg pods/ha. The leaves are dried in thin layers under shade so as to retain the green colour and the pods are hung for 10-12 days to get dried. The leaves and pods are cleaned, graded and marketed (Husain et al, 1993).

Properties and Activity: Leaves contain glucose, fructose, sucrose and pinnitol. Mucilage consists of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. Leaves also contain sennoside-C(8,8’- diglucoside of rhein-aloe-emodin-dianthrone). Pods contain sennosides A and B, glycoside of anthraquinones rhein and chrysophanic acid. Seeds contain -sitosterol (Husain et al, 1992). Leaves and pods also contain 0.33% -sterol and flavonols-kaempferol, kaempferin, and iso-rhamnetin. Sennoside content of C. acutifolia is higher ranging from 2.5% to 4.5% as compared to C. angustifolia ranging from 1.5 % to 2.5%.

The purgative activity of Senna is attributed to its sennosides. The pods cause lesser griping than the leaves. Leaf and pod is laxative. The leaves are astringent, bitter, sweet, acrid, thermogenic, cathartic, depurative, liver tonic, anthelmintic, cholagogue, expectorant and febrifuge.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIAN SENNA

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Cassia senna

Caesalpiniaceae

San: Svarnapatri;

Hin: Sanay, Sana Ka Patt;

Ben: Sonamukhi;

Mal: Sunnamukki, Chonnamukki, Nilavaka;

Tam: Nilavirai, Nilavakai;

Tel: Netatangedu

Importance: Indian Senna or Tinnevelly senna is a shrub very highly esteemed in India for its medicinal value. The leaves are useful in constipation, abdominal disorders, leprosy, skin diseases, leucoderma, splenomegaly, hepatopathy, jaundice, helmi nthiasis, dyspepsia, cough, bronchitis, typhoid fever, anaemia, tumours and vitiated conditions of pitta and vata (Warrier et al,1994). It is used in Ayurvedic preparations; “Pancha Sakara Churna”, “Shat Sakara Churna” and “Madhu Yastyadi Churna” used for constipation. Its use is widespread in Unani system and some of the important products of this system containing senna are “Itrifal Mulayyin”, “Jawarish Ood Mulayyin”, “Hab Shabyar”, “Sufuf Mulliyin”, “Sharbat Ahmad Shahi”, etc. used as a mild laxative (Thakur et al, 1989).

Distribution: The plant is of Mediterranean origin. It is found in Somalia, Saudi Arabia, parts of Pakistan and Kutch area of Gujarat. It is largely cultivated in Tirunelveli, Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu.

Botany: The genus Cassia, belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae, comprises of a number of species, namely,

C. senna Linn. syn. C. angustifolia Vahl.

C. absus Linn.

C. alata Linn.

C. auriculata Linn.

C. burmanni Wight. syn. C. obovata (Linn.) Collad.

C. glauca Lam.

C. javanica Linn.

C. mimosoides Linn.

C. obtusifolia Linn. syn. C. tora Linn.

C. occidentalis Linn.

C. pumila Lam.

C. slamea Lam.

C. acutifolia Delile.

C. sophera Linn.

C. senna is a shrub or undershrub, 60-75cm in height with pale subterete or obtusely angled erect or spreading branches. Leaves are paripinnate. Leaflets are 5-8 in number, ovate-lanceolate and glabrous. Flowers are yellowish, many and arranged in axillary racemes. Fruits are flat legumes, greenish brown to dark brown and nearly smooth (Chopra et al,1980, Warrier et al,1994).

In commerce, the leaves and pods obtained from C. senna are known as “ Tinnevelly Senna” and those from C. acutifolia Delile. as “Alexandrian Senna”. The leaves of C. acutifolia are narrower than C. senna, otherwise both resemble to a large extent (Thakur et al, 1989). All the true Sennas have the portions of their leaves unequally divided. In some kinds the lower part of one side is reduced to little more than a line in breadth, while the other is from a quarter to half an inch in breadth. The drug known under the name of East Indian Senna is nearly free from adulteration; and as its properties appear identical with those of the Alexandrian and the price being less, it probably will supersede it in general practice. Its size and shape readily identify it (Graves, 1996).

Agrotechnology: The plant requires a mild subtropical climate with warm winters which are free from frost for its growth. Semiarid areas with adequate irrigation facilities are ideal for cultivation. Areas having high rainfall, humidity and poor drainage are not suitable. Light or medium loamy soils with adequate drainage and pH varying from 7.0-8.2 are preferable. In South India both summer and winter crops are possible. The plant is propagated by seeds. The seed rate required is 15-20kg/ha. Seeds are sown in October-November (winter rainfed crop) or in February-March (irrigated crop). Higher seed rate is required for unirrigated crop. Seeds are sown in lines 30cm apart. Application of 5-10t of FYM/ha before planting or raising a green manure crop is beneficial. About 40kg N and 25-50kg P2O5/ha applied as basal dressing and 40kg N/ha applied in 2 split dozes as top dressing gave better yield. While the rainfed crop is grown without irrigation, the irrigated crop requires 5-8 light irrigations during the entire growing season. The crop requires 2-3 weedings and hoeings in order to keep it free from weeds. Alternaria alternata causes leaf spot and dieback but the disease is not serious. In North India, the plant is attacked by the larvae of butterfly Catopsilia pyranthe which can be controlled by planting the crop in March-April instead of June-July. Under irrigated conditions, the first crop is obtained after 90 days of planting. The leaves are stripped by hand when they are fully green, thick and bluish-green in colour. The second crop is taken 4 weeks after the first harvest and the third 4-6 weeks after the second one. The last harvest of leaves is done when the entire crop is harvested along with the pods. Yield under irrigated conditions is nearly1.4t of leaves and 150kg pods/ha and under unirrigated conditions is 500-600kg leaves and 80-100kg pods/ha. The leaves are dried in thin layers under shade so as to retain the green colour and the pods are hung for 10-12 days to get dried. The leaves and pods are cleaned, graded and marketed (Husain et al, 1993).

Properties and Activity: Leaves contain glucose, fructose, sucrose and pinnitol. Mucilage consists of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. Leaves also contain sennoside-C(8,8’- diglucoside of rhein-aloe-emodin-dianthrone). Pods contain sennosides A and B, glycoside of anthraquinones rhein and chrysophanic acid. Seeds contain -sitosterol (Husain et al, 1992). Leaves and pods also contain 0.33% -sterol and flavonols-kaempferol, kaempferin, and iso-rhamnetin. Sennoside content of C. acutifolia is higher ranging from 2.5% to 4.5% as compared to C. angustifolia ranging from 1.5 % to 2.5%.

The purgative activity of Senna is attributed to its sennosides. The pods cause lesser griping than the leaves. Leaf and pod is laxative. The leaves are astringent, bitter, sweet, acrid, thermogenic, cathartic, depurative, liver tonic, anthelmintic, cholagogue, expectorant and febrifuge.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

INDIANA

Medical Dictionary

(English) From the land of the Indians; from the state of Indiana Indianna, Indyana, Indyanna... Medical Dictionary

NEEM TEA - AN INDIAN HERBAL TEA

Beneficial Teas

Neem tea is a refreshing herbal tea, with origins in South Asia. Despite its bitter taste, it is often recommended as a beverage thanks to its many health benefits. Read this article to find out more about neem tea! About Neem Tea Neem tea is made from the leaves of the Neem tree. The tree can be found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is an evergreen tree which can grow up to twenty feet in just three years, and it starts bearing fruit after 3-5 years. However, during periods of severe drought, it may shed most or even all of its leaves. The green leaves are 20-40cm long, with medium to dark green leaflets about 3-8cm long; the terminal leaflet is usually missing. The tree’s flowers are small, white and fragrant, arranged axillary. The fruit has an olive-like form, with a thin skin and a yellow-white, fibrous and bittersweet pulp. How to prepare Neem Tea To brew a cup of neem tea, you have to follow a few simple steps. First, boil the necessary amount of water. Then, pour it over a cup with includes a few neem leaves. Let it steep for about 5 minutes. Lastly, remove the leaves and, if you think it is needed, flavor it with honey and/or lemon. You can make your own stack of neem leaves for neem tea. If you’ve got neem trees around, gather leaves and leave them to dry. You can use fresh neem leaves, as well. In both cases though, you have to wash the leaves well before you use them. Once you’ve got the leaves ready, whether dry or fresh, just follow the earlier-mentioned steps. You can also make a cup of neem tea by using powdered neem leaf. Neem Tea Benefits Neem leaves have many antibacterial and antiviral properties. Thanks to this, neem tea is full of health benefits. Indians chew on neem twigs to have a good oral hygiene. However, a cup of neem tea can also help you maintain a good oral hygiene. It is useful in treating bad breath and gum disease, and it fights against cavities. Neem tea is also useful in treating fungal infections, such as yeast infections, jock itch, thrush, and ringworm. Neem tea can help you treat both indigestion and constipation. It is also useful when it comes to reducing swelling of the stomach and intestinal tract, and it can be used to counter ulcers and gout. Neem tea, when combined with neem cream, has anti-viral uses. It can help speed up the healing time and pain associated with herpes simplex 1, herpes zoster and warts. Neem tea is also used in the treatment of malaria and other similar diseases. It helps purify and cleanse the blood, as well; therefore, it increases liver function. Other important benefits that are related to consumption of neem tea are: treating pneumonia, treating diabetes, treating hypertension and heart diseases. Also, neem tea doesn’t have to be used only as a beverage. Because of its anti-parasitic use, you can bathe in it. This way, the tea acts as an antiseptic, killing the parasites. Neem Tea Side Effects While we can say that neem tea has plenty of important health benefits, don’t forget that there are a few side effects, as well. First of all, neem oil can be incredibly toxic for infants. Even a small amount of neem oil can cause death. Check to see if the neem tea you drink has neem oil among its ingredients. Or, just to be on the safe side, don’t give infants neem tea to drink. You shouldn’t drink neem tea if you have a history of stomach, liver or kidney problems. Some of its active ingredients can cause you harm in this case. Although rare, neem tea can also lead to allergic reactions. Symptoms in this case include difficulty in breathing, rashes, itching, or swelling of the throat or mouth. If you get any of these, stop drinking neem teaand contact your doctor. Drinking neem tea is a big no if you’re trying to conceive, or you’re already pregnant. In the first case, neem tea can work as a contraceptive, therefore lessening the chances of you getting pregnant. In the second case, consumption of neem tea can lead to miscarriages. Also, don’t drink more than six cups of neem teaa day - or any other type of tea. It won’t do you well, despite its many health benefits. Some of the symptoms you might get are: headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. If you get any of these symptoms, reduce the amount of neem tea you drink. As a herbal tea, neem tea is definitely good for your health. Still, despite its many health benefits, there are a few side effects as well. Keep them both in mind when drinking neem tea.... Beneficial Teas

PLEURISY ROOT TEA - TEA OF THE INDIGENOUS INDIANS

Beneficial Teas

Pleurisy root tea is an aromatic herbal tea which you are bound to enjoy. The indigenous Indians used to drink it a lot, especially thanks to its health benefits. About Pleurisy Root Tea Pleurisy root tea is made from the roots of the pleurisy plant, also known as the butterfly weed. The plant grows in North America. It can grow up to 1m tall, with multiple stems and spirally-arranged, spear-pointed leaves that are 5-12cm long. Clusters of orange or yellow flowers bloom during summertime, attracting butterflies, insects and birds. The plant can be found growing on dry, open fields, under direct sunlight. How to prepare Pleurisy Root Tea If you want to enjoy a cup of pleurisy root tea, add a teaspoon of dried, chopped roots to a cup of freshly boiled water. Let it steep for 10-15 minutes before straining it to remove the herbs. Sweeten it with honey or fruit juice, if necessary. Pleurisy Root Tea Benefits Pleurisy root contains various active constituents, such as glycosides, resins, amino acids, volatile oil, glucosidal principal, lupeol, and alkaloids. They are transferred to the pleurisy root tea, as well. Because if this, the tea has lots of important health benefits. Pleurisy root tea is often included in treatments for various respiratory ailments and pulmonary infections, for example pleurisy, asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia. It helps alleviate pain and congestion by reducing the mucus thickness in the lungs and enabling the patient to expel the blockage. Drinking pleurisy root tea helps both with fevers and detoxification, as it stimulates sweating and perspiration. It is also useful as an herbal treatment for colds and influenza. You can also drink pleurisy root tea if you’ve got problems with diarrhea, dysentery, chronic rheumatism, colic, muscle tension and spasm. Pleurisy root tea can also be used topically. You can soak a clean cloth with the tea and use it to treat swellings, bruises, lameness, wounds and skin ulcers. Pleurisy Root Tea Side Effects If you’re pregnant, you shouldn’t drink pleurisy root tea. It may cause uterine contractions, which could lead to miscarriages. Also, it is safer not to drink this tea if you’re breast feeding. Children shouldn’t drink pleurisy root tea either, because of the small amount of cardiac glycosides. You should be careful with the amount of pleurisy root tea you drink if you’ve got cardiovascular problems or you’re taking cardiac glycosides. Also, if you’re taking any other medication, check with your doctor if it’s safe to drink pleurisy root tea. Don’t drink more than 3-4 cups of pleurisy root tea a day. If you drink too much, it might lead to symptoms such as intestinal cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Pleurisy root tea is ideal for an everyday beverage. It has many health benefits and only a few side effects. Once you try it, you’ll surely enjoy it!... Beneficial Teas

SIMVASTATIN

Medical Dictionary

One of the STATINS – a group of LIPID-lowering drugs which are e?ective – in combination with a low CHOLESTEROL diet – in reducing the incidence of heart attacks (see HEART, DISEASES OF – Coronary thrombosis).... Medical Dictionary

WEST INDIAN

Tropical Medicinal Plants

MEDLAR

Mimusops elengi

Sapotaceae

San: Bakulah

Hin: Bakul, Maulsiri

Ben: Bakul

Mal: Ilanji, Elanji

Tam: Magilam, Ilanci

Tel: Pogada

Kan: Pagademara Guj:

Barsoli, Bolsari

Importance: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweet- scented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are ever in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its bark is used as a gargle for odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth brushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for preparing suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter into the composition of various herbal tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradanti”, where they may be used along with tannin-containing substances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) bark, etc. The bark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied by pains in various parts of the body. The flowers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unripe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teeth for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the bark is used for the diseases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989).

Distribution: It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India.

Botany: Mimusops elengi Linn. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured bark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are oblong, glabrous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, solitary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid berries. Seeds are 1-2 per fruit, ovoid, compressed, greyish brown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other important species belonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Roxb. and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Dub.(Chopra et al, 1980).

Agrotechnology: Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated by seeds. Fruits are formed in October-November. Seeds are to be collected and dried. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 12 hours without much delay and sown on seedbeds. Viability of seeds is less. After germination they are to be transferred to polybags. Pits of size 45cm cube are to be taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, about 4 months old seedlings from the polybags are to be transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is beneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are the economic parts.

Properties and activity: -sitosterol and its glucoside, -spina-sterol, quercitol, taraxerol and lupeol and its acetate are present in the aerial parts as well as the roots and seeds. The aerial parts in addition gave quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, hederagenin, ursolic acid, hentriacontane and -carotene. The bark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a base with a mass spectrum identical to those of laburinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave -amyrin and brassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids.

Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg body weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and febrifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snakebite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

WEST INDIAN MEDLAR

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Mimusops elengi

Sapotaceae

San: Bakulah

Hin: Bakul, Maulsiri

Ben: Bakul

Mal: Ilanji, Elanji

Tam: Magilam, Ilanci

Tel: Pogada

Kan: Pagademara

Guj: Barsoli, Bolsari

Importance: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweet- scented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are ever in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its bark is used as a gargle for odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth brushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for preparing suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter into the composition of various herbal tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradanti”, where they may be used along with tannin-containing substances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) bark, etc. The bark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied by pains in various parts of the body. The flowers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unripe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teeth for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the bark is used for the diseases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989).

Distribution: It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India.

Botany: Mimusops elengi Linn. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured bark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are oblong, glabrous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, solitary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid berries. Seeds are 1-2 per fruit, ovoid, compressed, greyish brown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other important species belonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Roxb. and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Dub.(Chopra et al, 1980).

Agrotechnology: Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated by seeds. Fruits are formed in October-November. Seeds are to be collected and dried. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 12 hours without much delay and sown on seedbeds. Viability of seeds is less. After germination they are to be transferred to polybags. Pits of size 45cm cube are to be taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, about 4 months old seedlings from the polybags are to be transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is beneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are the economic parts.

Properties and activity: -sitosterol and its glucoside, -spina-sterol, quercitol, taraxerol and lupeol and its acetate are present in the aerial parts as well as the roots and seeds. The aerial parts in addition gave quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, hederagenin, ursolic acid, hentriacontane and -carotene. The bark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a base with a mass spectrum identical to those of laburinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave -amyrin and brassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids.

Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg body weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and febrifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snakebite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992).... Tropical Medicinal Plants