Cardiac catheters are introduced through a vein in the arm and passed into the heart in order to diagnose some of the more obscure forms of congenital heart disease, and often as a preliminary to operating on the heart.... Medical Dictionary
Dislocations, like fractures (see BONE, DISORDERS OF), are divided into simple and compound, the bone in the latter case being forced through the skin. This seldom occurs, since the round head of the bone has not the same power to wound as the sharp end of a broken bone. Dislocations are also divided according to whether they are (1) congenital, i.e. present at birth in consequence of some malformation, or (2) acquired at a later period in consequence of injury, the great majority falling into the latter class. The reduction of a dislocated joint is a skilled procedure and should be done by an appropriately trained professional.... Medical Dictionary
Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.
Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.
Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.
Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.
Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)
Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.
It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... Medical Dictionary
the HEALTH DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (HDA) (see also APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary
Humidity is expressed as relative humidity (RH). This is the amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible at that temperature. If the temperature of a room is raised without increasing the moisture content, the RH falls. The average outdoor RH in Britain is around 70–80 per cent; with central heating it may drop to 25 per cent or lower. This is why humidi?cation, as it is known, of the air is essential in buildings heated by modern heating systems. The aim should be to keep the RH at around 30–50 per cent. In houses this may be achieved quite satisfactorily by having a jug or basin of water in the room, or some receptacle that can be attached to the heater. In o?ces, some more elaborate form of humidi?er is necessary. Those su?ering from chronic BRONCHITIS are particularly susceptible to dry air, as are those individuals with disorders of the EYE because the secretions that bathe the eyes and keep them moist are unnaturally dried out. (See also VENTILATION.)... Medical Dictionary
– usually the result of neurological disorder a?ecting the bladder (neuropathic bladder). (See URINARY BLADDER, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary
A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.
Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.
Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.
Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.
Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments
(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.
The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.
Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be a?ecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.
Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries a?ected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are su?ering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... Medical Dictionary
Sex education in schools is regarded as an e?ective way of reducing teenaged pregnancy, especially when linked with contraceptive services. Several studies have shown that it does not cause an increase in sexual activity and may even delay the onset of sexual relationships and lessen the number of partners. Programmes taught by youth agencies may be even more e?ective than those taught in the classroom – possibly because teaching takes place in small groups of volunteer participants, and the programmes are tailored to their target populations. Despite improvements in sex education, the United Kingdom has the highest incidence of teenaged pregnancies in the European Community.
Sex education, including information about AIDS/HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is compulsory in all state-maintained secondary schools in England and Wales. The National Curriculum includes only biological aspects of AIDS/HIV, STIs and human sexual behaviour.
All maintained schools must have a written statement of their policy, which is available to parents. The local education authority, governing body and headteacher should ensure that sex education encourages pupils to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life. Sex-education policies and practices are monitored by the O?ce for Standards in Education (OFSTED) and the O?ce of HM Chief Inspector of Schools (OHMCI) as part of school inspections.... Medical Dictionary
Family: Combretaceae.Habitat: Cultivated throughout hotter parts of India, also in the Andamans.English: Indian Almond, Tropical Almond.Siddha/Tamil: Natuvadom.Folk: Jangali Baadaam, Desi Baadaam.Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, mild diuretic. Leaf— antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Oil from kernel—substitute for almond oil; contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Fresh kernels resemble almonds; contain fat 52.02, protein 25.42, sugars as glucose 5.98%. Leaf—sudorific; applied to rheumatic joints. Ointment made from juice—used in scabies and other cutaneous affections.The husk and endocarp contain tannins and pentosans. The heartwood and stembark contain beta-sitosterol and its palmitate. The heartwood, in addition, contain terminolic acid and triterpenic methyl esters.... Indian Medicinal Plants