Keywords of this word: Cat


ABRUS PRECATORIUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country, ascending to an altitude of about 1,050 m in the outer Himalayas.

English: Indian Wild Liquorice, Jequirity, Crab's Eye, Precatory Bean.

Ayurvedic: Gunjaa, Gunjaka, Chirihintikaa, Raktikaa, Chirmi- ti, Kakanti, Kabjaka, Tiktikaa, Kaakananti, Kaakchinchi. (Not to be used as a substitute for liquorice.)

Unani: Ghunghchi, Ghamchi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kunri.

Folk: Chirmiti, Ratti.

Action: Uterine stimulant, abortifa- cient, toxic. Seeds—teratogenic. A paste of seeds is applied on vitiligo patches.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India has indicated the use of seeds in baldness.

Seeds contain abrin, a toxalbumin, indole derivatives, anthocyanins, ste- rols, terpenes. Abrin causes agglutination of erythrocytes, haemolysis and enlargement of lymph glands. A non- toxic dose of abrin (1.25 mcg/kg body weight), isolated from the seeds of red var., exhibited a noticeable increase in antibody-forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase-positive bone marrow cells.

Oral administration of agglutinins, isolated from the seeds, is useful in the treatment of hepatitis and AIDS.

The seed extract exhibited antischis- tosomal activity in male hamsters.

The methanolic extract of seeds inhibited the motility of human spermatozoa.

The roots contain precol, abrol, gly- cyrrhizin (1.5%) and alkaloids—abra- sine and precasine. The roots also contain triterpenoids—abruslactone A, methyl abrusgenate and abrusgenic acid.

Alkaloids/bases present in the roots are also present in leaves and stems.

A. fruticulosus Wall. Ex Wight and Arn. synonym A. pulchellus Wall., A. laevigatus E. May. (Shveta Gunjaa) is also used for the same medicinal purposes as A. precatorius.

Dosage: Detoxified seed—1-3 g powder. Root powder—3-6 g. (API Vols. I, II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ACACIA CATECHU

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn. f.) Willd.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Drier regions of India, particularly Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.

English: Cutch tree, Catechu.

Ayurvedic: Khadira, Kadara, Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan, Kantaki, Raktasaara (heartwood extract).

Unani: Khair, Kaat, Katthaa (heartwood extract).

Siddha/Tamil: Karunkaali (bark), Kalippakku, Kadiram. Katthakkaambu, Kaasukkatti (heartwood extract).

Action: Cutch from wood— powerful astringent (in urinary and vaginal discharge), antidiarrhoeal, haemostatic; used for treating excessive mucous discharges, haemorrhages, relaxed conditions of gums, throat and mouth, stomatitis, irritable bowel; also used as an antileprotic drug.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried pieces of heartwood in inflammations, skin diseases and urinary disorders, recommends its use as a blood purifier, in diseases caused by lipid disorders.

Cutch (the concentrated extract) contains tannins 2-20%, catechin 2533%, phlobatannins including cate- chutannic acid 20-50%; flavonoids including quercetin, quercitrin, fisetin; gums, resins, pigments. The gum from A. catechu is a good substitute for Gum arabic.

Seed extract—hypoglycaemic to normal albino rats, but not effective in diabetic rats. The saline extract of seeds shows leuco-agglutinating activity against leukaemic cells. It agglutinates white cells from patients with different types of leukaemia. The activity is inhibited by simple sugars. Root extract shows antibacterial and fungi- cidal activity.

The heartwood contains a hepato- protective principle—cyanidanol.

Astringent and antibacterial properties of catechu result from its high tannin content.

Gambrine in pale catechu shows hy- potensive effects.

Fisetin in black catechu and (+)- catechin in black and pale catechu may protect against liver damage; (+)- catechin is also thought to protect against experimentally induced ulcers in animals; (+)-catechin (cianidanol) is associated with fatal anaemia. Methyl- catechin, one of the major metabolites of (+)-catechin, inhibits the binding of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells; thus, the catechin found in catechu may reduce atherosclerosis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Heartwood—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ACONITUM SPICATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Stapf.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The alpine zone of the Himalayas of Sikkim and Chumbi. Principal source of Bikh or Bish of Kolkata market. English: Nepal Aconite. Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Action: Antipyretic, analgesic.

The roots yield 1.75% of alkaloids which contain mainly pseudoaconitine and bikhaconitine.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ACTAEA SPICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: A. acuminata Wall. ex Royle

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; grows in temperate Himalayas from Hazara to Bhutan.

English: Baneberry Grapewort.

Folk: Visha-phale (Kannada).

Action: Root—antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, nerve sedative, emetic, purgative; used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, lumbago, scrofula, nervous disorders, chorea.

The plant is reported to contain trans-aconitic acid, which shows a strong cytostatic action. Its Me ether is active against Ehrlich's ascites tumours.

In folk medicine, roots are used in cases of ovarian neuralgia, uterine tenderness and sub-involution. They are adulterant of the roots of Helleborus niger. Berries are poisonous; used topically for skin diseases. The toxic constituent is protoanemonin (lactone). It is irritant to mucous membrane.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ADVOCATE

Community Health

1 A person who acts on behalf of another, usually for a cause or plea. 2 To support or suggest an idea, development or way of doing something.... Community Health

AGUACATE

Medicinal Plants

Avocado (Persea americana).

Plant Part Used: Leaves, seed, fruit.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The leaves are traditionally prepared as an infusion and taken orally for diabetes, diarrhea, inducing abortion, intestinal worms, menstrual cramps, parasites and vaginal infections, and the seed decoction is taken for contraception. The fruit is typically used for nutritional and culinary purposes.

Safety: No data on the safety of the leaf or the seed in humans has been identified in the available literature; animal toxicity studies have shown equivocal results. The fruit is commonly consumed as food and generally regarded as safe.

Contraindications: Oral use of the leaves is contraindicated during pregnancy (due to emmenagogue and uterine muscle stimulating effects) and lactation (due to potential for harmful effects based on case reports in goats). No information on the safety of the leaves in children has been identified in the available literature.

Drug Interactions: Warfarin: fruit may inhibit anticoagulant effect. Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI): one case of hypertension crisis has been reported due to concomitant ingestion of the fruit and MAOI.

Clinical Data: The following effects of this plant have been investigated in human clinical trials: fruit: cholesterol and lipid-lowering, treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and triglyceride-lowering; avocado/soybean unsaponifiables: treatment of osteoarthritis; and oil: treatment of plaque psoriasis.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: The following biological activities of this plant have been investigated in laboratory and preclinical studies (in vitro or animal models): analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihemorrhage, hepatoprotective, immuno-modulating, uterine muscle stimulant, trypanocidal, uterine stimulant and vasorelaxant.

* See entry for Aguacate in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

ALLEMANDA CATHARTICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America and Brazil. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Golden Trumpet.

Folk: Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—cathartic (in moderate doses; emetic in large doses). Bark—hydragogue, in ascites.

The purgative property of the aqueous extract of leaves was confirmed pharmacologically in rats. The extract also showed antifungal activity against ringworm causing fungi. Flower extract inhibits fungal growth.

EtOH extract of roots showed in- vivo activity against P-388 leukaemia in mouse and in vitro against human carcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB). The root contains antileukaemic iri- doid lactone, allamandin and two other iridoids, allamandicin and allamdin.

The stems and leaves contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Petals gave flavonoids—kaem- pferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ALLOCATIVE TOOL

Community Health

A means by which resources are allocated, which may be used in a number of ways. For example, an allocative tool may be a health policy in which there is a direct provision of income, services, or goods to groups of individuals who usually reap benefits in receiving them.... Community Health

AMBERBOA DIVARICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Kuntze

Synonym: Volutarella divaricata Benth. and Hook. F.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Distributed in the Mediterranean region, extending to Central Asia and India.

Ayurvedic: Brahmadandi (Tri- cholepis glaberrima DC. of the same family is also equated with Brahmadandi.)

Unani: Baadaavard.

Action: Deobstruent, aperient, febrifuge, nervine (used in debility), antiseptic (used in leucoderma).... Indian Medicinal Plants

ANDROPOGON MURICATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Retz.

Synonym: Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: All over India.

English: Vetiver, Cuscus.

Ayurvedic: Ushira.

Unani: Khas.

Siddha: Vettiveru.

Action: Roots—refrigerant, febrifuge, diaphoretic, stimulant, stomachic and emmenagogue; used in strangury, colic, flatulence, obstinate vomiting; paste used as a cooling application in fevers.

Major constituents of the essential oil are vetiselinenol and khusimol. Several sesquiterpenoids, including vetid- iol, are also present. The two types of oils, laevorotatory and dextrorotatory, from northern India and southern India, respectively, are biochemically different.

Andropogon sp.: see Cymbopogon sp.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ARECA CATECHU

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia; now grown along the coasts of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam and Maharashtra.

English: Arecanut, Betel Nut.

Ayurvedic: Puuga, Puugi, Kramuka, Ghontaa, Guwaak, Ghorant.

Unani: Fufal, Chhaalia, Supaari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kottai Paakku, Kamugu.

Action: Taeniacide (confined to veterinary medicine), astringent, stimulant.

Along with other therapeutic application, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried ripe seed in leucorrhoea and vaginal laxity.

Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to pyridine group, the most important being arecoline (0.1-0.5%). Arecaidine, guvacine and isoguvacine are also present. Arecoline is an- thelmintic (in animals, not in humans). Arecaidine has no parasympa- thomimetic effects, but only stimulating properties; sedative in higher doses. Isoguvacine produces hypotension.

Contraindicated in asthma due to bronchoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid arecoline (human case reports). (Francis Brinker.)

Arecanut tannins (8.0-18.0%) are predominantly catechol tannins which closely resemble Mimosa bark tannins. Powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhoea and urinary disorders. In combination with other astringent and styptic herbs, arecanut is used as a major constituent in confections of Indian medicine for gynaecological disorders.

Aqueous extract of the nut exhibits direct vasoconstriction and adrenaline potentiation in rats. Antimicrobial activity is due to polyphenolic fraction. Tannins potentiated the action of acetylcholine in ileum and uterus of rat and noradrenaline on seminal vesicle at low concentration.

Due to increased incidence of oral cancer associated with betel chewing, the use of arecanut as a masticatory is being discouraged.

Seeds are toxic at 8-10 g, fluid extract at 3.7 ml; and arecoline hydrobromide at 4.3-6.5 mg. (Francis Brinker.)

Dosage: Dried ripe fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

AUTOINTOXICATION

Medical Dictionary

Literally means ‘self-poisoning’. Any condition of poisoning brought about by substances formed in or by the body.... Medical Dictionary

BIFURCATION

Medical Dictionary

The point at which a structure (for example, a blood vessel) divides into two branches.... Medical Dictionary

CALCIFICATION

Medical Dictionary

The deposition of CALCIUM salts in body tissues, normally BONE and TEETH, though abnormal deposits can occur in damaged muscles or the walls of arteries.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC CATHETERISATION

Medical Dictionary

A diagnostic procedure in which a tube is inserted into a blood vessel under local anaesthetic and threaded through to the chambers of the heart to monitor blood ?ow, blood pressure, blood chemistry and the output of the heart, and to take a sample of heart tissue. The technique is used to diagnose congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease. Another application is in the diagnosis and treatment of valvular disease in the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CAT-SCRATCH FEVER

Medical Dictionary

An infection in humans caused by a small gram-negative BACILLUS (Bartonella henselae). The domestic cat is a reservoir for the bacteria, and up to 50 per cent of the cat population may be a?ected. The disorder manifests itself as a skin lesion 3–10 days after a minor scratch; within two weeks the victim’s lymph glands enlarge and may produce pus. Fever, headache and malaise occur in some patients. Antibiotics do not seem to be e?ective. The skin lesion and lymph-gland enlargement subside spontaneously within 2–5 months.... Medical Dictionary

CATABOLIC

Herbal Medical

The part of metabolism that deals with destruction or simplification of more complex compounds. Catabolism mostly results in the release of energy. Examples: the release of glucose by the liver, the combustion of glucose by cells.... Herbal Medical

CATABOLISM

Medical Dictionary

The breakdown by the body of complex substances to form simpler ones, a process that is accompanied by the release of energy. Among the substances catabolised are nutrients, such as CARBOHYDRATE and PROTEIN in food, and in storage in the body – for example, GLYCOGEN.... Medical Dictionary

CATALEPSY

Medical Dictionary

A physical condition in which part or all of the body becomes rigid. It is characterised by the adoption of strange – often statue-like – poses (CATATONIA), which may pass o? within a few minutes or may last for several hours (rarely, days). Typically brought on by a sudden mental trauma, catalepsy may occur with prolonged depression or some other serious MENTAL ILLNESS, and occasionally with EPILEPSY. Successful treatment must depend upon due recognition of all precipitating factors and circumstances.... Medical Dictionary

CATAPLASMA

Medicinal Plants

Poultice; an external application of herbs (either mashed up fresh or boiled and then cooled before applying to the affected area); often used for skin conditions or muscle pain.... Medicinal Plants

CATAPLEXY

Medical Dictionary

A condition marked by abrupt attacks of muscular weakness... Medical Dictionary

CATAPLEXY

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cataplexy is a condition in which the patient has a sudden attack of muscular weakness a?ecting the whole body. (See also NARCOLEPSY.)... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CATARACT

Medical Dictionary

Opacity in the crystalline lens of the eye which may be partial or complete... Medical Dictionary

CATARACT

Medicinal Plants Glossary

An opacity of the lens su?cient to cause visual impairment (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CATARRH

Medical Dictionary

A condition in which the mucous membranes of the nose and breathing passages are inflamed, often chronically... Medical Dictionary

CATARRH

Herbal Medical

Inflamed mucous membranes, an older term that usually implied excess secretions, particularly with congestion.... Herbal Medical

CATARRH

Medicinal Plants Glossary

In?ammation of the mucous membranes, particularly those of the air passages, associated with a copious secretion of mucus. Commonly the result of infection or local allergy, catarrh can a?ect the nose, middle ear and sinuses.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CATASTROPHIC HEALTH INSURANCE

Community Health

Health insurance which provides protection against the high cost of treating severe or lengthy illnesses or disabilities. Generally such policies cover all, or a specified percentage of medical expenses above an amount that is the responsibility of another insurance policy, up to a maximum limit of liability.... Community Health

CATATONIA

Medical Dictionary

A condition in which an individual takes up odd postures, often accompanied by muteness or semi-coma. The arms and legs may be moved passively by someone else into positions that the su?erer then holds for many hours. Catatonia occurs in SCHIZOPHRENIA. It may also be associated with organic brain disease such as encephalitis lethargica (see ENCEPHALITIS), tumours and carbon monoxide intoxication.... Medical Dictionary

CATAVA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) One who is uncorrupted Catavah... Medical Dictionary

CATCHMENT AREA

Community Health

A geographic area defined and served by a health programme or institution, such as a hospital or community health centre, which is delineated on the basis of such factors as population distribution, natural geographic boundaries, and transportation accessibility. By definition, all residents of the area needing the services of the programme are usually eligible for them, although eligibility may also depend on additional criteria.... Community Health

CATECHOLAMINES

Medical Dictionary

Hormones released by the body under any stressful reaction, or after envenomation (eg Irukandji), that affect the circulatory system, often increasing heart rate and blood pressure.... Medical Dictionary

CATECHOLAMINES

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Substances produced in the body from the dietary AMINO ACIDS, PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. They include ADRENALINE, NORADRENALINE and DOPAMINE which have varying functions, usually as NEUROTRANSMITTERS, in the sympathetic and central nervous systems (see under NERVOUS SYSTEM). Their chemical structure is based on a benzene ring with hydroxyl and amine side-chains.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CATECHU

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Acacia catechu

Mimosaceae

San:Khadirah;

Hin:Khair, Khaira;

Ben: Kuth;

Mal: Karingali;

Tam: Karunkali;

Tel: Sandra, Khandiramu;

Kan: Kaggali

Importance: Catechu is a medium deciduous tree commonly used as a blood purifier and for leoprosy and leucoderma. Catechu or Cutch tree bark is useful in melancholia, conjunctivitis and haemoptysis. It is useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, catarrh, cough, pruritus, leprosy, leucoderma, skin diseases, helminthiasis, anorexia, diarrhoea, dysentery, foul ulcers and wounds, haemoptysis, haematemesis, haemorrhages, intermittent fever, inflammations, odontopathy, anaemia, diabetes, splenomegaly and pharyngodyna. The gummy extract of the wood (kath) is useful in laryngopathy, flatulence, anorexia, ulcers, wounds, helminthiasis, leucoderma, leoprosy, skin diseases, urorrhea, colporrhagia, erysipelas and odontopathy. For leprosy, root, leaf, flower, bark and fruits are made into a decoction which is given orally as well as for external dressing. In Unani system it is used in “Marham Kharish Jadid” for skin diseases. “Khadirarisht” is an oral medicine, while “Marham” is for external application.

Distribution:It is widely distributed in tropical countries. In India, it is observed from the Indus eastwards to Assam and throughout Peninsular India.

Botany: The genus Acacia belonging to the family Mimosaceae consists of a number of species. The important ones are listed as below:

A. catechu Willd. A. caesia Willd. A. arabica Willd. A. concinna DC.

A. farnesiana Willd.

A. ferruginea DC.

A. instia W. & A. syn. A. caesia Willd.

A. jacquemontii Benth. A. leucophloea Willd. A. modesta Wall.

A. pinnata (Linn.) Willd.

A. pycnantha Benth.

A. senegal Willd.

A. suma Buch-Ham. syn. A. suma Kurz.

A. catechu is a moderate sized deciduous tree, 9-12m in height with dark greyish or brown rough bark and hooked short spines. Leaves are bipinnately compound, leaflets 30-50 pairs, main rachis pubescent with a large conspicuous gland near the middle of the rachis. Flowers are pale yellow, sessile in peduncled axiallary spikes. Fruits are flat brown pods, shiny and with a triangular beak at the apex and narrowed at the base. Seeds are 3-10 per pod.

The gummy extract of the wood is commercially known as ‘ Kath’ or ‘Cutch’. The cutch available in the market is brittle, of different shapes and dark brown in colour. On breaking, it is found to be shiny and form crystal like pieces (Warrier et al, 1993).

Agrotechnology: Catechu is suited to hilly areas and rocky places. The plant is propagated by seeds.

Seeds are soaked in water for 6 hours and sown in seedbeds. Seeds germinate within a month. At four-leaf stage, seedlings are planted in polybags. Two months old seedlings from the polybags are used for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cube are taken at a distance of 4-5m between plants and filled with topsoil, sand and dried cowdung in 1:1:1 ratio. Seedlings are planted in these pits. Application of organic manure every year during the rainy season is beneficial. Regular weeding is to be carried out. Pruning of branches and tender shoots developing from the base of the plant can be done from second year onwards. Tree is to be grown as single stemmed one. Flowering and fruiting commences from fourth year onwards. At the end of tenth year, the tree can be cut and heartwood collected (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and Activity: Heartwood contains kaempferol, dihydro kaempferol, taxifolin, iso rhamnetin(+)- afzelchin, a dimeric procyanidin, quercetin, (-)epi-catechin, (-)catechin, fisetin, quercetagetin and (+)-cyanidanol. The main constituent of heartwood is catechin and catechu tannic acid. Catechin is a mixture of at least four isomers and L(-)epicatechin has been isolated and characterised (Rao et al,1948; Husain et al,1992).

The bark is anthelmintic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory and antileprotic. The flowers are antigonorrhoeic. The cutch from wood is anthelmintic, tonic and aphrodisiac. Bark and cutch are antidiarrhoeal, astringent and stomachic. Cyanidanol is hepatoprotective. The wood is hypoglycaemic, antiinflammatory and hypotensive. The stem is spasmolytic and antiviral (Husain et al, 1992).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

CATGUT

Medical Dictionary

A traditional absorbable SUTURE used in surgery for tying cut arteries and stitching wounds. Consisting of twisted COLLAGEN (from sheep or cattle intestines), catgut is absorbed by phagocytes (see under PHAGOCYTE) over a variable period. There are two types: plain, and chromatised or chromic. Synthetic absorbable sutures cause less reaction, have a predictable absorption period and are more e?ective.... Medical Dictionary

CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

(L.) G. Don.

Synonym: Vinca rosea L. Lochnera rosea (L.) Reichub.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Commonly grown in Indian gardens.

English: Madagascar Periwinkle (Vinca major L. Pich. and Vinca minor Linn. are known as Greater Periwinkle and Lesser Periwinkle respectively).

Folk: Sadaabahaar, Nayantaaraa, Nityakalyaani.

Action: The cytotoxic dimeric alkaloids, present in Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus L. Don, Vincea rosea L., and used for the treatment of certain type of cancer, have not been found in V. major.

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar Periwinkle) : cytostatic, anti-neoplas- tic, slows down growth of cells by su- pressing immune response. Vinblas- tine and Vincristine are said to prolong remission of leukaemia to more than five years. These chemotherapeutic agents are toxic to the nervous system. Vinblastine is also used for breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease.

Vinca major L. Pich. (Greater Periwinkle): astringent, anti-haemorrha- gic; used for menorrhagia and leu- corrhoea. Contains indole alkaloids including reserpinine and serpentine; tannins.

Vinca minor Linn. (Lesser Periwinkle): astringent; circulatory stimulant. Leaves—stomachic and bitter. Root— hypotensive. Used for gastric catarrh, chronic dyspepsia, flatulence; also for headache, dizziness, behaviours disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is given for internal haemorrhages.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CATHARTIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Having the power of cleaning the bowels-purgative... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CATHARTICS

Medical Dictionary

Substances which produce an evacuation of the bowels (see LAXATIVES). The term ‘cathartic’ also means possessing the power to cleanse.... Medical Dictionary

CATHERINE

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who is pure; virginal Catharine, Cathrine, Cathryn, Catherin, Catheryn, Catheryna, Cathi, Cathia, Cathicen, Cathie, Cathlyn, Cathleen, Cathlin, Cathy, Catia, Catlee, Catlin, Catline, Catlyn, Cait, Caitie, Caitlin, Caitlan, Caitir, Cattee, Cat, Caitilin, Caitlyn, Caitlan, Caitland, Caitlinn, Caitlynn, Caitrin, Caitriona, Caitryn, Catalin, Catalina, Catalyn, Catalyna, Catarina, Catarine, Cate, Cateline, Catelyn, Catelyna, Caterina, Cath, Catharina, Catrin, Catrina, Catriona, Catylyn... Medical Dictionary

CATHERISATION

Medical Dictionary

Use of a catheter (see CATHETERS).... Medical Dictionary

CATHETERS

Medical Dictionary

Hollow tubes, usually made of rubber or plastic, used for passing into various organs of the body, either for investigational purposes or to give some form of treatment. They are used under strict sterile conditions.

Cardiac catheters are introduced through a vein in the arm and passed into the heart in order to diagnose some of the more obscure forms of congenital heart disease, and often as a preliminary to operating on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CATHRESHA

Medical Dictionary

(American) One who is pure Cathreshah, Cathreshia, Cathreshiah, Cathreshea, Cathresheah, Cathrisha, Cathrishah, Cathrysha, Cathryshah... Medical Dictionary

CATIMA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) One who is innocent Catimah, Catyma, Catymah, Catiema, Catiemah, Cateima, Cateimah, Cateema, Cateemah, Cateama, Cateamah... Medical Dictionary

CATNEP

Herbal Manual

Nepeta cataria. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Catmint, Catnip. Habitat: Hedgerows.

Features ? Square, grey, hairy stem, up to two feet high. Leaves stalked, cordate-ovate, serrate, whitish down beneath. Flowers white, crimson dots, two-lipped, in short, dense spikes. Characteristic mint-like scent.

Part used ? Herbs, leaves.

Action: Carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic.

Especially used for flatulence and digestive pains in children, and for production of perspiration in both children and adults. For diaphoretic

purposes in adults, 2-tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion thrice daily, with a cupful at bedtime; proportionate doses in children's complaints.

American physio-medical practice recommends blood-warm bowel injections of the infusion for babies with intestinal flatulence.... Herbal Manual

CATNIP

Cat Magic, Love, Beauty, Happiness...

CATOSTYLUS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Commonly known as the blubber, Catostylus is a rhizostome jellyfish with no tentacles but which has 8 modified feeding `arms’ armed with nematocysts. Usually causes a very mild sting with slight skin irritation, although more severe stings have been rarely reported.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CATRICE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A wholesome woman Catrise, Catryce, Catryse, Catreece, Catreese, Catriece, Catriese, Catreice, Catreise, Catreace, Catrease... Medical Dictionary

CATTAIL

Medicinal Plants

Typha latifolia

Description: Cattails are grasslike plants with strap-shaped leaves 1 to 5 centimeters wide and growing up to 1.8 meters tall. The male flowers are borne in a dense mass above the female flowers. These last only a short time, leaving the female flowers that develop into the brown cattail. Pollen from the male flowers is often abundant and bright yellow.

Habitat and Distribution: Cattails are found throughout most of the world. Look for them in full sun areas at the margins of lakes, streams, canals, rivers, and brackish water.

Edible Parts: The young tender shoots are edible raw or cooked. The rhizome is often very tough but is a rich source of starch. Pound the rhizome to remove the starch and use as a flour. The pollen is also an exceptional source of starch. When the cattail is immature and still green, you can boil the female portion and eat it like corn on the cob.

Other Uses: The dried leaves are an excellent source of weaving material you can use to make floats and rafts. The cottony seeds make good pillow stuffing and insulation. The fluff makes excellent tinder. Dried cattails are effective insect repellents when burned.... Medicinal Plants

CAT’S CLAW

Medicinal Plants

See Uña de gato.... Medicinal Plants

CERTIFICATION

Community Health

The process by which a government or nongovernmental agency or association evaluates and recognizes an individual, institution or educational programme as meeting predetermined standards. One so recognized is said to be “certified”. It is essentially synonymous with accreditation, except that certification is usually applied to individuals and accreditation to institutions. Certification programmes are generally nongovernmental and do not exclude the uncertified from practice, as do licensure programmes.... Community Health

CHROZOPHORA PLICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Synonym: C. rottleri Klotzsh.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India except Jammu & Kashmir and northeastern India as a weed.

Ayurvedic: Suuryaavart.

Folk: Nilakanthi.

Action: Ash of root—bechic. Leaf— depurative. Seed—cathartic.

Roots contain xanthone glycosides and a chromone glycoside. Seeds gave oil rich in linoleate. The plant contains 9.0% tannin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CICATRIX

Medical Dictionary

Another word for scar.... Medical Dictionary

CICATRIZING

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Promoting the growth... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CLASSIFICATION

Community Health

Assignment to predesignated classes on the basis of perceived common characteristics. A means of giving order to a group of disconnected facts.... Community Health

CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE

Community Health

Arrangement of diseases into groups having common characteristics. Useful in efforts to achieve standardization in the methods of presenting mortality and morbidity data from different sources and, therefore, in comparability. May include a systematic numerical notation for each disease entry. Examples include the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death.... Community Health

CLAUDICATION

Medical Dictionary

A cramp-like pain that occurs in the legs on walking. It may cause the su?erer to limp or, if severe, stop him or her from walking. The usual cause is narrowing or blockage of the arteries in the legs due to ATHEROSCLEROSIS: smoking is a contributary factor. Intermittent claudication occurs when a person has to stop every so often to let the pain – caused by the build-up of waste products in the muscles – to subside. The condition may be improved by exercise, for example, for an hour a day (resting when the pain starts). Pentoxifylline, a vasodilator, may help, as may CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKERS. Patients must avoid all tobacco products.... Medical Dictionary

CONTINUING EDUCATION

Community Health

Formal education obtained by a health professional after completing his/her degree and full-time postgraduate training.... Community Health

CONTRAINDICATION

Community Health

A clinical symptom, circumstance, condition indicating that the use of an otherwise advisable intervention would be inappropriate. A contraindication may be absolute or relative. An absolute contraindication is a situation which makes a particular treatment or procedure absolutely inadvisable. A relative contraindication is a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure somewhat inadvisable, but does not rule it out (for example, X-rays in pregnancy).... Community Health

DEATH CERTIFICATE

Medical Dictionary

A certi?cate required by law to be signed by a medical practitioner stating the main and any contributary causes of a person’s death.... Medical Dictionary

DEFAECATION

Medical Dictionary

Opening the bowels. (See CONSTIPATION; DIARRHOEA.)... Medical Dictionary

DENDROPHTHOE FALCATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Vrkshaadani, Vrkshruuhaa.

Siddha: Pulluri, Plavithil (Tamil).

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Bark—astringent and narcotic; used in menstrual disorders, consumption, asthma, also for treating wounds.

The plant contains several flavo- noids. Being parasitic, different flavo- noids have been recorded in plants growing on different host plants. Quer- citrin has been found to be the major common constituent. The plant also contains gallic, ellagic and chebulinic acids.

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant were tested in rats for their diuretic and anti-lithiatic activities. Alcoholic extract was found to be more effective than aqueous extract.

Dosage: Leaf, flower—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)

Essential oil from leaves—antibacterial, antifungal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction; leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DESICCATING

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Depriving of moisture... Medicinal Plants Glossary

DETOXICATION

Medical Dictionary

Also called detoxi?cation, this is a process whereby toxic agents are removed from the body and toxic e?ects neutralised. (See POISONS and TOXINS.)... Medical Dictionary

DIGERA MURICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Mart.

Synonym: D. arvensis Forsk. Desmochaeta muricata (L.) DC.

Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a weed in cultivated fields.

Ayurvedic: Katthinjara, Kunanjara.

Siddha/Tamil: Thoyya-keerai.

Folk: Lat-mahuriaa, Lahsuvaa.

Action: Astringent, antibilious. Laxative in large doses. Flowers and seeds—diuretic; given for urinary discharges.

The plant contains alpha-and beta- spinasterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DISLOCATIONS

Medical Dictionary

Injuries to joints of such a nature that the ends of the opposed bones are forced more or less out of connection with one another. Besides displacement of the bones, there is bruising of the tissues around them, and tearing of the ligaments which bind the bones together.

Dislocations, like fractures (see BONE, DISORDERS OF), are divided into simple and compound, the bone in the latter case being forced through the skin. This seldom occurs, since the round head of the bone has not the same power to wound as the sharp end of a broken bone. Dislocations are also divided according to whether they are (1) congenital, i.e. present at birth in consequence of some malformation, or (2) acquired at a later period in consequence of injury, the great majority falling into the latter class. The reduction of a dislocated joint is a skilled procedure and should be done by an appropriately trained professional.... Medical Dictionary

DISODIUM CROMOGLYCATE

Medical Dictionary

A drug used in the prophylactic (preventive) treatment of allergic disorders (see ALLERGY), particularly ASTHMA, conjunctivitis (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), nasal allergies, and food allergies – especially in children. Although inappropriate for the treatment of acute attacks of asthma, regular inhalations of the drug can reduce its incidence, and allow the dose of BRONCHODILATORS and oral CORTICOSTEROIDS to be cut.... Medical Dictionary

DOLICHANDRONE FALCATE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Seem.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Moist forests of central and southern India.

Ayurvedic: Mesha-shringi (also equated with Gymnena sylvestre R. Br.), Vishaanikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Varsana, Kaddalatti, Kaliyacca.

Action: Fruits—bitter, carminative, used in diabetes, urinary disorders, bronchitis and skin diseases. Leaves—applied externally to swollen glands. Abortifacient.

The leaves yield luteolin, chrysin and its 7-rutinoside and glucoside.

Fruits are also known as Rshabhaka in the South.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DOLICHOS FALCATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Seem Klein.

Family: Papilionaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Khasi Hills and in Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kulatthikaa.

Action: Root—prescribed for constipation and skin diseases. A decoction of seeds is used for rheumatism.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ECATERINA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) Form of Catherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal” Ecaterinah, Ecateryna, Ecatereena, Ekaterina, Ekateryna, Ekatereena, Ecterine, Ecterina, Ecteryne, Ecteryna... Medical Dictionary

EMBROCATE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

To moisten and rub... Medicinal Plants Glossary

EMBROCATIONS

Medical Dictionary

Embrocations are mixtures, usually of an oily nature, intended for external application in cases of rheumatism, sprains, and other painful conditions. Their action is due mainly to the massage employed in rubbing in the embrocations, in part to the counter-irritant action of the drugs which they contain. (See LINIMENTS.)... Medical Dictionary

ENDOTRACHEAL CATHETERS ARE USED TO PASS

Medical Dictionary

down the TRACHEA into the lungs, usually in the course of administering anaesthetics (see under ANAESTHESIA).

Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.

Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.

Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.

Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.

Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)

Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.

It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... Medical Dictionary

ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Making permanent changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

FABRICATED AND INDUCED ILLNESS

Medical Dictionary

See MUNCHAUSEN’S SYNDROME.... Medical Dictionary

HEALTH COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

Community Health

A communication strategy to inform the public or communities about health issues with the objective of reducing health risks and improving health status.... Community Health

HEALTH EDUCATION

Community Health

Constructed communication of knowledge to improve health literacy and improve skills in order to advance individual and community health.... Community Health

HEALTH EDUCATION

Medical Dictionary

The process of educating the public to adopt a healthy lifestyle and abandon dangerous or unhealthy behaviour. With the rising cost of health care and the increasing amount of illness and injury resulting from preventable causes, health professionals, governments and the World Health Organisation are strongly supporting more and better health education for everyone from schoolchildren to the elderly. Information on all aspects of health education in the United Kingdom can be obtained from

the HEALTH DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (HDA) (see also APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary

HEALTH INDICATOR / INDEX

Community Health

A characteristic of an individual, population or environment which is subjected to measurement and can be used to describe one or more aspects of the health of an individual or population (quality, quantity and time). A health index comprises a number of indicators.... Community Health

HECATE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, a goddess of fertility and witchcraft Hekate... Medical Dictionary

HEDYCHIUM SPICATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Ham. ex Smith.

Synonym: H. album Buch-Ham. Ex Wall.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Central Himalaya at 1,1002,500 m, East India and hills of South India.

English: Spiked Ginger Lily.

Ayurvedic: Shathi, Shati, Gand- hashathi, Gandhapalaashi, Kapu- urkachari, Suvrataa, Gandhaarikaa, Gandhavadhuu, Gandhamuulikaa.

Unani: Kapuurkachari.

Siddha/Tamil: Poolankizangu, Kichilikizangu.

Folk: Ban-haldi (Kumaon).

Action: Rhizome—carminative, spasmolytic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, expectorant, antiasthmatic, emmenagogue, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insect- repellent.

The rhizome shows hypotensive effect in dogs at low doses, lowers blood pressure in high doses.

EtOH (50%) extract—anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic; gave encouraging results in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in clinical studies. Alcoholic extract of the plant—vasodilator, mild hypotensive and antiseptic in animals. Essential oil from rhizome—mild tranquilizer in male albino rats; antimicrobial.

Rhizome gave sitosterol and its glu- coside, a furanoid diterpene—hedy- chenone and 7-hydroxyhedychenone. The essential oil contains cineole, gamma-terpinene, limonene, beta- phellandrene, p-cymene, linalool and beta-terpineol as major constituents.

The oil inhibits the growth of several fungi. The ethanol (95%) extract showed antibacterial activity. The 50% extract showed antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium berghei strain.

Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

HUMIDIFICATION

Medical Dictionary

The air we breathe must be moist for the e?cient working of the lungs (see RESPIRATION). Humidi?cation, or moistening of the air, is achieved largely by the NOSE, which acts as an air-conditioner, warming, moistening and ?ltering the 10,000 litres of air which we inhale daily – in the process of which, incidentally, it produces around 1·5 litres of secretion daily.

Humidity is expressed as relative humidity (RH). This is the amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible at that temperature. If the temperature of a room is raised without increasing the moisture content, the RH falls. The average outdoor RH in Britain is around 70–80 per cent; with central heating it may drop to 25 per cent or lower. This is why humidi?cation, as it is known, of the air is essential in buildings heated by modern heating systems. The aim should be to keep the RH at around 30–50 per cent. In houses this may be achieved quite satisfactorily by having a jug or basin of water in the room, or some receptacle that can be attached to the heater. In o?ces, some more elaborate form of humidi?er is necessary. Those su?ering from chronic BRONCHITIS are particularly susceptible to dry air, as are those individuals with disorders of the EYE because the secretions that bathe the eyes and keep them moist are unnaturally dried out. (See also VENTILATION.)... Medical Dictionary

INDICATION

Community Health

A clinical symptom or circumstance indicating that the use of a particular intervention would be appropriate.... Community Health

INDICATOR

Community Health

A variable, with characteristics of quality, quantity and time, used to measure, directly or indirectly, changes in a situation and to appreciate the progress made in addressing it. It also provides a basis for developing adequate plans for improvement. It is a variable that helps to measure changes in a health situation directly or indirectly and to assess the extent to which the objectives and targets of a programme are being attained.... Community Health

INSTALLATION- QUALIFICATION

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Documented verification that all key aspects of the installation adhere to the appropriate codes and approved design intentions and that manufacturers recommendations are duly considered... Medicinal Plants Glossary

INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION

Medical Dictionary

A condition occurring in middle-aged and elderly people, which is characterised by pain in the legs after walking a certain distance. The pain is relieved by resting for a short time. It is due to arteriosclerosis (see ARTERIES, DISEASES OF) of the arteries to the leg, which results in inadequate blood supply to the muscles. Drugs usually have little e?ect in easing the pain, but useful preventive measures are to stop smoking, reduce weight (if overweight), and to take as much exercise as possible within the limits imposed by the pain.... Medical Dictionary

INTERMITTENT SELF-CATHETERISATION

Medical Dictionary

A technique in which a patient (of either sex) inserts a disposable catheter (see CATHETERS) through the URETHRA into the bladder to empty it of urine. It is increasingly used to manage patients with chronic retention of urine, or whose bladders do not empty properly

– usually the result of neurological disorder a?ecting the bladder (neuropathic bladder). (See URINARY BLADDER, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE (ICD)

Medical Dictionary

A World Health Organisation classi?cation of all known diseases and syndromes. The diseases are divided according to system (respiratory, renal, cardiac, etc.) or type (accidents, malignant growth, etc.). Each of them is given a three-digit number to facilitate computerisation. This classi?cation allows mortality and morbidity rates to be compared nationally and regionally. A revised ICD is published every ten years; a similar classi?cation is being developed for impairments, disabilities and handicaps.... Medical Dictionary

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING, DISABILITY AND HEALTH (ICF) A

Community Health

Classification of health and health-related domains that describe body functions and structures, activities and participation. The domains are classified from body, individual and societal perspectives. Since an individual’s functioning and disability occurs in a context, this classification includes a list of environmental factors.... Community Health

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF HEALTH PROBLEMS IN PRIMARY CARE (ICHPPC)

Community Health

A classification of diseases, conditions and other reasons for attendance for primary care. This classification is an adaptation of the ICD but makes allowance for the diagnostic uncertainty that prevails in primary care.... Community Health

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF IMPAIRMENTS, DISABILITIES AND HANDICAPS (ICIDH)

Community Health

A systematic taxonomy of the consequences of injury and disease. See “disability”; “handicap”; “impairment”.... Community Health

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF PRIMARY CARE (ICPC)

Community Health

The official classification of the World Organisation of Family Doctors. It includes three elements of the doctor-patient encounter: the reason for the encounter; the diagnosis; and the treatment or other action or intervention.... Community Health

INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES AND RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS, TENTH REVISION (ICD-10)

Community Health

A list of diagnoses and identifying codes used by medical practitioners and other health care providers. The coding and terminology provide a uniform language that permits consistent communication on claim forms. Data from earlier time periods were coded using the appropriate revision of the ICD for that time period. Changes in classification of causes of death in successive revisions of the ICD may introduce discontinuities in cause of death statistics over time.... Community Health

INTOXICATION

Medicinal Plants Glossary

General condition which results following the absorption and diffusion in the body of a soluble poison... Medicinal Plants Glossary

INTOXICATION

Medical Dictionary

A term applied to states of poisoning. The poison may be some chemical substance introduced from outside, for example, ALCOHOL; or it may be due to the products of bacterial action, the bacteria either being introduced from outside or developing within the body. The term autointoxication is applied in the latter case.... Medical Dictionary

IPOMOEA MURICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Jacq., non-Cav.

Synonym: I. turbinata Lag. Convolvulus muricatus Linn.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra and South India.

English: Traveller’s Midnight Lilies.

Ayurvedic: Krishnabija (related species). (Sold as Kaalaadaanaa, seeds of Ipomoea nil.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Talai.

Folk: Michaai.

Action: Purgative, febrifuge. Seeds—cardiac depressant, spasmolytic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal. Plant juice destroys bedbugs.

The seeds contain resin glycosides which are laxative. Lysergol is also present in the seeds. It exhibits hypotensive, psychotropic, analgesic, and uterus and intestine-stimulating properties. The presence of indole alkaloids is reported in the seed.... Indian Medicinal Plants

LORANTHUS FALCATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a parasite.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Sanharshaa, Vrikshaadani, Vrikshaaruha, Vriksha-bhakshaa. (A large bushy parasite, which causes much damage to the host tree.)

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Tender shoots—contain 10% tannins. Bark—astringent and narcotic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

MAGNESIUM TRISILICATE

Medical Dictionary

A white powder with mild antacid properties (see ANTACIDS) and a prolonged action, it is used for treating peptic ulceration – commonly combined with quickly acting antacids. It has a mild laxative e?ect (see LAXATIVES).... Medical Dictionary

MASTICATION

Medical Dictionary

The act whereby, as a result of movements of the lower jaw, lips, tongue, and cheek, food is reduced to a condition in which it is ready to be acted on by the gastric juices in the process of DIGESTION. Adequate mastication before swallowing is an essential part of the digestive process.... Medical Dictionary

MASTICATORY

Medicinal Plants Glossary

A substance that is chewed to increase the flow of saliva... Medicinal Plants Glossary

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Medical Dictionary

This term is used to de?ne the process of learning and knowledge-acquisition in the study of medicine. It also encompasses the expertise required to develop education and training for students and learners in all aspects of medical health care. Studies for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and individual health-care practitioners, from the initial stages to the ongoing development of a career in medicine or associated health ?elds, are also included in medical education. The word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes applied to this process.

A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.

Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.

Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.

Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.

Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments

(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.

The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.

Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be a?ecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.

Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries a?ected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are su?ering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... Medical Dictionary

MEDICATED

Medical Dictionary

Description of a substance that contains a medicinal drug, commonly applied to items such as sweets and soaps.... Medical Dictionary

MENTHA SPICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. emend. Nathh.

Synonym: M. viridis Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Spearmint, Garden Mint.

Ayurvedic: Pudinaa, Podinaka, Puutihaa, Rochini.

Unani: Nanaa. Pudinaa Kohi.

Action: Carminative, stimulant, antispasmodic, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antiseptic. A tea of dry flowers and leaves is prescribed for tracheobronchitis and hypertension.

The chief constituents of the essential oil are carvone (55-75%) and limonene (up to 21.4%). The herb gave flavonoids, diosmin and diosmetin. Caffeic acid derivatives include ros- marinic acid in the volatile oil.

Dosage: Leaf—5-10 ml juice; 35 ml extract. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

MORTIFICATION

Medical Dictionary

Morti?cation is another name for GANGRENE.... Medical Dictionary

NECATOR AMERICANUS

Medical Dictionary

A hookworm, closely resembling but smaller than the Ancylostoma duodenale. (See ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.)... Medical Dictionary

NEPETA CATARIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Labiatae, Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Britain and the USA. Occurs in Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at 2,000-3,300 m.

English: Catnip, Catnep, Catmint.

Action: Leaves and flowers— gentle nerve relaxant and sedative, carminative, antispasmodic, an- tidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic, febrifuge. Used in restlessness, convulsions, nervous headache, colic, early stages of fever, colds and influenza. The herb is to be infused (not boiled).

Catnip contains iridoids, tannins and volatile oil, major components being alpha- and beta-nepetalactone (up to 42%), citronellol and geraniol.

The catnip response in the domestic cat is being attributed to iridoid lac- tones, nepetalactone, dihydronepeta- lactone, iso-dihydronepetalactone and neonepetalactone. Its reputation as a hallucinogen has been disputed, but a few studies have shown behavioural effects, although weak, in young chicks, rodents and cats. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.)

Neptalactone is structurally related to valepotriates found in valerian. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

OPERATION- QUALIFICATION

Medicinal Plants Glossary

documented verification that the system or sub system performs as intended throughout all anticipated operating ranges... Medicinal Plants Glossary

OSSIFICATION

Medical Dictionary

The formation of BONE. In early life, centres appear in the bones previously represented by cartilage or ?brous tissue; and these cells, called osteoblasts, initiate the formation of true bone, which includes the deposition of calcium salts. When a fracture occurs, the bone mends by ossi?cation of the clot which forms between the fragments (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF). In old age, an unnatural process of ossi?cation often takes place in parts which should remain cartilaginous – for example, in the cartilages of the larynx and of the ribs, making these parts unusually brittle.... Medical Dictionary

PERFORMANCE MEASURE OR INDICATOR

Community Health

Methods or instruments to estimate or monitor the extent to which the actions of an individual practitioner or whole programme conform to practice standards of quality or allow comparisons between services.... Community Health

PERFORMANCE- QUALIFICATION

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Documented verification of the appropriateness of critical process parameters, operating ranges and system reproducibility over an appropriate time period... Medicinal Plants Glossary

PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM (PACS)

Medical Dictionary

The use of digital imaging systems to replace conventional X-ray pictures and other imaging techniques. Though expensive to operate, digital imaging and storage systems o?er promising possibilities for transmission of clinical images within and between hospitals and community health-care units, providing fast access and remote working that will bene?t patients and health-care sta? alike. When security and con?dentiality are assured, images could be transferred via the Internet and teleradiology. In future, hospitals might be able to eliminate the costly physical transfer and storage of X-ray ?lms. The integration of PACS with hospital information systems in the NHS will (hopefully) facilitate the introduction of electronic radiology.... Medical Dictionary

PRE-ADMISSION CERTIFICATION

Community Health

A review of the medical necessity and appropriateness of a person’s admission to a hospital or other health care organization, conducted before, at or shortly after admission and to authorise a length of stay consistent with norms for the evaluation.... Community Health

PREMEDICATION

Medical Dictionary

A drug or drugs given to a patient to produce sedation before an operation, whether this is done under a local or general anaesthetic. A narcotic analgesic drug (see NARCOTICS; ANALGESICS) is usually used, as this relieves pain as well as anxiety. An antisecretory drug is often added to reduce the secretions in the airways and thus lessen the risk associated with general anaesthesia. Premedication reduces the amount of anaesthetic needed to make the patient unconscious.... Medical Dictionary

PUBLICATION BIAS

Community Health

Unrepresentative publication of research reports that is not due to the quality of the research but to other characteristics, e.g. tendencies of investigators to submit, and publishers to accept, positive research reports (i.e. ones with results showing a beneficial treatment effect of a new intervention).... Community Health

REPLICATION

Community Health

Research that attempts to reproduce the findings of previous investigators so as to increase confidence in (or refute) those findings.... Community Health

RESIDENT CLASSIFICATION INSTRUMENT

Community Health

An instrument which assesses recipient’s care needs. It has a number of classification levels, ranging from high to low care. These classification levels are sometimes used for placement, staffing level and reimbursement purposes.... Community Health

SCATTER DIAGRAM

Community Health

A graph in which each dot represents paired values for two continuous variables, with the X axis representing one variable and the Y axis representing the other; used to display the relationship between two variables; also called a scattergram.... Community Health

SEX EDUCATION

Medical Dictionary

Information given to children and young adults about sexual relationships. Evidence suggests that young people want more information about the emotional aspects of sexual relationships, and about homosexuality and AIDS/HIV. There is growing concern about sexual risk-taking behaviour among adolescents, many of whom feel that sex education was provided too late for them. Although most parents or guardians provide some guidance by the age of 16, friends, magazines, television and ?lms are a more signi?cant source of information. Schools have been targeted as a place to address and possibly limit risky behaviour because they are geared towards increasing knowledge and improving skills, and have a captive audience of young adults. There are concerns that the conditions in schools may not be ideal: class time is limited; teachers are often not trained in handling sensitive subjects; and considerable controversy surrounds teaching about subjects such as homosexuality.

Sex education in schools is regarded as an e?ective way of reducing teenaged pregnancy, especially when linked with contraceptive services. Several studies have shown that it does not cause an increase in sexual activity and may even delay the onset of sexual relationships and lessen the number of partners. Programmes taught by youth agencies may be even more e?ective than those taught in the classroom – possibly because teaching takes place in small groups of volunteer participants, and the programmes are tailored to their target populations. Despite improvements in sex education, the United Kingdom has the highest incidence of teenaged pregnancies in the European Community.

Sex education, including information about AIDS/HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is compulsory in all state-maintained secondary schools in England and Wales. The National Curriculum includes only biological aspects of AIDS/HIV, STIs and human sexual behaviour.

All maintained schools must have a written statement of their policy, which is available to parents. The local education authority, governing body and headteacher should ensure that sex education encourages pupils to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life. Sex-education policies and practices are monitored by the O?ce for Standards in Education (OFSTED) and the O?ce of HM Chief Inspector of Schools (OHMCI) as part of school inspections.... Medical Dictionary

SODIUM CROMOGLYCATE

Medical Dictionary

Used in the prophylaxis of ASTHMA, it is administered by inhalation and can reduce the incidence of asthmatic attacks but is of no value in the treatment of an acute attack. It acts by preventing the release of pharmacological mediators of BRONCHOSPASM, particularly HISTAMINE, by stabilising mast-cell membranes. It is of particular use in patients whose asthma has an allergic basis; children over four may respond better than adults. It is less potent than inhaled steroids. The dose frequency is adjusted to the patient’s response but is usually administered by inhalation four times daily. Sodium cromoglycate is also used in the prophylaxis of allergic RHINITIS and to treat allergic conjunctivitis (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

STRATIFICATION

Community Health

The process or result of separating a sample into sub-samples according to specified criteria, such as age or occupational group.... Community Health

SUFFOCATION

Medical Dictionary

See ASPHYXIA; CHOKING.... Medical Dictionary

SWAN-GANZ CATHETER

Medical Dictionary

(See also CATHETERS.) A ?exible tube with a double lumen and a small balloon at its distal end. It is introduced into a vein in the arm and advanced until the end of the catheter is in the right atrium (see HEART). The balloon is then in?ated with air through one lumen and this enables the bloodstream to propel the catheter through the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The balloon is de?ated and the catheter can then record the pulmonary artery pressure. When the balloon is in?ated, the tip is isolated from the pulmonary artery and measures the left atrial pressure. These measurements are important in the management of patients with circulatory failure, as under these circumstances the central venous pressure or the right atrial pressure is an unreliable guide to ?uid-replacement.... Medical Dictionary

TAXUS BACCATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Taxaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Manipur.

English: European Yew. Himalayan Yew is equated with Taxus wal- lichiana Zucc., synonym T. baccata Linn. subspecies wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilgoe, T. baccata Hook. f.

Ayurvedic: Thunera, Sthauneya, Sthauneyaka, Shukapushpa, Dhaatri-patra, Vikarna. (Not a substitute for Taalisapatra.)

Unani: Zarnab.

Siddha/Tamil: Taaleespatri Bhedam.

Folk: Birmi, Thuno.

Action: Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue.

Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. (Chem Abstr, 1994, 21, 124674 j.) (The taxol content in Himalayan Yew varied with season and location from 0.045-0.130%.)

The needles contain diterpene esters of taxane-type (mixture is known as taxine 0.6-2.0%). Taxine consists of 11 compounds of which only tax- ine A and B have been characterized. Taxol, the diterpene amide, is found active against ovarian cancer in humans. (clinical results showed 24-30% response). The ester alkaloids in higher doses are cardiotoxic.

Dried needles contain biflavonoids, including sotetsuflavone, sequoifla- vone, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin, kayafla- vone, amentoflavone, beta-sitosterol, heptacosanol and surcose.

The needles gave several phenolics. Betuloside (rhododendron) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against hepa- totoxins in rats.

The seeds are poisonous and contain taxine.

The aqueous extract of leaves showed a depressant effect on the central nervous system in rats.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia attributed antirheumatic, anticatar- rhal, insecticidal and wound-healing properties to the dried needles of Himalayan Yew and indicated the use of the drug in powder form (1-3 g) in disorders due to vitiated blood, tumours, dermatosis and helminthiasis.

Dosage: Leaf—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.) Leaf, bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

TERMINALIA CATAPPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: T. procera Roxb.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout hotter parts of India, also in the Andamans.

English: Indian Almond, Tropical Almond.

Siddha/Tamil: Natuvadom.

Folk: Jangali Baadaam, Desi Baadaam.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, mild diuretic. Leaf— antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Oil from kernel—substitute for almond oil; contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Fresh kernels resemble almonds; contain fat 52.02, protein 25.42, sugars as glucose 5.98%. Leaf—sudorific; applied to rheumatic joints. Ointment made from juice—used in scabies and other cutaneous affections.

The husk and endocarp contain tannins and pentosans. The heartwood and stembark contain beta-sitosterol and its palmitate. The heartwood, in addition, contain terminolic acid and triterpenic methyl esters.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TNM CLASSIFICATION

Medical Dictionary

A method of classifying cancers to determine how far they have spread. This helps doctors to determine the best course of treatment and the prognosis; it is also useful in research. Originally de?ned by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the T applies to the primary tumour, the N to any lymph-node involvement, and the M to any metastatic spread. (See CANCER; METASTASIS; TUMOUR; LYMPH NODES.)... Medical Dictionary

TRANSLOCATION

Medical Dictionary

The term used to describe an exchange of genetic material between CHROMOSOMES. It is an important factor in the etiology, or causation, of certain congenital abnormalities such as, for example, DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME. It is one of the main abnormalities sought for in AMNIOSCOPY.... Medical Dictionary

TRIGONELLA UNCATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Boiss.

Family: Papilionaceae, Fabaceae.

Habitat: Afghanistan, Persia.

English: Tonkin Bean, Melilot, King's Crown.

Unani: Iklil-ul-Malik (also equated with Melilotus alba Desv., and Astragalus homosus Linn.).

Folk: Sainji (white-flowered var.).

Action: Beans—anti-inflammatory, anodyne, diuretic, emmenagogue. (Indian species, bearing smaller beans, has been equated with Trigonella corniculata and is known as Pirang.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

WAGATEA SPICATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Dalz.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Guchh-karanja.

Siddha: Okkadi-kodi, Pulinakk- agondai.

Folk: Vaakeri (Maharashtra). Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. is also known as Vaakeri.

Action: Roots—used in pneumonia. Bark—used externally in skin diseases.

The root contains vakerin. Vakerin did not inhibit the stimulating effect of histamine and acetylcholine.

Pods contain considerable quantity of tannic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

WATER INTOXICATION

Medical Dictionary

A disorder resulting from excessive retention of water in the brain. Main symptoms are dizziness, headaches, confusion and nausea. In severe cases the patient may have ?ts (see SEIZURE) or lose consciousness. Several conditions can disturb the body’s water balance causing accumulation of water in the tissues. Heart or kidney failure, CIRRHOSIS of the liver and disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS can all result in water retention. Other causes are stress as a result of surgery, when increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSIN) by the adrenal gland may occur. Treatment is of the underlying condition and the judicious use of DIURETICS, with careful monitoring of the body’s ELECTROLYTES.... Medical Dictionary