Ficus Talbotii | Health Dictionary

G. King.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Itthi, Kal Itthi.

Action: Bark—antileprotic (used for ulcers and venereal diseases). Aerial parts exhibit diuretic, spasmolytic, CNS depressant and hypothermic activity.


Ficus Talbotii | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Ficus Talbotii


FICUS

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Ficus spp.

Moraceae

The genus Ficus constitutes an important group of trees with immense medicinal value. It is a sacred tree of Hindus and Buddhists. Among the varied number of species, the most important ones are the four trees that constitute the group “Nalpamaram”, namely, F. racemosa, F. microcarpa, F. benghalensis and F. religiosa (Athi, Ithi, Peral and Arayal respectively).

1. Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Roxb.

Eng: Cluster fig, Country fig

San: Udumbarah, Sadaphalah

Hin: Gular, Umar

Ben: Jagya dumur

Mal, Tam,

Kan: Athi

Tel: Udambaramu, Paidi

Gular fig, Cluster fig or Country fig, which is considered sacred, has golden coloured exudate and black bark. It is distributed all over India. Its roots are useful in treating dysentery. The bark is useful as a wash for wounds, highly efficacious in threatened abortions and recommended in uropathy. Powdered leaves mixed with honey are given in vitiated condition of pitta. A decoction of the leaves is a good wash for wounds and ulcers. Tender fruits (figs) are used in vitiated conditions of pitta, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and haemorrhages. The latex is administered in haemorrhoids and diarrhoea (Warrier et al, 1995). The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling and are used in haemoptysis, thirst and vomiting (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer et al, 1957; Moos, 1976). Nalpamaradi coconut oil, Candanasava, Valiya Arimedastaila, Dinesavalyadi Kuzhambu, Abhrabhasma, Valiya candanaditaila, etc. are some important preparations using the drug (Sivarajan et al, 1994).

It is a moderate to large-sized spreading laticiferous, deciduous tree without many prominent aerial roots. Leaves are dark green and ovate or elliptic. Fruit receptacles are 2-5cm in diameter, sub- globose or pyriform arranged in large clusters on short leafless branches arising from main trunk or large branches. Figs are smooth or rarely covered with minute soft hairs. When ripe, they are orange, dull reddish or dark crimson. They have a pleasant smell resembling that of cedar apples. The bark is rusty brown with a fairly smooth and soft surface, the thickness varying from 0.5-2cm according to the age of the trunk or bark. Surface is with minute separating flakes of white tissue. Texture is homogeneously leathery (Warrier et al, 1995).

Stem-bark gives gluanol acetate, -sitosterol, leucocyanidin-3-O- -D-glucopyrancoside, leucopelargonidin-3-O- -D-glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin -3-O- -L-rhamnopyranoside, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate and -amyrin acetate. Stem- bark is hypoglycaemic and anti-protozoal. Gall is CVS active. Bark is tonic and used in rinder pest diseases of cattle. Root is antidysenteric and antidiabetic. Leaf is antibilious. Latex is antidiarrhoeal and used in piles. Bark and syconium is astringent and used in menorrhagia (Husain et al, 1992).

2. Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. syn. F. retusa auct. Non. Linn.

San: Plaksah; Hin,

Ben: Kamarup;

Mal: Ithi, Ithiyal;

Tam: Kallicci, Icci;

Kan: Itti;

Tel: Plaksa

Plaksah is the Ficus species with few branches and many adventitious roots growing downward. It is widely distributed throughout India and in Sri Lanka, S. China, Ryuku Isles and Britain. Plakasah is one of the five ingredients of the group panchvalkala i.e, five barks, the decoction of which is extensively used to clear ulcers and a douche in leucorrhoea in children. This decoction is administered externally and internally with satisfactory results. Plaksah is acclaimed as cooling, astringent, and curative of raktapitta doshas, ulcers, skin diseases, burning sensation, inflammation and oedema. It is found to have good healing property and is used in preparation of oils and ointments for external application in the treatment of ulcers (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957). The stem-bark is used to prepare Usirasava, Gandhataila, Nalpamaradi taila, Valiya marmagulika, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The bark and leaves are used in wounds, ulcers, bruises, flatulent colic, hepatopathy, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, hyperdipsia, burning sensation, haemaorrhages, erysipelas, dropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, haemoptysis, psychopathy, leucorrhoea and coporrhagia (Warrier et al,1995) F. microcarpa is a large glabrous evergreen tree with few aerial roots. Leaves are short- petioled, 5-10cm long, 2-6cm wide and apex shortly and bluntly apiculate or slightly emarginate. Main lateral nerves are not very prominent and stipules are lanceolate. Fruit receptacles are sessile and globose occurring in axillary pairs. It is yellowish when ripe without any characteristic smell. Bark is dark grey or brown with a smooth surface except for the lenticels. Outer bark is corky and crustaceous thin and firmly adherent to inner tissue. Inner bark is light and flesh coloured with firbrous texture (Warrier et al, 1995). It is also equated with many other species of the genus. viz. F. Singh and Chunekar, 1972; Kapoor and Mitra, 1979; Sharma, 1983).

The bark contains tannin, wax and saponin. Bark is antibilious. Powdered leaves and bark is found very good in rheumatic headache. The bark and leaves are astringent, refrigerant, acrid and stomachic.

3. Ficus benghalensis Linn.

Eng: Banyan tree; San: Nyagrodhah, Vatah;

Hin: Bat, Bargad;

Ben: Bar, Bot; Mar: Vada; Mal: Peral, Vatavriksham;

Tam: Alamaram, Peral;

Kan: Ala;

Tel: Peddamarri;

Guj: Vad

Banyan tree is a laticiferous tree with reddish fruits, which is wound round by aerial adventitious roots that look like many legs. It is found in the Sub-Himalayan tract and Peninsular India. It is also grawn throughout India. It is widely used in treatment of skin diseases with pitta and rakta predominance. Stem-bark, root -bark, aerial roots, leaves, vegetative buds and milky exudate are used in medicine. It improves complexion, cures erysepelas, burning sensation and vaginal disorders, while an infusion of the bark cures dysentery, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders and reduces blood sugar in diabetes. A decoction of the vegetative buds in milk is beneficial in haemorrhages. A paste of the leaves is applied externally to abcesses and wounds to promote suppuration, while that of young aerial roots cure pimples. Young twigs when used as a tooth brush strengthen gum and teeth (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss,1976). The drug forms an important constituent of formulations like Nalpamaradi Coconut oil, Saribadyasava, Kumkumadi taila, Khadi ra gulika, Valiyacandanadi taila, Candanasava, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The aerial roots are useful in obstinate vomiting and leucorrhoea and are used in osteomalacia of the limbs. The buds are useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. The latex is useful in neuralgia, rheumatism, lumbago, bruises, nasitis, ulorrhagia, ulitis, odontopathy, haemorrhoids, gonorrhoea, inflammations, cracks of the sole and skin diseases (Warrier et al, 1995).

It is a very large tree up to 30m in height with widely spreading branches bearing many aerial roots functioning as prop roots. Bark is greenish white. Leaves are simple, alternate, arranged often in clusters at the ends of branches. They are stipulate, 10-20cm long and 5-12.5cm broad, broadly elliptic to ovate, entire, coriaceous, strongly 3-7 ribbed from the base. The fruit receptacles are axillary, sessile, seen in pairs globose, brick red when ripe and enclosing male, female and gall flowers. Fruits are small, crustaceous, achenes, enclosed in the common fleshy receptacles. The young bark is somewhat smooth with longitudinal and transverse row of lenticels. In older bark, the lenticels are numerous and closely spaced; outer bark easily flakes off. The fresh cut surface is pink or flesh coloured and exudes plenty of latex. The inner most part of the bark adjoining the wood is nearly white and fibrous (Warrier et al, 1995).

The bark yields flavanoid compounds A, B and C; A and C are identified as different forms of a leucoanthocyanidin and compound B a leucoanthocyanin. All the 3 were effective as hypoglycaemic agents. Leaves give friedelin, -sitosterol, flavonoids- quercetin-3-galactoside and rutin. Heart wood give tiglic acid ester of taraxasterol. Bark is hypoglycemic, tonic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal and antidiabetic. Latex is antirheumatic. Seed is tonic. Leaf is diaphoretic. Root fibre is antigonorrhoeic. Aerial root is used in debility and anaemic dysentery (Husain et al, 1992).

.4. Ficus religiosa Linn.

Eng:Peepal tree, Sacred fig; San:Pippalah, Asvatthah; Hin:Pippal, Pipli, Pipar; Mal:Arayal

Ben: Asvatha;

Tam: Arasu, Asvattam;

Kan: Aswatha;

Tel: Ravi; Mar: Ashvata, Pimpala

Peepal tree or Sacred fig is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is common throughout India, often planted in the vicinity of the temples. An aqueous extract of the bark has an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis. A paste of the powdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammatory swellings. It is also good for burns. Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommended for wounds and skin diseases. Fruits are laxative and digestive. The dried fruit pulverized and taken in water cures asthma. Seeds are refrigerant and laxative. The latex is good for neuralgia, inflammations and haemorrhages (Warrier et al, 1995). Decoction of the bark if taken in honey subdues vatarakta (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss, 1976; Kurup et al, 1979). The important preparations using the drug are Nalpamaradi taila, Saribadyasava, Candanasava, Karnasulantaka, Valiyamarma gulika etc (Sivarajan et al, 1994). branches bearing long petioled, ovate, cordate shiny leaves. Leaves are bright green, the apex produced into a linear-lanceolate tail about half as long as the main portion of the blade. The receptacles occurring in pairs and are axillary, depressed globose, smooth and purplish when ripe. The bark is grey or ash coloured with thin or membranous flakes and is often covered with crustose lichen patches. The outer bark is not of uniform thickness, the middle bark in sections appear as brownish or light reddish brown. The inner part consists of layers of light yellowish or orange brown granular tissue (Warrier et al, 1995).

Bark gives -sitosterol and its glucoside. Bark is hypoglycaemic. Stem bark is antiprotozoal, anthelmintic and antiviral. Bark is astringent, antigonorrheic, febrifuge, aphrodisiac and antidysenteric. Syconium, leaf and young shoot is purgative (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: Ficus species can be cultivated in rocky areas, unused lands, or other wastelands of the farmyard. The plant is vegetatively propagated by stem cuttings. A few species are also seed propagated. Stem cuttings of pencil thickness taken from the branches are to be kept for rooting. Rooted cuttings are to be transplanted to prepared pits. No regular manuring is required. Irrigation is not a must as a plant is hardy. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Bark can be collected after 15 years. Ficus species generally has an economic life span of more than hundred years. Hence bark can be regularly collected from the tree. Root, bark, leaves, fruits and latex form the economic parts (Prasad et al,1995).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

FICUS

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Ficus spp.

Moraceae

The genus Ficus constitutes an important group of trees with immense medicinal value. It is a sacred tree of Hindus and Buddhists. Among the varied number of species, the most important ones are the four trees that constitute the group “Nalpamaram”, namely, F. racemosa, F. microcarpa, F. benghalensis and F. religiosa (Athi, Ithi, Peral and Arayal respectively).

1. Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Roxb.

Eng: Cluster fig, Country fig

San: Udumbarah, Sadaphalah

Hin: Gular, Umar

Ben: Jagya dumur

Mal, Tam,

Kan: Athi

Tel: Udambaramu, Paidi

Gular fig, Cluster fig or Country fig, which is considered sacred, has golden coloured exudate and black bark. It is distributed all over India. Its roots are useful in treating dysentery. The bark is useful as a wash for wounds, highly efficacious in threatened abortions and recommended in uropathy. Powdered leaves mixed with honey are given in vitiated condition of pitta. A decoction of the leaves is a good wash for wounds and ulcers. Tender fruits (figs) are used in vitiated conditions of pitta, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and haemorrhages. The latex is administered in haemorrhoids and diarrhoea (Warrier et al, 1995). The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling and are used in haemoptysis, thirst and vomiting (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer et al, 1957; Moos, 1976). Nalpamaradi coconut oil, Candanasava, Valiya Arimedastaila, Dinesavalyadi Kuzhambu, Abhrabhasma, Valiya candanaditaila, etc. are some important preparations using the drug (Sivarajan et al, 1994).

It is a moderate to large-sized spreading laticiferous, deciduous tree without many prominent aerial roots. Leaves are dark green and ovate or elliptic. Fruit receptacles are 2-5cm in diameter, sub- globose or pyriform arranged in large clusters on short leafless branches arising from main trunk or large branches. Figs are smooth or rarely covered with minute soft hairs. When ripe, they are orange, dull reddish or dark crimson. They have a pleasant smell resembling that of cedar apples. The bark is rusty brown with a fairly smooth and soft surface, the thickness varying from 0.5-2cm according to the age of the trunk or bark. Surface is with minute separating flakes of white tissue. Texture is homogeneously leathery (Warrier et al, 1995).

Stem-bark gives gluanol acetate, -sitosterol, leucocyanidin-3-O- -D-glucopyrancoside, leucopelargonidin-3-O- -D-glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin -3-O- -L-rhamnopyranoside, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate and -amyrin acetate. Stem- bark is hypoglycaemic and anti-protozoal. Gall is CVS active. Bark is tonic and used in rinder pest diseases of cattle. Root is antidysenteric and antidiabetic. Leaf is antibilious. Latex is antidiarrhoeal and used in piles. Bark and syconium is astringent and used in menorrhagia (Husain et al, 1992).

2. Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. syn. F. retusa auct. Non. Linn.

San: Plaksah;

Hin,

Ben: Kamarup;

Mal: Ithi, Ithiyal;

Tam: Kallicci, Icci;

Kan: Itti;

Tel: Plaksa

Plaksah is the Ficus species with few branches and many adventitious roots growing downward. It is widely distributed throughout India and in Sri Lanka, S. China, Ryuku Isles and Britain. Plakasah is one of the five ingredients of the group panchvalkala i.e, five barks, the decoction of which is extensively used to clear ulcers and a douche in leucorrhoea in children. This decoction is administered externally and internally with satisfactory results. Plaksah is acclaimed as cooling, astringent, and curative of raktapitta doshas, ulcers, skin diseases, burning sensation, inflammation and oedema. It is found to have good healing property and is used in preparation of oils and ointments for external application in the treatment of ulcers (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957). The stem-bark is used to prepare Usirasava, Gandhataila, Nalpamaradi taila, Valiya marmagulika, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The bark and leaves are used in wounds, ulcers, bruises, flatulent colic, hepatopathy, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, hyperdipsia, burning sensation, haemaorrhages, erysipelas, dropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, haemoptysis, psychopathy, leucorrhoea and coporrhagia (Warrier et al,1995) F. microcarpa is a large glabrous evergreen tree with few aerial roots. Leaves are short- petioled, 5-10cm long, 2-6cm wide and apex shortly and bluntly apiculate or slightly emarginate. Main lateral nerves are not very prominent and stipules are lanceolate. Fruit receptacles are sessile and globose occurring in axillary pairs. It is yellowish when ripe without any characteristic smell. Bark is dark grey or brown with a smooth surface except for the lenticels. Outer bark is corky and crustaceous thin and firmly adherent to inner tissue. Inner bark is light and flesh coloured with firbrous texture (Warrier et al, 1995). It is also equated with many other species of the genus. viz. F. Singh and Chunekar, 1972; Kapoor and Mitra, 1979; Sharma, 1983).

The bark contains tannin, wax and saponin. Bark is antibilious. Powdered leaves and bark is found very good in rheumatic headache. The bark and leaves are astringent, refrigerant, acrid and stomachic.

3. Ficus benghalensis Linn.

Eng: Banyan tree; San: Nyagrodhah, Vatah;

Hin: Bat, Bargad;

Ben: Bar, Bot; Mar: Vada; Mal: Peral, Vatavriksham;

Tam: Alamaram, Peral;

Kan: Ala;

Tel: Peddamarri;

Guj: Vad

Banyan tree is a laticiferous tree with reddish fruits, which is wound round by aerial adventitious roots that look like many legs. It is found in the Sub-Himalayan tract and Peninsular India. It is also grawn throughout India. It is widely used in treatment of skin diseases with pitta and rakta predominance. Stem-bark, root -bark, aerial roots, leaves, vegetative buds and milky exudate are used in medicine. It improves complexion, cures erysepelas, burning sensation and vaginal disorders, while an infusion of the bark cures dysentery, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders and reduces blood sugar in diabetes. A decoction of the vegetative buds in milk is beneficial in haemorrhages. A paste of the leaves is applied externally to abcesses and wounds to promote suppuration, while that of young aerial roots cure pimples. Young twigs when used as a tooth brush strengthen gum and teeth (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss,1976). The drug forms an important constituent of formulations like Nalpamaradi Coconut oil, Saribadyasava, Kumkumadi taila, Khadira gulika, Valiyacandanadi taila, Candanasava, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The aerial roots are useful in obstinate vomiting and leucorrhoea and are used in osteomalacia of the limbs. The buds are useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. The latex is useful in neuralgia, rheumatism, lumbago, bruises, nasitis, ulorrhagia, ulitis, odontopathy, haemorrhoids, gonorrhoea, inflammations, cracks of the sole and skin diseases (Warrier et al, 1995).

It is a very large tree up to 30m in height with widely spreading branches bearing many aerial roots functioning as prop roots. Bark is greenish white. Leaves are simple, alternate, arranged often in clusters at the ends of branches. They are stipulate, 10-20cm long and 5-12.5cm broad, broadly elliptic to ovate, entire, coriaceous, strongly 3-7 ribbed from the base. The fruit receptacles are axillary, sessile, seen in pairs globose, brick red when ripe and enclosing male, female and gall flowers. Fruits are small, crustaceous, achenes, enclosed in the common fleshy receptacles. The young bark is somewhat smooth with longitudinal and transverse row of lenticels. In older bark, the lenticels are numerous and closely spaced; outer bark easily flakes off. The fresh cut surface is pink or flesh coloured and exudes plenty of latex. The inner most part of the bark adjoining the wood is nearly white and fibrous (Warrier et al, 1995).

The bark yields flavanoid compounds A, B and C; A and C are identified as different forms of a leucoanthocyanidin and compound B a leucoanthocyanin. All the 3 were effective as hypoglycaemic agents. Leaves give friedelin, -sitosterol, flavonoids- quercetin-3-galactoside and rutin. Heart wood give tiglic acid ester of taraxasterol. Bark is hypoglycemic, tonic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal and antidiabetic. Latex is antirheumatic. Seed is tonic. Leaf is diaphoretic. Root fibre is antigonorrhoeic. Aerial root is used in debility and anaemic dysentery (Husain et al, 1992).

.4. Ficus religiosa Linn.

Eng:Peepal tree, Sacred fig; San:Pippalah, Asvatthah; Hin:Pippal, Pipli, Pipar; Mal:Arayal

Ben: Asvatha;

Tam: Arasu, Asvattam;

Kan: Aswatha;

Tel: Ravi; Mar: Ashvata, Pimpala

Peepal tree or Sacred fig is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is common throughout India, often planted in the vicinity of the temples. An aqueous extract of the bark has an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis. A paste of the powdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammatory swellings. It is also good for burns. Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommended for wounds and skin diseases. Fruits are laxative and digestive. The dried fruit pulverized and taken in water cures asthma. Seeds are refrigerant and laxative. The latex is good for neuralgia, inflammations and haemorrhages (Warrier et al, 1995). Decoction of the bark if taken in honey subdues vatarakta (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss, 1976; Kurup et al, 1979). The important preparations using the drug are Nalpamaradi taila, Saribadyasava, Candanasava, Karnasulantaka, Valiyamarma gulika etc (Sivarajan et al, 1994). branches bearing long petioled, ovate, cordate shiny leaves. Leaves are bright green, the apex produced into a linear-lanceolate tail about half as long as the main portion of the blade. The receptacles occurring in pairs and are axillary, depressed globose, smooth and purplish when ripe. The bark is grey or ash coloured with thin or membranous flakes and is often covered with crustose lichen patches. The outer bark is not of uniform thickness, the middle bark in sections appear as brownish or light reddish brown. The inner part consists of layers of light yellowish or orange brown granular tissue (Warrier et al, 1995).

Bark gives -sitosterol and its glucoside. Bark is hypoglycaemic. Stem bark is antiprotozoal, anthelmintic and antiviral. Bark is astringent, antigonorrheic, febrifuge, aphrodisiac and antidysenteric. Syconium, leaf and young shoot is purgative (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: Ficus species can be cultivated in rocky areas, unused lands, or other wastelands of the farmyard. The plant is vegetatively propagated by stem cuttings. A few species are also seed propagated. Stem cuttings of pencil thickness taken from the branches are to be kept for rooting. Rooted cuttings are to be transplanted to prepared pits. No regular manuring is required. Irrigation is not a must as a plant is hardy. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Bark can be collected after 15 years. Ficus species generally has an economic life span of more than hundred years. Hence bark can be regularly collected from the tree. Root, bark, leaves, fruits and latex form the economic parts (Prasad et al,1995).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

FICUS ALTISSIMA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Blume.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Assam, eastwards to Malaysia.

Ayurvedic: Nandi vrksha (var), Choraka-patra (var.).

Folk: Gadgubar (Assam).

Action: Leaves and bark—used in skin diseases. The tree is one of the recorded hosts of the Indian lac insect.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS ARNOTTIANA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Miq.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Rajsthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Nandi Vriksha, Prarohi, Gajapaadapa, Paarasa Pipala.

Siddha/Tamil: Kagoti.

Action: Leaves—a moderate sterilizer, given to women after menses. Leaves and bark—used in skin diseases.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS ASPERRIMA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Madhya Pradesh and Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kharapatra (non- classical).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal-arasu.

Folk: Kaala-umar.

Action: Juice of bark—given for enlargement of liver and spleen.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS BENGHALENSIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract and Peninsular India. Planted along roadsides, and in gardens.

English: Banyan tree.

Ayurvedic: Vata, Nyagrodha, Bahupaada, Dhruv.

Unani: Bargad, Darakht-e-Reesh.

Siddha/Tamil: Aalamaram.

Action: Infusion of bark—used in diabetes, dysentery, and in seminal weakness, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders, erysipelas, burning sensation. Milky juice and seeds—applied topically to sores, ulcers, cracked soles of the feet, rheumatic inflammations. Buds—a decoction in milk is given in haemorrhages. Aerial roots— antiemetic, topically applied to pimples. Leaves—a paste is applied externally to abscesses and wounds for promoting suppuration.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the aerial root in lipid disorders.

Phytosterolin, isolated from the roots, given orally to fasting rabbits at a dose of 25 mg/kg, produced maximum fall in blood sugar level equivalent to 81% of the tolbutamide standard after 4 h. The root bark showed antidiabetic activity in pituitary diabetes and alloxan-induced diabetes.

The alcoholic extract of the stem bark also exhibited antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats, and brought down the level of serum cholesterol and blood urea. This activity is attributed to a glucoside, bengalenoside and the flavonoid glycosides, leucocyanidin and leucopelargonidin. Bengalenoside is half as potent as tolbutamide. The leucopelargonidin glycoside is practically nontoxic and may be useful in controlling diabetes with hyperlipi- demia. The leucocyanidin, when combined with a low dose of insulin, not only equalled in response the effects brought about by a double dose of insulin, but also excelled in amelioration of serum cholesterol and triglycerides.

(Additional references: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 1975, 19(4), 218220; J Ethnopharmacol, 1989, 26(1), 155; Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 1994, 38(3), 220-222.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS BENJAMINA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: The Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, kerala and the Andaman Islands.

English: Java Fig.

Siddha: Malai Ichi, Pon Ichi, Putrajuvi (Tamil).

Folk: Pimpri (Maharashtra).

Action: Diuretic. Leaves— decoction, mixed with oil, is applied to ulcers.

The fruits gave bergapten. The latex, in addition to bergapten, gave alpha- amyrin and imperatorin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS CARICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Common Fig.

Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Manjul, Raajodumbara, Bhadrodumbara.

Unani: Anjeer, Teen.

Siddha/Tamil: Semaiatti.

Action: Fruit—gentle laxative and expectorant. Syrup of figs— a remedy for mild constipation. Fruit pulp-analgesic and anti- inflammatory, used for treating tumours, swellings and gum abscesses. Latex—analgesic and toxic. Used for treating warts, insect bites and stings. Leaf—used in lucoderma. Bark—used for eczema and other skin diseases.

Key application: As a laxative. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen, taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lep- eol acetate and oleanolic acid have been identified in the leaves.

Three peptides which exhibit action against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) have been isolated from the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity is similar to that of ACE inhibitors derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes both the production of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and the inactivation of the vasodilator bradykinin.)

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; 510 g paste. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS CORDIFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: F. rumphii Bl.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 1,700 m in the hills.

Ayurvedic: Ashmantaka (var.)

Folk: Gajanaa, Ashtaa, Paakar.

Action: Fruit juice and latex— antiasthmatic and vermifuge.

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Aal, Pei Aal.

Action: Fruit—cardiotonic. Leaves and bark—used in affections of the liver and skin diseases.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS DALHOUSIAE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Miq.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Soma-valka (doubtful synonym).

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Traayanti, Traaya- maanaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodi Athi.

Folk: Daantiraa (Rajasthan).

Action: Fruits—used for constipation during fevers. Leaf-juice— antidysenteric. Root bark—mixed with water, given internally in coryza, asthma and bronchial diseases. Root—antispasmodic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS HETEROPHYLLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. semicordata Buch.- Ham. ex Sm. F. conglomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from Chenab eastward to Bhutan and in Assam, Bengal and Orissa.

English: Indian Fig.

Ayurvedic: Malayu, Choraka- patra, Laakshaa-vrksha, Laghu- udumbara.

Siddha: Taragadu (Tamil).

Action: See F. carica. Fruits— spasmolytic; used in aphthous complaints. Root—used for bladder and visceral troubles. Bark-decoction—used for washing ulcers; juice and powdered bark— applied to wounds and bruises. Syconium—used for ulcers of mucous membrane. Syconium and bark—antileprotic.

The tree is one of the recorded hosts of the Indian lac insect.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS HISPIDA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. daemona Koen. ex Vahl. F. Oppositifolia Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalaya from Chenab eastwards to West Bengal Assam, Central and South India and the Andaman Islands.

Ayurvedic: Kaakodumbara, Kaashtodumbara, Phalgu, Malayu, Malapu.

Unani: Anjir Dashti.

Siddha/Tamil: Peyatti, Chona Atthi.

Action: Syconium—galactagogue. Bark and seed—purgative, emetic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the fruit in jaundice, oedema and anaemia; fruit and root in leucoderma, vitiligo.

The fruits, seeds and bark contain beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin, n- triacontanyl acetate, gluacol acetate, hispidin, a phenanthraindolizidine alkaloid, bergapten and psoralen. A leu- cocyanin has been isolated from the root; oleanolic acid from the leaves.

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 g; root—1- 3 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS LACOR

Indian Medicinal Plants

Buch.-Ham.

Synonym: F. infectoria auct. non- Willd.

F. viren Aiton.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Plains and lower hills of India.

English: White Fig.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha, Karpari, Pitana, Parkati.

Siddha/Tamil: Kurugu, Itthi, Kallalnaram.

Action: Bark—decoction is used for washing ulcers, as a gargle in salivation; also used for menstrual disorders and leucorrhoea. Leaf— estrogenic. Plant— used in erysipelas, ulcer, epistaxis.

Fresh ripe fruit or powder of dried fruits is used to treat diabetes.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia indicates the use of the fruit and stem bark in syncope, delirium and illusive and unstable state of mind. The stem bark of the plant yield acetates of long-chain alcohols, methyl- ricinolate, beta-sitosterol, lanosterol, caffeic acid, bergenin and sugars. The triterpenoids, lupeol and alpha- and beta-amyrin, are also present in the leaves. Flavonoids including sorbifolin and scutellarein derivatives, have been isolated from the leaves.

Dosage: Stem bark—50 g powder for decoction (API Vol. II); dried fruit—5-10 g. (API Vol. IV.) Leaf, root—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS MICROCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. retusa auct. non Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Central and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Grown in gardens, and as an avenue tree. Quite common in New Delhi.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related sp.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Ichi.

Folk: Itti.

Action: Bark—antibilious. Leaf— antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf— used in preparations of oils and ointments for ulcers, skin diseases, oedema and inflammations.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS PALMATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Forsk.

Synonym: F. caricoides Roxb. F. virgata Wall. ex Roxb.

Habitat: North-western India and Rajasthan, from Kashmir eastward to Nepal, ascending to 1,000 m.

English: Indian Fig.

Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Anjiri.

Siddha: Manjimedi (Telugu).

Action: Fruit—demulcent and laxative. Latex is applied on pimples. Ripe fruits—hypotensive.

Leaves gave bergapten and beta- sitosterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS RACEMOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: F. glomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India. Grows wild in forests and hills. Often found around subterranean water streams.

English: Cluster Fig, Country Fig.

Ayurvedic: Udumbara, Sadaaphala, Hema-daudhaka, Jantuphala, Yagyaanga.

Unani: Anjir-e-Aadam, Anjir-e- Ahmak, Gular.

Siddha/Tamil: Atthi.

Action: Astringent and antiseptic; used in threatened abortions, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, urinary disorders, skin diseases, swellings, boils, haemorrhages. Unripe fruits—astringent, carminative, digestive, stomachic; used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, menorrhagia and haemorrhages. Ripe fruits—antiemetic, also

used in haemoptysis. Root and fruit—hypoglycaemic. Bark— decoction is used in skin diseases, inflammations, boils and ulcers.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark in lipid disorders and obesity.

Leaves and fruit contain gluacol. The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol, lupeol acetate, friedelin, higher hydrocarbons and other phytosterols.

Petroleum ether extract of the stem bark significantly reduced blood sugar level of rats with streptozotocin- induced diabetes. It completely inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat liver. Extracts of fruit and latex did not show any significant effect on blood sugar level of diabetic rats, they inhibited only glucose-6- phosphate but not arginase from rat liver.

An alcoholic extract of the bark has been found to be very effective in reducing blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. It helped in improving the damaged beta cells of islets of Langerhans, thus exerting permanent blood sugar lowering effect.

The ethanolic extract of seeds also showed hypoglycaemic activity.

Lignin, the main fiber constituent of the fruit, prevented the rise in serum cholesterol levels of some extent. Fresh whole fruits, used as a source of dietary fibre, exhibited more hypoc- holesterolemic activity than pure cellulose.

Dosage: Bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS RELIGIOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts, West Bengal, Central and South India; planted throughout India as an avenue tree.

English: Peepal, Bot-tree.

Ayurvedic: Ashvattha, Bodhidru, Bodhivrkisha, Sebya, Chalapa- tra, Gajabhaksha, Kshiradruma, Peeppal.

Unani: Peepal.

Siddha/Tamil: Arasu, Ashvatham.

Action: Bark—astringent, antiseptic, alterative, laxative, haemostatic, vaginal disinfectant (used in diabetes, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders; also in skin diseases.) Applied externally on unhealthy ulcers and wounds. Leaves and twigs— laxative.

The bark contains beta-sitosteryl-D- glucoside. Vitamin K, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmas- terol, lupen-3-one are reported from the stem bark.

A hypoglycaemic response is reported for beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside obtained from the bark.

Aerial roots are given to women, also used in prescriptions, for inducing conception. The dried fruits are used as a uterine tonic.

The fruits contain 4.9% protein having the essential amino acids, isoleu- cine and phenylalanine. The chloroform extract of fruits exhibited anti- tumour and antibacterial activities in bioassays.

Various plant parts are included in formulations used for menorrha- gia, metrorrhagia, blood dysentery, bleeding piles, haematuria and haemorrhages.

Dosage: Bark, fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS TALBOTII

Indian Medicinal Plants

G. King.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Itthi, Kal Itthi.

Action: Bark—antileprotic (used for ulcers and venereal diseases). Aerial parts exhibit diuretic, spasmolytic, CNS depressant and hypothermic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Mill., known as Prickly Pear or Indian Fig, is a spineless cactus, mostly cultivated in Indian gardens. Ripe fruits are nutritious. Flowers are astringent and reduce bleeding; used for diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome; also for enlarged prostate. The flower decoction exhibits a strong diuretic effect.

The cladodes are used as a topical anti-inflammatory remedy for oedemata and arthrosis, as regulators of smooth muscles in the treatment of whooping cough and as anti-infective agent.

The stem or their crude preparations showed hypoglycaemic effect in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mel- litus patients (irrespective of its being heated or blended during preparation).

Neobetanin (14,15-dehydro betanin) is the major constituent in the fruit.... Indian Medicinal Plants