Infertility | Health Dictionary

This is diagnosed when a couple has not achieved a pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Around 15–20 per cent of couples have di?culties in conceiving; in half of these cases the male partner is infertile, while the woman is infertile also in half; but in one-third of infertile couples both partners are a?ected. Couples should be investigated together as e?ciently and quickly as possible to decrease the distress which is invariably associated with the diagnosis of infertility. In about 10–15 per cent of women su?ering from infertility, ovulation is disturbed. Mostly they will have either irregular periods or no periods at all (see MENSTRUATION).

Checking a hormone pro?le in the woman’s blood will help in the diagnosis of ovulatory disorders like polycystic ovaries, an early menopause, anorexia or other endocrine illnesses. Ovulation itself is best assessed by ultrasound scan at mid-cycle or by a blood hormone progesterone level in the second half of the cycle.

The FALLOPIAN TUBES may be damaged or blocked in 20–30 per cent of infertile women. This is usually caused by previous pelvic infection or ENDOMETRIOSIS, where menstrual blood is thought to ?ow backwards through the fallopian tubes into the pelvis and seed with cells from the lining of the uterus in the pelvis. This process often leads to scarring of the pelvic tissues; 5–10 per cent of infertility is associated with endometriosis.

To assess the Fallopian tubes adequately a procedure called LAPAROSCOPY is performed. An ENDOSCOPE is inserted through the umbilicus and at the same time a dye is pushed through the tubes to assess their patency. The procedure is performed under a general anaesthetic.

In a few cases the mucus around the cervix may be hostile to the partner’s sperm and therefore prevent fertilisation.

Defective production is responsible for up to a quarter of infertility. It may result from the failure of the testes (see TESTICLE) to descend in early life, from infections of the testes or previous surgery for testicular torsion. The semen is analysed to assess the numbers of sperm and their motility and to check for abnormal forms.

In a few cases the genetic make-up of one partner does not allow the couple ever to achieve a pregnancy naturally.

In about 25 per cent of couples no obvious cause can be found for their infertility.

Treatment Ovulation may be induced with drugs.

In some cases damaged Fallopian tubes may be repaired by tubal surgery. If the tubes are destroyed beyond repair a pregnancy may be achieved with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) – see under ASSISTED CONCEPTION.

Endometriosis may be treated either with drugs or laser therapy, and pregnancy rates after both forms of treatment are between 40–50 per cent, depending on the severity of the disease.

Few options exist for treating male-factor infertility. These are arti?cial insemination by husband or donor and more recently in vitro fertilisation. Drug treatment and surgical repair of VARICOCELE have disappointing results.

Following investigations, between 30 and 40 per cent of infertile couples will achieve a pregnancy usually within two years.

Some infertile men cannot repair any errors in the DNA in their sperm, and it has been found that the same DNA repair problem occurs in malignant cells of some patients with cancer. It is possible that these men’s infertility might be nature’s way of stopping the propagation of genetic defects. With the assisted reproduction technique called intracytoplasmic sperm injection, some men with defective sperm can fertilise an ovum. If a man with such DNA defects fathers a child via this technique, that child could be sterile and might be at increased risk of developing cancer. (See ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION; ASSISTED CONCEPTION.)



Infertility | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Infertility


Indian Medicinal Plants

Wall. ex Nees

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, from Himachal Pradesh to Assam and Mizoram, and all over southern India.

English: Creat.

Ayurvedic: Kaalmegha, Bhuunimba, Bhuuminimbaka, Vishwambharaa, Yavtikta, Kalpanaatha, Kiraata-tikta (var.).

Unani: Kiryaat.

Siddha/Tamil: Nilavembu.

Action: Hepatoprotective, cholin- ergic, antispasmodic, stomachic, anthelmintic, alterative, blood purifier, febrifuge. It acts well on the liver, promoting secretion of bile. Used in jaundice and torpid liver, flatulence and diarrhoea of children, colic, strangulation of intestines and splenomegaly; also for cold and upper respiratory tract infections.

Key application: As bitter tonic, febrifuge and hepatoprotective. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Kaalmegha, officinal in IP, consists of dried leaves and tender shoots, which yield not less than 1% andro- grapholide on dry-weight basis.

Several active constituents have been identified from the leaf and rhizome, including andrographolide, deoxyan- drographolide and other diterpenes.

Andrographolide exhibited strong choleretic action when administered i.p. to rats. It induces increase in bile flow together with change in physical properties of bile secretion. It was found to be more potent than sily- marin.

Andrographolide was found to be almost devoid of antihepatitis-B virus surface antigen-like activity (when compared with picroliv.)

The leaf and stem extracts of Kaal- megha/andrographolide given s.c. or orally did not change blood sugar level of normal or diabetic rats.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibited antidiarrhoeal activity against E. coli enterotoxins in animal models.

Clinical evidence of effectiveness of andrographis in humans is limited to the common cold. Preliminary evidence suggests that it might increase antibody activity and phagocytosis by macrophages, and might have mast cell-stabilizing and antiallergy activity. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The herb is contraindicated inbleed- ing disorders, hypotension, as well as male and female sterility (exhibited infertility in laboratory animals).

Dosage: Whole plant—5-10 ml juice; 50-100 ml decotion; 1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

Beneficial Teas

Andrographis Tea is well known for its bitter taste, as well as for its healthy benefits. It has proven to be an adjuvant in treating severe illness such as hepatitis, due to its high content of antioxidants. Andrographis Tea description Andrographis is originating from Asia, being used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine. The plant is easy to grow: its propagation is by seeds, planted during spring and summer. Andrographis grows both in full sun or shade, developing vigorously in moist conditions. The herb has been proved to treat infectious diseases. This fact was discovered during the global flu epidemic of 1919, known as one of the most destructive infectious to outbreak in history, which killed millions worldwide, in many countries. Andrographis Tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the andrographis plant. It is widely known for its bitter taste as well as for its adjuvant properties against flu, depression, digestion complaints, but not only. Andrographis Tea brewing To brew Andrographis tea:
  • place 1 teaspoon of dried andrographis in a tea infuser (10 grams of fresh leaves)
  • place the infuser in a tea cup
  • cover it with 1 cup of boiling water
  • steep the tea for 10 minutes
  • drink it slowly
The resulting tea has an extreme bitter taste. Another possibility of enjoying the benefits of Andrographis tea is to intake capsules containing the plant. Andrographis Tea benefits Andrographis Tea has many proven benefits, such as:
  • Treating gastrointestinal complains
  • Treating throat infections
  • Dispelling toxins
  • Increasing biliary flow
  • Treating coughs, headaches, edema
  • Treating pain conditions, inflammation
  • Treating arthritis, rheumatism
  • Treating constipation
  • Treating pneumonia, tuberculosis, leprosy, hepatitis, herpes, diabetes, bronchitis
Andrographis Tea side effects It has been showed that Andrographis Tea should not be used by pregnant and nursing women or by children. It has been also noticed that large doses of Andrographis Tea may lead to infertility. Andrographis Tea is a healthy beverage which has the ability to strengthen the immune system, stop cancer cells from multiplying, and also render a good physical state. It can be consumed as tea or medicinal pills.... Beneficial Teas

Natural Herbs That Increase Sex Drive

Ashwagandha is the Ayurvedic equivalent of ginseng but heats the body less. It is well known for promoting semen and helps treat both infertility and impotency. So, the biggest issue I hear from clients who are looking for help in this area is that they are too stressed and don’t have enough energy for a healthy sex life. Enter ashwagandha. This herb boosts energy, reduces stress and has been shown to increase sperm count and the production of sex hormones (in either sex). The various active principles in this herb (alkaloids, anoloids, withanolides and other technical jargon) are sexually stimulating and support longevity. One thing, though—only take this herb when you’re, you know, in the moment (well, a few hours before you’re in the moment). The body can build up a tolerance for this herb and, as it can increase testosterone, it can cause aggression in some testosterone-sensitive people. My advice? Try taking one 500mg capsule a few times a week and see how it goes.... Natural Herbs That Increase Sex Drive

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Asparagus racemosus

Liliaceae

San, Mar, Hin, Mal: Satavari;

Ben: Shatamuli,

Guj: Ekalkanto,

Tel: Pilligadalu, Philithaga

Tam: Ammaikodi, Kilwari,

Kan: Aheruballi, Ori: Manajolo

Importance: Asparagus is a climbing undershrub with widespread applications as diuretic, cooling agent and an excellent safe herbal medicine for ante-natal care. It is useful in nervous disorders, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, tumours, inflammations, vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, burning sensation, hyperdipsia, ophthalmopathy, nephropathy, hepatopathy, strangury, scalding of urine, throat infections, tuberculosis, cough, bronchitis, gleet, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, leprosy, epilepsy, fatigue, hyperacidity, colic haemorrhoids, hypertension, abortion, agalactia, cardiac and general debility (Warrier et al, 1993).

Shatavari is described in Rigveda and Atharvaveda. In Ayurvedic classics it is prescribed as a cooling agent and uterine tonic. It is the main ingredient in ayurvedic medicines like shatavari gulam and shatavari ghrtam. Besides quenching thirst, its root juice helps in cooling down the body from summer heat, curing hyper-acidity and peptic ulcer. It contains good amount of mucilage which soothes the inner cavity of stomach. It relieves burning sensation while passing urine and is used in urinary tract infections. It contains an anticancer agent asparagin which is useful against leukaemia. It also contains active antioxytocic saponins which have got antispasmodic effect and specific action on uterine musculature. It is very good relaxant to uterine muscles, especially during pregnancy and is used to prevent abortion and pre-term labour on the place of progesterone preparations. Its powder boiled with milk is generally used to prevent abortion. It increases milk production in cows and buffaloes. Its preparations in milk helps in increasing breast milk in lactating women. Its proper use helps in avoiding excessive blood loss during periods. It clears out infections and abnormalities of uterine cavity and hence it is used to rectify infertility in women. The leaves are used to prepare toilet soaps. The plant has also ornamental value both for indoor and out door decorations (Syamala, 1997).

Distribution: The plant is found wild in tropical and subtropical India including Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is distributed from mean sea level upto 1500m in the Himalayas from Kashmi r eastwards. The crop is cultivated in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Predesh and northern states in India. However, most of the requirement of the industry is met through wild collections from forests. It is also grown in gardens.

Botany: Satavari, Asparagus racemosus Willd. belongs to the lily family, Liliaceae. Asparagus adscendens Roxb., A. filicinus Lam., A. gonoclados Baker, A. officinalis Linn. and A. sarmentosus Willd. are the other important medicinal plant species of the genus. A. racemosus Willd. is an armed climbing undershrub with woody terete stems and recurved or rarely straight spines. The tuberous succulent roots are 30cm to 100cm or more in length, fascicled at the stem base, smooth tapering at both ends. Young stems are very delicate, brittle and smooth. Leaves are reduced to minute chaffy scales and spines; cladodes triquetrous, curved in tufts of 2-6. Flowers are white fragrant in simple or branched recemes on the naked nodes of the main shoots or in the axils of the thorns. Fruits are globular or obscurely 3-lobed, pulpy berries, purplish black when ripe; seeds with hard and brittle testa.

Agrotechnology: The plant comes up well under a wide range of tropical and subtropical climate. Fertile moist sandy loam soils are ideal for its cultivation though it grows in a wide range of soils. Better root development is observed in soils in increased proportion of sand. However, a decline in the yield of the crop is noticed in soils containing previous year’s residue of the roots. Asparagus plant is best grown from its tuberous roots even though it can be successfully propagated through seeds. Since root tubers are of commercial value seed propagation provides economic advantage to the farmers. Seeds usually start germinating after 40 days and average germination is 70% (Tewari and Misra, 1996).

For the cultivation of the crop, the land is ploughed well with pre-monsoon showers and seed nurseries are raised on seed beds of approximately 1m width, 15cm height and suitable length. Seed nursery should be irrigated regularly and kept weed free. With the onset of monsoon in June-July the main field is ploughed thoroughly and pits of size 30cm cube are dug at a spacing of 60-100cm. Tiwari and Misra (1996) have reported that irrespective of more number of roots and higher fresh weight per plant under wider spacings, the per hectare yields were highest in the closer spacing of 30cm x 30cm. The pit is filled with a mixture of top soil and well decomposed FYM or compost applied at 10 - 15 t/ha and the seedlings are transplanted. Application of N, P2O5 and K2O at 60:30:30 kg/ha increases the root yield. Regular irrigation and weeding are required to realize higher yields. Standards are to be provided for training the plant (Sharma et al, 1992). Few pests and diseases are observed on this crop. Harvesting the crop after two years provided higher root yield than annual harvests in pots as well as in field experiments. Irrigating the field prior to harvest enables easy harvesting of the root tubers. The average yield is 10 - 15 t/ha of fresh root tubers though yields over 60t/ha have been reported.

Properties and activity: Asparagus roots contain protein 22%, fat 6.2%, Carbohydrate 3.2%, Vitamin B 0.36%, Vitamin C 0.04% and traces of Vitamin A. It contains several alkaloids. Alcoholic extract yields asparagin- an anticancer agent. It also contains a number of antioxytocic saponins, viz. Shatavarisn - I to IV (Syamala, 1997). Leaves contain rutin, diosgenin and a flavonoid glycoside identified as quercetin - 3 - glucuronide. Flowers contain quercetin hyperoside and rutin. Fruits contain glycosides of quercetin, rutin and hyperoside while fully ripe fruits contain cyanidin - 3 - galactoside and cyanidin - 3 - glucorhamnoside.

Root is demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, tonic, alterative, antiseptic, antidiarrhoeal, glalctogogue and antispasmodic. Aerial part is spasmolytic, antiarrhythmic and anticancer. Bark is antibacterial and antifungal.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

Medical Dictionary

(Further information about the subject and the terms used can be found at http:// www.hfea.gov.uk/glossary)

This technique is used when normal methods of attempted CONCEPTION or ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION with healthy SEMEN have failed. In the UK, assisted-conception procedures are governed by the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990, which set up the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (HFEA).

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990 UK legislation was prompted by the report on in vitro fertilisation produced by a government-appointed committee chaired by Baroness Warnock. This followed the birth, in 1978, of the ?rst ‘test-tube’ baby.

This Act allows regulation monitoring of all treatment centres to ensure that they carry out treatment and research responsibly. It covers any fertilisation that uses donated eggs or sperm (called gametes) – for example, donor insemination or embryos (see EMBRYO) grown outside the human body (known as licensed treatment). The Act also covers research on human embryos with especial emphasis on foolproof labelling and immaculate data collection.

Human Fertilisation & EmbryologyAuthority (HFEA) Set up by the UK government following the Warnock report, the Authority’s 221 members inspect and license centres carrying out fertilisation treatments using donated eggs and sperm. It publishes a code of practice advising centres on how to conduct their activities and maintains a register of information on donors, patients and all treatments. It also reviews routinely progress and research in fertility treatment and the attempted development of human CLONING. Cloning to produce viable embryos (reproductive cloning) is forbidden, but limited licensing of the technique is allowed in specialist centres to enable them to produce cells for medical treatment (therapeutic cloning).

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) In this technique, the female partner receives drugs to enhance OVULATION. Just before the eggs are released from the ovary (see OVARIES), several ripe eggs are collected under ULTRASOUND guidance or through a LAPAROSCOPE. The eggs are incubated with the prepared sperm. About 40 hours later, once the eggs are fertilised, two eggs (three in special circumstances) are transferred into the mother’s UTERUS via the cervix (neck of the womb). Pregnancy should then proceed normally. About one in ?ve IVF pregnancies results in the birth of a child. The success rate is lower in women over 40.

Indications In women with severely damaged FALLOPIAN TUBES, IVF o?ers the only chance of pregnancy. The method is also used in couples with unexplained infertility or with male-factor infertility (where sperms are abnormal or their count low). Women who have had an early or surgically induced MENOPAUSE can become pregnant using donor eggs. A quarter of these pregnancies are multiple – that is, produce twins or more. Twins and triplets are more likely to be premature. The main danger of ovarian stimulation for IVF is hyperstimulation which can cause ovarian cysts. (See OVARIES, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

Beneficial Teas

Try an herbal tea from Africa - pygeum bark tea. Despite its bitter, slightly unpleasant taste, this tea is becoming quite popular. It has plenty of health benefits which will surely help you stay healthy. Find out more about pygeum bark tea and give it a try! About Pygeum Bark Tea Pygeum bark tea is made from the bark of the pygeum tree, an evergreen tree which belongs to the rose family. It grows in central and southern Africa, although it has become endangered due to the large demands for the tree’s bark. A mature tree can be as tall as 25m. The bark is black-brown and scaly, with alternate, simple and long dark green leaves. The flowers bloom from October to May; they are androgynous and greenish-white. The fruit is red-brown, rather wide but not big (about 1cm) and has two lobs, with a seed in each one. The fruit can be used as food both for humans and animals. The wood can be used to make tools, or build homes. How to prepare Pygeum Bark Tea There are two ways in which you can make pygeum bark tea. One involves chopped bark; add it to a cup of freshly-boiled water and let it steep for 10-15 minutes. For the other, you can use the powdered form of the pygeum; you add it to a cup of boiled water, letting it steep for 3-5 minutes. Pygeum bark tea is known to be pretty bitter. If the taste is too much for you, sweeten it with milk, honey or fruit juice. Pygeum Bark Tea Benefits A few important active constituents that are transferred from the pygeum bark to the tea are: beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, oleanic acid and ferulic acid. Pygeum bark tea can be drunk by men, as it has important health benefits for them. It is often added in the treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also recommended in the case of male infertility, as it increases the quantity and quality of the sperm. It can even be used as an aphrodisiac, as it enhances the sexual performance. Pygeum bark tea is used to treat urinary tract infections (cystitis, prostatitis); it also increases the urinary function. You can drink pygeum bark tea if you’ve got symptoms of bronchitis, influenza, or various other respiratory infections. This tea will also help you if you’ve got a fever. An interesting benefit is related to hair: drinking pygeum bark tea is quite useful in the treatment for hair loss. The infusion can be applied on wet hair, after it’s been washed with shampoo. Try it if you’ve got these problems. Pygeum Bark Tea Side Effects If you’re pregnant or breast feeding, it is best not to drink pygeum bark tea; it can affect the baby in both cases. Also, it’s safer not to give it to children, either. It might neutralize the effects of various types of medication. Make sure you talk to your doctor first if you’re taking any kind of medication; he will tell you if it’s safe or not to drink pygeum bark tea. Also, drinking too much pygeum bark tea might not be good for you. It might lead to stomach discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, dizziness, headaches, or visual disturbances. Don’t let its bitter taste scare you - pygeum bark tea is good for your health. It is especially recommended for men, but it can be useful for women, as well.... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Black Cohosh tea is recommended to people who want to prevent bone ailments or just to enhance their immune system. Black Cohosh Tea description Black Cohosh is a woodland plant, found in the New England region of the United States, as well as eastern Canada. Its roots and rhizomes are used for medicinal properties, particularly for female hormonal balance and arthritis. It also has acknowledged anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties. Black cohosh can be consumed as a fresh or dry root or as a supplement in liquid or tablet forms. The daily dosage should not exceed 80 mg Black cohosh in tablet form or 2 to 4 ml Black Cohosh tincture two to three times a day. Black Cohosh tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Black Cohosh Tea brewing To make Black Cohosh tea, use the roots of the plant. Black Cohosh roots should be boiled for about 20 to 30 minutes in water. Strain it and drink it slowly. Black Cohosh Tea benefits Studies revealed Black Cohosh tea to be efficient in treating:
  • the symptoms of menopause and menstrual discomfort (hot flashes, mood swings and vaginal dryness)
  • infertility
  • rheumatism
  • cough
  • high cholesterol levels, as well as hardening of the arteries
  • osteoporosis
  • muscle aches
Black Cohosh side effects Black Cohosh tea is not recommended during pregnancy, as large doses may induce a miscarriage. An overdose can cause dizziness, nausea and increased perspiration. Also, Black Cohosh tea may cause gastrointestinal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. People intaking  this type of tea may experience dizziness, headaches, tremors and a slow heart rate. Individuals with an allergy to buttercup or crowfoot should avoid Black Cohosh tea because they are from the same plant family. People who are allergic to aspirin should not consume the tea because it contains small amounts of salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin. Also people with a history of blood clots, seizures and high blood pressure should avoid Black Cohosh tea. Black Cohosh tea is known for its anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic action, being successfully used to treat women health issues such as menopause and menstrual discomfort.... Beneficial Teas

Medicinal Plants

Allspice, bay rum tree (Pimenta dioica).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, berry, essential oil.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaves: tea for common cold, flu; externally: mashed and applied topically for arthritis, joint pain; multi-herb tincture: taken internally for impotence, infertility, sexually transmitted infections. Berries, essential oil: externally for joint pain.

Safety: Potential hypersensitivity to essential oil. Leaf extract: low to moderate toxicity when taken orally.

Contraindications: Lack of information on use in pregnancy, lactation or young children.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antibacterial, antifungal (essential oil). In vivo: anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive (leaf extract).

* See entry for Canelilla in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

Medical Dictionary

Adoption was relatively uncommon until World War II, with only 6,000 adoption orders annually in the UK. This peaked at nearly 25,000 in 1968 as adoption became more socially acceptable and the numbers of babies born to lone mothers rose in a climate hostile to single parenthood.

Adoption declined as the availability of babies fell with the introduction of the Abortion Act 1968, improving contraceptive services and increasing acceptability of single parenthood.

However, with 10 per cent of couples su?ering infertility, the demand continued, leading to the adoption of those previously perceived as di?cult to place – i.e. physically, intellectually and/or emotionally disabled children and adolescents, those with terminal illness, and children of ethnic-minority groups.

Recent controversies regarding homosexual couples as adoptive parents, adoption of children with or at high risk of HIV/AIDS, transcultural adoption, and the increasing use of intercountry adoption to ful?l the needs of childless couples have provoked urgent consideration of the ethical dilemmas of adoption and its consequences for the children, their adoptive and birth families and society generally.

Detailed statistics have been unavailable since 1984 but in general there has been a downward trend with relatively more older children being placed. Detailed reasons for adoption (i.e. interfamily, step-parent, intercountry, etc.) are not available but approximately one-third are adopted from local-authority care.

In the UK all adoptions (including interfamily and step-parent adoption) must take place through a registered adoption agency which may be local-authority-based or provided by a registered voluntary agency. All local authorities must act as agencies, the voluntary agencies often providing specialist services to promote and support the adoption of more di?cult-to-place children. Occasionally an adoption allowance will be awarded.

Adoption orders cannot be granted until a child has resided with its proposed adopters for 13 weeks. In the case of newborn infants the mother cannot give formal consent to placement until the baby is six weeks old, although informal arrangements can be made before this time.

In the UK the concept of responsibility of birth parents to their children and their rights to continued involvement after adoption are acknowledged by the Children Act 1989. However, in all discussions the child’s interests remain paramount. The Act also recognises adopted children’s need to have information regarding their origins.

BAAF – British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering – is the national organisation of adoptive agencies, both local authority and voluntary sector. The organisation promotes and provides training service, development and research; has several specialist professional subgroups (i.e. medical, legal, etc.); and produces a quarterly journal.

Adoption UK is an e?ective national support network of adoptive parents who o?er free information, a ‘listening ear’ and, to members, a quarterly newsletter.

National Organisation for Counselling Adoptees and their Parents (NORCAP) is concerned with adopted children and birth parents who wish to make contact.

The Registrar General operates an Adoption Contact Register for adopted persons and anyone related to that person by blood, half-blood or marriage. Information can be obtained from the O?ce of Population Censuses and Surveys. For the addresses of these organisations, see Appendix 2.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

An anti-oestrogen drug that stimulates ovulation, or the production of ova, through the medium of the PITUITARY GLAND. When used in the treatment of female infertility, one of its hazards is that, if given in too-big doses, it may produce multiple births.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

A means of avoiding pregnancy despite sexual activity. There is no ideal contraceptive, and the choice of method depends on balancing considerations of safety, e?ectiveness and acceptability. The best choice for any couple will depend on their ages and personal circumstances and may well vary with time. Contraceptive techniques can be classi?ed in various ways, but one of the most useful is into ‘barrier’ and ‘non-barrier’ methods.

Barrier methods These involve a physical barrier which prevents sperm (see SPERMATOZOON) from reaching the cervix (see CERVIX UTERI). Barrier methods reduce the risk of spreading sexually transmitted diseases, and the sheath is the best protection against HIV infection (see AIDS/HIV) for sexually active people. The e?ciency of barrier methods is improved if they are used in conjunction with a spermicidal foam or jelly, but care is needed to ensure that the preparation chosen does not damage the rubber barrier or cause an allergic reaction in the users. CONDOM OR SHEATH This is the most commonly used barrier contraceptive. It consists of a rubber sheath which is placed over the erect penis before intromission and removed after ejaculation. The failure rate, if properly used, is about 4 per cent. DIAPHRAGM OR CAP A rubber dome that is inserted into the vagina before intercourse and ?ts snugly over the cervix. It should be used with an appropriate spermicide and is removed six hours after intercourse. A woman must be measured to ensure that she is supplied with the correct size of diaphragm, and the ?t should be checked annually or after more than about 7 lbs. change in weight. The failure rate, if properly used, is about 2 per cent.

Non-barrier methods These do not provide a physical barrier between sperm and cervix and so do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. COITUS INTERRUPTUS This involves the man’s withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation. Because some sperm may leak before full ejaculation, the method is not very reliable. SAFE PERIOD This involves avoiding intercourse around the time when the woman ovulates and is at risk of pregnancy. The safe times can be predicted using temperature charts to identify the rise in temperature before ovulation, or by careful assessment of the quality of the cervical mucus. This method works best if the woman has regular menstrual cycles. If used carefully it can be very e?ective but requires a highly disciplined couple to succeed. It is approved by the Catholic church.

SPERMICIDAL GELS, CREAMS, PESSARIES, ETC.

These are supposed to prevent pregnancy by killing sperm before they reach the cervix, but they are unreliable and should be used only in conjunction with a barrier method.

INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE (COIL) This is a small metal or plastic shape, placed inside the uterus, which prevents pregnancy by disrupting implantation. Some people regard it as a form of abortion, so it is not acceptable to all religious groups. There is a risk of pelvic infection and eventual infertility in women who have used coils, and in many countries their use has declined substantially. Coils must be inserted by a specially trained health worker, but once in place they permit intercourse at any time with no prior planning. Increased pain and bleeding may be caused during menstruation. If severe, such symptoms may indicate that the coil is incorrectly sited, and that its position should be checked. HORMONAL METHODS Steroid hormones have dominated contraceptive developments during the past 40 years, with more than 200 million women worldwide taking or having taken ‘the pill’. In the past 20 years, new developments have included modifying existing methods and devising more e?ective ways of delivering the drugs, such as implants and hormone-releasing devices in the uterus. Established hormonal contraception includes the combined oestrogen and progesterone and progesterone-only contraceptive pills, as well as longer-acting depot preparations. They modify the woman’s hormonal environment and prevent pregnancy by disrupting various stages of the menstrual cycle, especially ovulation. The combined oestrogen and progesterone pills are very e?ective and are the most popular form of contraception. Biphasic and triphasic pills contain di?erent quantities of oestrogen and progesterone taken in two or three phases of the menstrual cycle. A wide range of preparations is available and the British National Formulary contains details of the commonly used varieties.

The main side-e?ect is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The lowest possible dose of oestrogen should be used, and many preparations are phasic, with the dose of oestrogen varying with the time of the cycle. The progesterone-only, or ‘mini’, pill does not contain any oestrogen and must be taken at the same time every day. It is not as e?ective as the combined pill, but failure rates of less than 1-per-100 woman years can be achieved. It has few serious side-e?ects, but may cause menstrual irregularities. It is suitable for use by mothers who are breast feeding.

Depot preparations include intramuscular injections, subcutaneous implants, and intravaginal rings. They are useful in cases where the woman cannot be relied on to take a pill regularly but needs e?ective contraception. Their main side-e?ect is their prolonged action, which means that users cannot suddenly decide that they would like to become pregnant. Skin patches containing a contraceptive that is absorbed through the skin have recently been launched.

HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION FOR MEN There is a growing demand by men worldwide for hormonal contraception. Development of a ‘male pill’, however, has been slow because of the potentially dangerous side-e?ects of using high doses of TESTOSTERONE (the male hormone) to suppress spermatogenesis. Progress in research to develop a suitable ANDROGEN-based combination product is promising, including the possibility of long-term STEROID implants. STERILISATION See also STERILISATION – Reproductive sterilisation. The operation is easier and safer to perform on men than on women. Although sterilisation can sometimes be reversed, this cannot be guaranteed and couples should be counselled in advance that the method is irreversible. There is a small but definite failure rate with sterilisation, and this should also be made clear before the operation is performed. POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTION Also known as emergency contraception or the ‘morning after pill’, postcoital contraception can be e?ected by two di?erent hormonal methods. Levonorgesterol (a synthetic hormone similar to the natural female sex hormone PROGESTERONE) can be used alone, with one pill being taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but preferably as soon as possible, and a second one 12 hours after the ?rst. Alternatively, a combined preparation comprising ETHINYLESTRADIOL and levonorgesterol can be taken, also within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. The single constituent pill has fewer side-e?ects than the combined version. Neither version should be taken by women with severe liver disease or acute PORPHYRIAS, but the ethinylestradiol/levonorgesterol combination is unsuitable for women with a history of THROMBOSIS.

In the UK the law allows women over the age of 16 to buy the morning-after pill ‘over the counter’ from a registered pharmacist.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

An undescended testis (see TESTICLE). The testes normally descend into the scrotum during the seventh month of gestation; until then, the testis is an abdominal organ. If the testes do not descend before the ?rst year of life, they usually remain undescended until puberty – and even then, descent is not achieved in some instances. Fertility is impaired when one testis is a?ected and is usually absent in the bilateral cases. The incidence of undescended testis in full-term children at birth is 3·5 per cent, falling to less than 2 per cent at one month and 0·7 per cent at one year. Because of the high risk of infertility, undescended testes should be brought down as early as possible and at the latest by the age of two. Sometimes medical treatment with HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN is helpful but frequently surgical interference is necessary. This is the operation of orchidopexy.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Use of the SEMEN of an anonymous donor to produce fertilisation in cases of INFERTILITY where the male partner has OLIGOSPERMIA or IMPOTENCE. The donor is chosen for ethnic and physiognomic similarity to the male partner and is screened for transmissible diseases

(e.g. HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, and genetic disorders). Insemination is performed at the time of ovulation by introducing the semen into the upper vagina. Semen may be fresh or have been stored frozen in liquid nitrogen. (See ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.)... Medical Dictionary

Indian Medicinal Plants

Burm. f.

Family: Myrsinaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Embelia.

Ayurvedic: Vidanga, Krmighna, Krmihara, Krmiripu, Chitratandula, Jantughna, Jantunaashana, Vella, Amogha.

Unani: Baobarang, Barang Kaabuli.

Siddha/Tamil: Vaayuvidangam.

Action: Ascaricidal, anthelmintic, carminative, diuretic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, febrifuge. Used in diseases of chest and skin. Active principles are found to be oestrogenic and weakly progestogenic. Root—bechic, antidiarrhoeal. Seed—spermicidal, oxytocic, diuretic. The plant is also used for its blood purifying properties. It is an ingredient in cough syrups, preparations for anaemia, genitourinary tract infections, diarrhoea and diseases of the liver.

Embelin, isolated from the berries, shows significant anti-implantation and post-coital antifertility activity. (Successful trials have been carried out at the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi on human beings.) It is found to be a potential male antifer- tility agent. Spermatogenesis has been impaired and sperm count reduced to the level of infertility. The antisper- matogenic changes are found to be reversible without any toxic effects.

Aqueous and EtOH extract of the fruit—anthelmintic against earthworms. Fruit powder (200 mg/kg), taken with curd on empty stomach, expelled tapeworm within 6-24 h. The treatment was also found effective in giardiasis. EtOH (50%) of the plant was found slightly active against E.coli. Di-salts of embelin—an- thelmintic. Amino salts exhibited less side effects than embelin. The effect of di-isobutyl amino derivatives lasted up to 10 h, also showed anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and antipyretic activities.

Berries gave quinones—embelin, ra- panone, homoembelin, homorapnone and vilangin.

Dosage: Fruit—5-10 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

Medical Dictionary

When a woman is treated for infertility it is necessary to nurture human embryos for a few days (until the ?rst cell divisions of the fertilised egg have occurred) in a specialised laboratory. More eggs are fertilised than are usually needed because not all fertilisations are successful. Surplus embryos may be frozen for use in later attempts to implant an embryo in the womb. Research has been done on very early embryos but the practice is controversial and some countries have either forbidden it or imposed tight restrictions. In the UK such research is controlled by the government Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (see ASSISTED CONCEPTION).... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Organs whose function it is to secrete into the blood or lymph, substances known as HORMONES. These play an important part in general changes to or the activities of other organs at a distance. Various diseases arise as the result of defects or excess in the internal secretions of the di?erent glands. The chief endocrine glands are:

Adrenal glands These two glands, also known as suprarenal glands, lie immediately above the kidneys. The central or medullary portion of the glands forms the secretions known as ADRENALINE (or epinephrine) and NORADRENALINE. Adrenaline acts upon structures innervated by sympathetic nerves. Brie?y, the blood vessels of the skin and of the abdominal viscera (except the intestines) are constricted, and at the same time the arteries of the muscles and the coronary arteries are dilated; systolic blood pressure rises; blood sugar increases; the metabolic rate rises; muscle fatigue is diminished. The super?cial or cortical part of the glands produces steroid-based substances such as aldosterone, cortisone, hydrocortisone, and deoxycortone acetate, for the maintenance of life. It is the absence of these substances, due to atrophy or destruction of the suprarenal cortex, that is responsible for the condition known as ADDISON’S DISEASE. (See CORTICOSTEROIDS.)

Ovaries and testicles The ovary (see OVARIES) secretes at least two hormones – known, respectively, as oestradiol (follicular hormone) and progesterone (corpus luteum hormone). Oestradiol develops (under the stimulus of the anterior pituitary lobe – see PITUITARY GLAND below, and under separate entry) each time an ovum in the ovary becomes mature, and causes extensive proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM lining the UTERUS, a stage ending with shedding of the ovum about 14 days before the onset of MENSTRUATION. The corpus luteum, which then forms, secretes both progesterone and oestradiol. Progesterone brings about great activity of the glands in the endometrium. The uterus is now ready to receive the ovum if it is fertilised. If fertilisation does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, the hormones cease acting, and menstruation takes place.

The hormone secreted by the testicles (see TESTICLE) is known as TESTOSTERONE. It is responsible for the growth of the male secondary sex characteristics.

Pancreas This gland is situated in the upper part of the abdomen and, in addition to the digestive enzymes, it produces INSULIN within specialised cells (islets of Langerhans). This controls carbohydrate metabolism; faulty or absent insulin production causes DIABETES MELLITUS.

Parathyroid glands These are four minute glands lying at the side of, or behind, the thyroid (see below). They have a certain e?ect in controlling the absorption of calcium salts by the bones and other tissues. When their secretion is defective, TETANY occurs.

Pituitary gland This gland is attached to the base of the brain and rests in a hollow on the base of the skull. It is the most important of all endocrine glands and consists of two embryologically and functionally distinct lobes.

The function of the anterior lobe depends on the secretion by the HYPOTHALAMUS of certain ‘neuro-hormones’ which control the secretion of the pituitary trophic hormones. The hypothalamic centres involved in the control of speci?c pituitary hormones appear to be anatomically separate. Through the pituitary trophic hormones the activity of the thyroid, adrenal cortex and the sex glands is controlled. The anterior pituitary and the target glands are linked through a feedback control cycle. The liberation of trophic hormones is inhibited by a rising concentration of the circulating hormone of the target gland, and stimulated by a fall in its concentration. Six trophic (polypeptide) hormones are formed by the anterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin are simple proteins formed in the acidophil cells. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are glycoproteins formed in the basophil cells. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), although a polypeptide, is derived from basophil cells.

The posterior pituitary lobe, or neurohypophysis, is closely connected with the hypothalamus by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tracts. It is concerned with the production or storage of OXYTOCIN and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone).

PITUITARY HORMONES Growth hormone, gonadotrophic hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and thyrotrophic hormones can be assayed in blood or urine by radio-immunoassay techniques. Growth hormone extracted from human pituitary glands obtained at autopsy was available for clinical use until 1985, when it was withdrawn as it is believed to carry the virus responsible for CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (COD). However, growth hormone produced by DNA recombinant techniques is now available as somatropin. Synthetic growth hormone is used to treat de?ciency of the natural hormone in children and adults, TURNER’S SYNDROME and chronic renal insu?ciency in children.

Human pituitary gonadotrophins are readily obtained from post-menopausal urine. Commercial extracts from this source are available and are e?ective for treatment of infertility due to gonadotrophin insu?ciency.

The adrenocorticotrophic hormone is extracted from animal pituitary glands and has been available therapeutically for many years. It is used as a test of adrenal function, and, under certain circumstances, in conditions for which corticosteroid therapy is indicated (see CORTICOSTEROIDS). The pharmacologically active polypeptide of ACTH has been synthesised and is called tetracosactrin. Thyrotrophic hormone is also available but it has no therapeutic application.

HYPOTHALAMIC RELEASING HORMONES which a?ect the release of each of the six anterior pituitary hormones have been identi?ed. Their blood levels are only one-thousandth of those of the pituitary trophic hormones. The release of thyrotrophin, adrenocorticotrophin, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone is stimulated, while release of prolactin is inhibited. The structure of the releasing hormones for TSH, FSH-LH, GH and, most recently, ACTH is known and they have all been synthesised. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) is used as a diagnostic test of thyroid function but it has no therapeutic application. FSH-LH-releasing hormone provides a useful diagnostic test of gonadotrophin reserve in patients with pituitary disease, and is now used in the treatment of infertility and AMENORRHOEA in patients with functional hypothalamic disturbance. As this is the most common variety of secondary amenorrhoea, the potential use is great. Most cases of congenital de?ciency of GH, FSH, LH and ACTH are due to defects in the hypothalamic production of releasing hormone and are not a primary pituitary defect, so that the therapeutic implication of this synthesised group of releasing hormones is considerable.

GALACTORRHOEA is frequently due to a microadenoma (see ADENOMA) of the pituitary. DOPAMINE is the prolactin-release inhibiting hormone. Its duration of action is short so its therapeutic value is limited. However, BROMOCRIPTINE is a dopamine agonist with a more prolonged action and is e?ective treatment for galactorrhoea.

Thyroid gland The functions of the thyroid gland are controlled by the pituitary gland (see above) and the hypothalamus, situated in the brain. The thyroid, situated in the front of the neck below the LARYNX, helps to regulate the body’s METABOLISM. It comprises two lobes each side of the TRACHEA joined by an isthmus. Two types of secretory cells in the gland – follicular cells (the majority) and parafollicular cells – secrete, respectively, the iodine-containing hormones THYROXINE (T4) and TRI-IODOTHYRONINE (T3), and the hormone CALCITONIN. T3 and T4 help control metabolism and calcitonin, in conjunction with parathyroid hormone (see above), regulates the body’s calcium balance. De?ciencies in thyroid function produce HYPOTHYROIDISM and, in children, retarded development. Excess thyroid activity causes thyrotoxicosis. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Tubes, one on each side, lying in the pelvic area of the abdomen, which are attached at one end to the UTERUS, and have the other unattached but lying close to the ovary (see OVARIES). Each is 10–12·5 cm (4–5 inches) long, large at the end next to the ovary, but communicating with the womb by an opening which admits only a bristle. These tubes conduct the ova (see OVUM) from the ovaries to the interior of the womb. Blockage of the Fallopian tubes by a chronic in?ammatory process resulting from infection is a not uncommon cause of infertility in women. (See ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.)... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Another method of helping infertile couples. In over half of women diagnosed as infertile, the Fallopian tubes are normal, and in many it is unknown why they cannot conceive – although some have ENDOMETRIOSIS.

Eggs are obtained and mixed with the partner’s semen, then introduced into the woman’s Fallopian tubes for fertilisation to take place. The fertilised egg travels to the uterus where IMPLANTATION occurs and pregnancy proceeds. A variation of GIFT is zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) in which early development of the fertilised eggs happens in the laboratory before the young embryo is transferred to the Fallopian tubes. GIFT is best used in couples with unexplained infertility or with minor degrees of male or female cervical factor infertility. The success rate is about 17 per cent. (See also ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.)... Medical Dictionary

Medicinal Plants

Calabash (Crescentia cujete).

Plant Part Used: Fruit pulp.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit pulp: added fresh to multi-herb preparations, taken internally for infections in general, vaginal infections, infertility, fibroids, cysts, menopausal symptoms, childbirth and post-partum recovery.

Safety: Signs of toxicity exhibited in birds and cattle.

Contraindications: Pregnancy; not to be used for ear infection if ear secretions or perforation of ear drum is evident.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antimicrobial (leaf and stem ethanol extracts, fruit pulp).

In vivo: anti-inflammatory (hydroalcoholic leaf extract).

* See entry for Higüero in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Holostemma ada-kodien

Asclepiadaceae

San: Jivanti;

Hin: Chirvel, Charivel;

Mal: Atapathiyan, Atapotiyan, Atakotiyan;

Tam: Palaikkirai;

Tel: Palagurugu; Mar: Dudurli, Shidodi;

Guj: Kharner, Khiravel

Importance: Holostemma is a twining shrub with large flowers. The roots of Holostemma are useful in ophthalmopathy, orchitis, cough, burning sensation, stomachalgia, constipation, fever and tridoshas. The leaves, flowers and fruits are eaten as vegetable. The root is also used in spermatorrhoea. It is used in preparations of Vidaryadiganam, Dhanwandharam thaila, Manasamithravatakam, Balarishta and Anuthaila. It is also useful in eye diseases and it imparts resistance to diseases.

Distribution: The plant occurs in tropical countries. In India, it is found in Himalayas, Dehradun, Konkan, Bombay, Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. It grows over hedges and in open forests especially on the lower slopes of the hills. It is also distributed in Sri Lanka, Burma and W. China.

Botany: Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. syn. Holostemma annulare (Roxb.) K. Schum.

Holostemma rheedii Wall. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is a laticiferous twining shrub with large conspicuous flowers. Leaves are simple, opposite and cordate. Flowers are purple, arranged in axillary umbellate cymes. Fruits are thick follicles, 9 cm long, cylindrical and bluntly pointed. The roots are long upto 1 m or more, irregularly twisted, thick and cylindrical. When dry it is yellowish brown to brown black in colour with nearly smooth surface bearing white scars and small depressions. A mature root is about 1-2 cm thick when extracted for use (Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Holostemma prefers a tropical climate. The plant is propagated vegetatively by stem cuttings, but mainly by seeds. The seeds are collected from the plant in November-December before being dispersed. Seeds are cleaned, dried and stored for sowing. The stored seeds after soaking in water for 4-5 hours are sown in the seedbeds. About one month old seedlings are then planted in polybags of size 14x10cm which are filled with soil, sand and dried cowdung in 1:1:1 ratio, respectively. Polybags should be kept in shade and irrigated. About 1-1.5 month old seedlings are ready for transplanting. Pits of 30cm cube size are taken at 1-1.2m distance and filled with 10kg dried cowdung and sand. This is covered with surface soil and formed into a mound. Seedlings are transplanted on to the mounds from the polybags carefully. Regular irrigation is to be given till flowering. To aid in trailing, staking is given one month after planting. Flowering and fruiting occurs in November-December. Harvesting can be done at the end of second year when the vines start drying up. Harvesting is done by digging up the tubers. The tubers are cut into pieces of 10cm length and dried in sun before sale (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Holostemma tubers give -amyrin, lupeol and -sitosterol. Alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, serine, threonine and valine were detected chromatographically (Hussain et al, 1992). The root is antidiabetic, antigonorrhoeic, bechic, alterative, tonic, lactative, ophthalmic, emollient, stimulant, aphrodisiac, expectorant and galactagogue.

BLACH MUSALE Curculigo orchioides Amaryllidaceae

San: Musali;

Hin: Kalimusali, Mushali;

Ben: Talamuli;

Mal: Nilappana;

Guj: Musalikand

Tam: Nilapanai;

Tel: Nelatadi Kelangu;

Kan: Neladali

Importance: Musali is a small, geophilous herb, the tuberous rootstock of which is used as a rejuvenating and aphrodisiac drug. It cures morbid vata and pitta, improves complexion and is useful in general debility, deafness, cough, asthma, piles, skin diseases, impotence, jaundice, urinary disorders, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1963; Mooss, 1978). Rootstock is the officinal part and it enters into the Ayurvedic formulations like Vidaryadighrta, Vidaryadi lehya, Marmagulika, Musalyadi churna etc. The Pharmacognosy of C. orchioides has been discussed by Aiyer, Kolamma l (1963), Raghunathan, and Mitra (1982). A bibliographical study on C. orchioides has been done by Pandey et al (1983).

Distribution: The plant is found in all districts of India from near sea level to 2300m altitude, especially in rock crevices and laterite soil. It has been recorded to occur in the sub tropical Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards ascending to 1800m, the Khasia hills, Bengal, Asssam, Konkan, Kanara, the western peninsula and Madras extending south as far as a Cape Comerin. It is also distributed in Sri Lanka, Japan, Malaysia and Australia.

Botany: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. syn. C. malabarica Wight, C. brevifolia Dryand, Hypoxis dulcis Stand belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. Musali is a small herbaceous plant with cylindrical rootstock. Leaves are simple, sessile, crowded on the short stem with sheathing leaf bases. Flowers are bright yellow. Seeds are black, deeply grooved in wavy lines.

A detailed description of the plant is as follows (Victoria, 1998). Rootstock is straight, cylindrical, tuberous, 5-22cm long, 0.5-0.8 cm thick, brownish surfaces marked with closely spaced prominent transverse wrinkles in the upper or basal half. It bears a few stout lateral roots of 5 or more cm long. Lateral roots are dull white in colour and spongy externally. The fresh cut surfaces of the rootstock has a starch white colour and mucilaginous. A few fibrous roots also occur. Leaves are sessile or short petiolate with sheathing bases, 15-45x1.2-2.5 cm size, linear or linear lanceolate, membranous, glabrouus or sparsely sofly hairy and plicate in bud. The leaf tips when contacts the soil, develops roots and produce adventitious buds. Inflorescence is axillary, scapose racemose, the scape very short and hidden among the bases of leaves underground, clavte, flattened with the pedicels, bracts and the ovary concealed in the leaf sheaths. The lower big flowers on the scape are mostly bisexual and the upper small ones staminate. Flowers are epigynous bright yellow, bisexual or unisxual with lanceolate, memb ranous bract.. Perianth gamophyllous, rotate & six lobed, locate at the top of a slender sterile long extension of the ovary by means of which the perianth is exposed above the ground. Perianth lobes similar, elliptic oblong 1.2-1.6 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm broad, outer lobes hairy on the back, inner ones sparsely hairy along nerves. Stamens 6 in number, filamentous filiform, short 2mm long, adnate to the base of the perianth lobes, Anthers linear or linear lanceolate, basifixed and sagittate,.Ovary inferior, hidden among the leaves usually below the ground, tricarpellary syncarpous, lanceolate and trilocular with a fairly long slender beak or extension -the stipe. Ovules many in each cell attached by a distinct long funicle. Style short columnar, 2mm with a 3 lobed stigma. Lobes elongate, erect and appressed. Fruit is a capsule about 1.5-2cm long, 8mm broad, oblong, glabrescent with a slender beak and spongy septa. Seeds 1-many, oblong, black, shiny with crustaceous testa grooved deeply in wavy lines.

Properties and activity: Rao and Beri (1951) have identified glucose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid from the rootstock of C. orchioides. The rootstock is also reported to contain glycoside, polysaccharides (hemicellulose and other polysaccharides), starch, resin, tannin, mucilage, fat and calcium oxalate. The hexane extract contains an alkaloid-lycorine, sterols including -sitosterols and sapogenin identified as yuccagenin (Rao et al, 1978). The flavone glycoside from the rootstock has been identified as 5,7- dimethoxy glucopyranoside (Yadav et al, 1974; Sharma et al 1975). Mehta et al (1980) have isolated a number of fatty acids from C. orchioides root oil by GLC techniques. They are palmitic, oleic, linolenic linoleic, arachidic and behenic acid. Kubo et al (1983) isolated a new phenolic glycoside namely, curculigoside from the rhizomes and its structure has been elucidated as 5- hydroxy-2-0- -d-glucopyranosyl benzl 1,2,6-dimethoxy benzoate. Yamasaki et al (1994) developed HPLC method for estimating the curculigoside content in curculigo rhizome.

Two new aliphatic hydroxy ketone 27-hydroxy tricontan-6-one (M. P. 84-85o C) and 23- hydroxy tricontan-2-one (M. P. 109-110 o C) were isolated from the rhizome by Misra et al (1984). They also isolated 21-hydroxy tetracontan-20-one and 4-methyl heptade canoic acid from the root stock. Porwal et al (1988) have isolated and identified three new compounds from the rhizome as N- acetyl-N-hydroxy-2-carbamic acid methyl ester, 3-acetyl-5-carbomethoxy-2H-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,3,5,6-oxatetrazine and N, N, N’, N’-tetra methyl succinamide. The rhizomes of C. orchioides yielded a new phenolic glycoside corchioside a, characterised as orcinol-3- -D-xylopyranosyl- (1 6)- -D-glucopyranoside and hentriacontanol (Garg et al, 1989).

A new aliphatic compound has been isolated from the rhizomes and characterised as 25- dihydroxy-33-methyl pentatricontan-one (Mehta et al, 1990). Misra et al (1990) isolated a new natural triterpene alcohol-Curculigol charactrised as 24-methy cycloart-7-en-3-beta-20-diol. A novel pentacyclic triterpene has been isolated from the rhizomes of C.orchioides and characterised as 31- methyl-3-oxo-20-ursen-28-oic acid (Metha and Gawarikar,1991). Xu and Xu (1992) and Xu et al (1992 a, b) have isolated 13 cycloartane type. Triterpene glycosides from C. orchioides rhizome and characterised them as curculigo saponin A-M.

The root stock are mucilaginous, sweet, cooling, bitter, emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, depurative, alternative, appetiser, carminative, viriligenic, antipyretic and tonic (Sivarajan and Indira, 1994; Warrier et al, 1994).

The uterine stimulant activity of the flavone glycoside extracted from C. orchioides has been studied by Dhawan and Saxena (1958), Sharma et al (1975) and Dhar et al (1979).

The plant extract of C. orchioides showed hypoglycaemic, spasmolytic and anticancer properties (Dhar et al,1968). Phagocytic activity (Kubo et al, 1983) and immunoadjuvant activity (Oru et al, 1982) of phenolic glycosides, curculigoside isolated from the rhizome of the plant have been reported. Porwal and Mehta (1985) discussed the medicinal importance of the plant and its use in indigenous system of medicine as a tonic. Sharma et al (1991) reported the influence of MAK an ayurvedic food supplement constituting C. orchioides against Dimethyl benz anthracene induced mammary tumours in rats. Samanta (1992) reported the modulation of male infertility by Ayurvedic drug, which constitutes C. orchioides. Immunostimulant activity of C. orchioides has been demonstrated by Saxena (1992). Immunological activites of curculigo saponin G were assayed in mice and the results showed that it promoted proliferation of spleen lymphocyctes very significantly and increased the weight of the thymus in vivo in mice (Xu et al,1992).

Pharmacological studies in China, on the alcoholic extract obtained from the plant showed several active effects such as adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, sedative, androgenic and immunopromoting activities (Xu et al, 1992).

Curculigo orchioides is distributed widely throughout the country. The demand of the raw materials and derivatives of the plant for the indigenous drug industries are satisfied mainly from the wild source, depleting the natural population and thus the species have become extinct or endangered. Ansari (1993) have reported C. orchioides as a threatened plant from Madhulia forest of Garakhpur. Augustin and Souza (1995) also considered the plant as an endangered species. As the information on the cultivation of C.orchioides is scanty, it is very necessary to develop suitable agrotechniques for the domestication and large-scale cultivation of the plant.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

Medical Dictionary

A condition characterised by underactivity of the testes (see TESTICLE) or OVARIES – the gonads. The condition may be caused by a genetically based disorder resulting in an abnormally functioning gonad (primary hypogonadism) or by a malfunctioning PITUITARY GLAND that fails to produce an adequate amount of gonadotrophin hormone (see GONADOTROPHINS) – secondary hypogonadism. Those a?ected may fail to develop adequately the secondary characteristics of their sex: males will have delayed puberty, erectile impotence and infertility and also develop GYNAECOMASTIA; females also have delayed puberty, infertility, and sometimes HIRSUTISM.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Underactivity of the PITUITARY GLAND. It can cause dwar?sm, delayed puberty, impotence, infertility, AMENORRHOEA, hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), and hypoadrenalism. Causes include tumours, irradiation of the gland, SARCOIDOSIS, and necrosis associated with post-partum haemorrhage (Sheehan’s syndrome).... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most signi?cant therapeutic advance in male INFERTILITY treatment in the past 30 years. The technique is used when in vitro fertilisation (IVF – see under ASSISTED CONCEPTION) is not possible because the man has very few, motile, normal sperm (see SPERMATOZOON), or when previous attempts at IVF have not produced a fertilised EMBRYO. ICSI requires a single sperm which is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg previously retrieved from the woman. Once fertilised, the embryo is transferred to her UTERUS. For men with no sperm in the semen, it may be possible to retrieve sperm by needle aspiration of the EPIDIDYMIS under local anaesthetic (see ANAESTHESIA). Other techniques involve microsurgical retrieval from the epididymis or TESTICLE under a general anaesthetic. Potential complications include scrotal pain, bruising, HAEMATOMA formation and infection. ICSI and surgical sperm-retrieval require extensive training and expertise and is currently available in only a few selected

infertility units. Safety concerns relate to a higher-than-expected rate of abnormalities in the SEX CHROMOSOMES after ICSI, and also the potential risk of transmitting paternal genetic defects in the Y chromosome to sons born after ICSI.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

A method of helping CONCEPTION to occur when a man is infertile (see INFERTILITY) because his sperm (see SPERMATOZOON) cannot penetrate either the cervical mucus at the entrance of the UTERUS or the barriers that surround the OVUM. The sperm, often treated chemically beforehand to increase motility, are injected directly into the uterus via the VAGINA.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

The original syndrome described by Klinefelter consisted of GYNAECOMASTIA, testicular ATROPHY and INFERTILITY. Intelligence was unimpaired. Patients have been described who have associated mental defects and striking tallness of stature, but the only constant feature of the syndrome is testicular atrophy with resulting azoospermia and infertility.

The atrophy of the testis is the result of ?brosis, which begins to appear in childhood and progresses until all the seminiferous tubules are replaced by ?brous tissue. Gynaecomastia, mental retardation and eunuchoidism (see EUNUCH; loss of male secondary sexual characteristics – small penis, loss of body hair and a high-pitched voice) may be present. Most patients with Klinefelter’s syndrome have 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46. The extra chromosome is an X chromosome, so that the sex chromosome constitution is XXY instead of XY. Klinefelter’s syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities and occurs in 1 in 300 of the male population. Patients with this syndrome show that the Y chromosome is strongly sex-determining: thus, a patient who has an XXY chromosome constitution may have the appearance of a normal male, with infertility the only incapacity, while the loss of a Y chromosome leads to the development of a bodily form which is essentially feminine (see TURNER’S SYNDROME).... Medical Dictionary

Medicinal Plants

Manufactured herbal preparation sold at botánicas and used for women’s health conditions, including menopause, infertility, vaginal infections, menstrual irregularities and uterine fibroids.... Medicinal Plants

Medical Dictionary

Twins occur about once in 80 pregnancies, triplets once in 6,000, and quadruplets about once in 500,000. Quintuplets are exceedingly rare. Such is the natural state of a?airs.

In recent years, however, the position has been altered by the introduction of the so-called fertility drugs, such as CLOMIPHENE, and human menopausal gonadotrophin which, through the medium of the PITUITARY GLAND, stimulate the production of ova (see OVUM). Their wide use in the treatment of INFERTILITY has resulted in an increase in the number of multiple births, a recognised hazard of giving too large a dose.

Twins may be binovular or uniovular. Binovular, or fraternal, twins are the result of the mother’s releasing two ova within a few days of each other and both being fertilised by separate spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON). They both develop separately in the mother’s womb and are no more alike than is usual with members of the same family. They are three times as common as uniovular, or identical, twins, who are developed from a single ovum fertilised by a single spermatozoon, but which has split early in development. This is why they are usually so remarkably alike in looks and mental characteristics. Unlike binovular twins, who may be of the same or di?erent sex, they are always of the same sex.

So far as fraternal, or binovular, twins are concerned, multiple pregnancy may be an inherited tendency; it certainly occurs more often in certain families, but this may be partly due to chance. A woman who has already given birth to twins is ten times more likely to have another multiple pregnancy than one who has not previously had twins. The statistical chance of a third pair of twins is 1:512,000. Identical twins do not run in families.

The relative proportion of twins of each type varies in di?erent races. Identical twins have much the same frequency all over the world: around 3 per 1,000 maternities. Fraternal twins are rare in Mongolian races: less than 3 per 1,000 maternities. In Caucasians they occur two or three times as often as identical twins: between 7 (Spain and Portugal) and 10 (Czech and Slovak Republics and Greece) per 1,000 maternities. They are more common in Afro-Caribbeans, reaching 30 per 1,000 maternities in certain West African populations.

Rarely, uniovular twins may not develop as separate individuals, being physically joined in some way. They are called conjoined or (traditionally) Siamese twins. Depending on the extent of common structures shared by the infants – this ranges from a common umbilical cord to twins with conjoined heads or a common liver – the infants may be successfully separated by surgery. (See CONJOINED TWINS.)

Parents of twins, triplets, etc. can obtain advice and help from the Twins and Multiple Births Association (TAMBA).... Medical Dictionary

Herbal Medical

Mumps, also known as epidemic parotitis, is an infectious disease characterised by in?ammatory swelling of the PAROTID GLAND and other SALIVARY GLANDS – often occurring as an EPIDEMIC and a?ecting mostly young people. Its name comes from the old verb, ‘mump’, meaning to mope or assume a disconsolate appearance – an apt description of the victim of the disease at its height.

Causes Mumps is due to infection with a virus and is highly infectious from person to person. It is predominantly a disease of childhood and early adult life, but it can occur at any age. Epidemics usually occur in the winter and spring. It is infectious for two or three days before the swelling of the glands appears. A vaccine is now available that gives a high degree of protection against the disease, the incidence of which is falling sharply. The vaccine is combined with those for MEASLES and RUBELLA – see MMR VACCINE; IMMUNISATION.

Symptoms There is an incubation period of 2–3 weeks after infection before the glands begin to swell. The gland ?rst a?ected is generally the parotid, situated in front of and below the ear. The swelling usually spreads to the submaxillary and sublingual glands lying beneath the jaw. The patient is feverish and the gland is tender. The swelling disappears after about ?ve days. In 15–30 per cent of males, in?ammation of the testicles (orchitis) develops. This usually occurs during the second week of the illness, but may not occur until 2–3 weeks later; it may result in partial ATROPHY of the testicles, but practically never in INFERTILITY. In a much smaller proportion of females with mumps, in?ammation of the OVARIES or BREASTS may occur. In?ammation of the PANCREAS, accompanied by tenderness in the upper part of the abdomen and digestive disturbances, sometimes results, and MENINGITIS is also an occasional complication. The various complications are found much more often when the disease a?ects adults than when it occurs in childhood.

Treatment There is no speci?c treatment but ANALGESICS and plenty of ?uid should be available. The child may need to be in bed for a few days and should not return to school until the symptoms have settled. Adults with orchitis may need strong painkillers, and CORTICOSTEROIDS may be required to reduce the painful swelling.... Herbal Medical

Medical Dictionary

A less-than-normal number of sperm (see SPERMATOZOON) present in each unit volume of seminal ?uid (each ml of semen usually contains 20 million sperm). The condition may be permanent or temporary and is a major cause of INFERTILITY in men. It may be caused by ORCHITIS, an undescended testis, or VARICOCELE, and should be investigated.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

A binocular MICROSCOPE used for MICROSURGERY on, for example, the EYE and middle EAR; this microscope is also used for suturing nerves and blood vessels damaged or severed by trauma and for rejoining obstructed FALLOPIAN TUBES in the treatment of INFERTILITY in women.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Oöphoritis (infection of the ovaries) rarely occurs alone, except in viral infections such as mumps. Usually it is associated with infection of the FALLOPIAN TUBES (SALPINGITIS). It may occur as a complication of a miscarriage, a therapeutic abortion, or the birth of a baby. Cases not associated with pregnancy typically result from sexual activity: the most common organisms involved are Chlamydia, E. coli, and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Cervical swabs should be sent for culture and analgesics given, together with the appropriate antibiotics.

Failure of OVULATION is the cause of INFERTILITY in around a third of couples seeking help with conception. It may also lead to menstrual problems (see MENSTRUATION), such as an irregular menstrual cycle or MENORRHAGIA. An uncommon cause of failure of ovulation is POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME, often associated with acne, hirsutism, and obesity. Treatment depends on the symptoms. Early ovarian failure is the cause of premature MENOPAUSE. Treatment consists of hormone replacement therapy using a combination of oestrogen and progestogen.

Ovarian cysts (for example, follicular cysts) result from ovulation. They may be symptomless but sometimes cause abdominal pain, pain during intercourse or disturbances in menstruation. Twisting or rupture can cause severe pain, pyrexia (fever) and nausea, and explorative surgery – endoscopic laparotomy – may be needed to establish a diagnosis (symptoms of ECTOPIC PREGNANCY are similar). The ovary may have to be removed. Simple cysts often disappear of their own accord but a large cyst can cause pressure on surrounding structures and therefore should be surgically removed.

In young women the most common benign tumour is a dermoid cyst, while in older women, ?broma (see under UTERUS, DISEASES OF) is more common. All benign tumours should be removed surgically in order to be sure they are not malignant.

Malignant tumours may be primary (arising in the ovary) or secondary (metastases from a cancer developing in another organ). Treatment depends upon the site and type of the primary tumour.

Around 5,000 women a year are diagnosed as having ovarian cancer in England and Wales. Unfortunately it is not readily detected in its early stages; around 85 per cent of women do not see a doctor until after the tumour has spread. Early tumours present with symptoms similar to benign tumours, while late ones present with abdominal distension, pain and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. The disease is most common in menopausal women. Earlier diagnosis and treatment can be achieved by ULTRASOUND screening. Treatment is surgical, aimed at totally removing the tumour mass. Nowadays RADIOTHERAPY is only used for palliation. CHEMOTHERAPY is often given to patients with ovarian metastases, or who have residual disease after surgery. The most active cytotoxic agent is the taxane, PACLITAXEL – especially when it is combined with cisplatin.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Characterised by scanty (or absent) MENSTRUATION, INFERTILITY, hirsutism (excessive hairiness) and OBESITY and the su?erers often have multiple cysts in their OVARIES.

The condition is caused by an imbalance between LUTEINISING HORMONE (LH) and FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH); this imbalance stops OVULATION and varies the TESTOSTERONE output of the ovaries. The treatment may be with CLOMIPHENE; with a PROGESTOGEN drug; with LUTEINISING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE (LHRH); or with oral contraceptives (see under CONTRACEPTION – Non-barrier methods). The treatment chosen depends on the severity of the disease and whether the woman wants to conceive. Rarely a section of ovarian tissue is surgically removed.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Action taken to prevent CONCEPTION after sexual intercourse. The type of contraception may be hormonal, or it may be an intrauterine device (see below, and under CONTRACEPTION). Pregnancy after intercourse without contraception – or where contraception has failed as a result, for example, of a leaking condom – may be avoided with a course of ‘morning-after’ contraceptive pills. Such preparations usually contain an oestrogen (see OESTROGENS) and a PROGESTOGEN. Two doses should be taken within 72 hours of ‘unprotected’ intercourse. An alternative for the woman is to take a high dose of oestrogen on its own. The aim is to postpone OVULATION and to a?ect the lining of the UTERUS so that the egg is unable to implant itself.

Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) This, in e?ect, is a form of post-coital contraception. The IUCD is a plastic shape up to 3 cm long around which copper wire is wound, carrying plastic thread from its tail. Colloquially known as a coil, it acts by inhibiting implantation and may also impair migration of sperm. Devices need changing every 3–5 years. Coils have generally replaced the larger, non-copper-bearing ‘inert’ types of IUCD, which caused more complications but did not need changing (so are sometimes still found in situ). They tend to be chosen as a method of contraception (6 per cent) by older, parous women in stable relationships, with a generally low problem rate.

Nevertheless, certain problems do occur with IUCDs, the following being the most common:

They tend to be expelled by the uterus in women who have never conceived, or by a uterus distorted by, say, ?broids.

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY is more likely.

They are associated with pelvic infection and INFERTILITY, following SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) – or possibly introduced during insertion.

They often produce heavy, painful periods (see MENSTRUATION), and women at high risk of these problems (e.g. women who are HIV positive [see AIDS/HIV], or with WILSON’S DISEASE or cardiac lesions) should generally be excluded – unless the IUCD is inserted under antibiotic cover.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

A test for INFERTILITY. A specimen of cervical mucus, taken up to 24 hours after coitus (during the post-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle), is examined microscopically to assess the motility of the sperms. If motility is above a certain level, then sperms and mucus are not interacting abnormally – thus eliminating one cause of sterility.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

Prolactin is the pituitary hormone (see PITUITARY GLAND) which initiates lactation. The development of the breasts during pregnancy is ascribed to the action of OESTROGENS; prolactin starts them secreting. If lactation does not occur or fails, it may be started by injection of prolactin.

The secretion of prolactin is normally kept under tonic inhibition by the secretion of DOPAMINE which inhibits prolactin. This is formed in the HYPOTHALAMUS and secreted into the portal capillaries of the pituitary stalk to reach the anterior pituitary cells. Drugs that deplete the brain stores of dopamine or antagonise dopamine at receptor level will cause HYPERPROLACTINAEMIA and hence the secretion of milk from the breast and AMENORRHOEA. METHYLDOPA and RESERPINE deplete brain stores of dopamine and the PHENOTHIAZINES act as dopamine antagonists at receptor level. Other causes of excess secretion of prolactin are pituitary tumours, which may be minute and are then called microadenomas, or may actually enlarge the pituitary fossa and are then called macroadenomas. The most common cause of hyperprolactinaemia is a pituitary tumour. The patient may present with infertility – because patients with hyperprolactinaemia do not ovulate – or with amenorrhea and even GALACTORRHOEA.

BROMOCRIPTINE is a dopamine agonist. Treatment with bromocriptine will therefore control hyperprolactinaemia, restoring normal menstruation and ovulation and suppressing galactorrhoea. If the cause of hyperprolactinaemia is an adenomatous growth in the pituitary gland, surgical treatment should be considered.... Medical Dictionary

Indian Medicinal Plants

Batsch.

Synonym: Persica vulgaris Nutt. Amydgala persica Linn.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; cultivated in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Kumaon.

English: Peach.

Ayurvedic: Aaluka, Aaruka, Aru, Pichuka.

Action: Fruit—mild tranquillizer, expectorant, diuretic, antipyretic. Bark or leaves—used as tea for morning sickness, dry and hard cough, whooping cough and bronchitis. Leaves—used in leucoderma.

Flowers—galactagogue. Peach seeds are a constituent of a traditional Chinese herbal drug which has been used for the treatment of gynaecological disorders such as hypermen- orrhea, dysmenorrhoea and infertility.

Peach fruit extract containing nitrile glycosides, such as prunasin and amyg- dalin, has been reported to inhibit the growth of Sarcoma-180 cells in culture.

Fast-acting, wrinkle-eliminating cosmetic formulations contain peach kernel extract as one of the components.

The heartwood contains beta-sitos- terol and its D-glucoside, hentriacon- tane, hentriacontanol, and the flavo- noids naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, kaempferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

Medicinal Plants

Manufactured herbal preparation sold at botánicas and used for women’s health conditions, including menopause, infertility, vaginal infections, menstrual irregularities and uterine fibroids.... Medicinal Plants

Beneficial Teas

Shatavari tea is the main remedy if you suffer from sexual problems. Some say that Shatavari is the most important herb in Ayurvedic medicine. For centuries, the Indians used its roots and rhizomes to treat and even cure some of the most important health problems. Shatavari is a plant with sharp and shiny leaves, white flowers and dark fruits that grows in the rocky areas of the high plains in India, but also in the Himalayan region. Shatavari tea properties Shatavari means “a woman who has a hundred husbands ” because it is well known that this plant is used to treat the female reproductive system and not only: it can also be used for men’s wellness (combined with ashwagandha, makes a great male reproductive treatment and a very good sexual endurance enhancer). Also, the sweet roots of Shatavari could very well replace any meal , turning this particular herb into a “superfood” for women. And let’s not forget the fact that it is also a good remedy for stress, a well-known antioxidant and a great help when it comes to anti-aging solutions.  Treatments- Shatavari tea benefits Shatavari tea is useful for chronic fever and dehydration, ulcers and gastritis, dysentery and diarrhea, infertility, it helps fighting heart problems and calming the nerves. The good news is that you can take it even if you’re pregnant. In fact, Shatavari is a very good galactologue, so it actually helps with lactation (but do not drink too much or it will quickly cause leaking). Also, Shatavari tea helps with menstrual and menopausal problems and strengthens the female reproductive system. How to make Shatavari Infusion First thing you need to do is make sure the roots and rhizomes you’re about to use are clean and very dry. Simmer them in hot water for 15 minutes. For better results, wait another 15 minutes for the wellness benefits of Shatavari tea to be infused and you’ve got your own medicine cabinet in a pot. Take the Shatavari tea once or twice a day. Shatavari tea side effects If you’re sensitive to asparagus, you’ll be sensitive to Shatavari tea as well so it is better to avoid it. The same advice goes for patients with edema due to kidney disorder or impaired heart function. Another aspect you should really keep an eye on is your weight: a well balanced diet will prevent you from gaining weight while taking the tea. Shatavari tea- Contraindications Do not take Shatavari tea in case you have massive fibrocystic breasts or estrogen induced problems. To make sure everything will be fine, talk to your doctor before starting the treatment. It’s not hard to imagine why the Indians named this plant the most important herb of the Ayurvedic medicine: great benefits, few side effects. So, if you are looking for something to boost your energy and health really fast, look for Shatavari tea next time you’re in a tea shop.... Beneficial Teas

Medical Dictionary

The state of (1) being free of infectious agents or (2) permanent INFERTILITY.... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

An OESTROGENS receptor antagonist – namely, the drug blocks the action of oestrogen – which is the treatment of choice for breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) in postmenopausal women in conjunction with LUMPECTOMY or partial or complete MASTECTOMY. Around 30 per cent of patients in whom breast cancer has spread to adjacent glands or beyond respond to this hormonal treatment. In patients with tumours that are oestrogen-sensitive, the positive response to tamoxifen is 60 per cent; those tumours that are not oestrogen-sensitive are much less likely to respond to the drug. Tamoxifen increases both survival rates and the period between the diagnosis of the tumour and appearance of metastatic growth (see METASTASIS) in tumours sensitive to it. The drug has fewer adverse e?ects than most others used for treating breast cancer. Patients in whom the cancer has spread to the bone(s) may su?er pain with tamoxifen treatment.

Tamoxifen is also used to treat INFERTILITY, being taken on certain days of the menstrual cycle (see MENSTRUATION).... Medical Dictionary

Beneficial Teas

Cellulite is a painless affection which consists of the fat layer growth. This is not very unusual and many women around the world suffer from it. Generally, cellulite is your body’s way of protecting your organism when you’re pregnant. On the other hand, you can develop cellulite from having a very unbalanced diet: unhealthy foods and drinks (sodas and fast food). Also, the lack of workout and exercise will slow your calories from burning, making them stick mostly to your hips and thighs. How Tea for Cellulite Works A Tea for Cellulite’s main purpose is to make your blood veins work properly and eliminate the lipids surplus. Also, their action implies veins dilatation and increased blood pressure so that your entire body will work to get rid of the unwanted fats. What you need to know about cellulite is that this is not regular fat and, at times, even thin women have it. Keeping a diet will not make it go away so don’t starve yourself to death! Efficient Tea for Cellulite When choosing a Tea for Cellulite, you must keep in mind a couple of facts: it must be very efficient and safe. Since having a cellulite will not hurt more than your feelings, alternative medicine practitioners advice against all pills that promise to work miracles on your body and recommend, instead, an herbal treatment. If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to guide you on: - Horse Chestnut Tea – it has anti inflammatory properties. Its main active constituent, Aescin, improves your blood flow by decreasing the pore size of your capillary walls. This will make your skin look a lot smoother and reduce the cellulite level. - Ginkgo Biloba Tea – is a great vasodilator whose main goal is to improve circulation. This Tea for Cellulite will also stop cholesterol level from enhancing and it can be used to treat memory loss, stress, anxiety, headaches and anemia. However, don’t drink more than 3 cups per day or you’ll get diarrhea. - Green Tea – has blood thinning properties, so you must avoid it at all costs in case you’re already on regular blood thinners. A cup of Green Tea per day will also improve your general health and bring relief in case you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, headaches or stress. However, don’t take it if you’re on menopause or menstruation in order to avoid stomach irritations and uterine contractions. - Dandelion Tea – will enhance your liver’s ability to process lipids faster and energize your entire body. However, this Tea for Cellulite is also a strong diuretic and purgative so you may want to avoid it if you suffer from diarrhea or upset stomach. Also, too much dandelion tea might cause urinary tract infections. Tea for Cellulite Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may weaken your digestive and nervous systems and lead to vomiting, nausea, headaches and even hallucinations. Before starting a treatment based on a Tea for Cellulite, talk to your doctor in order to find out which are the risks. Don’t take any of these teas if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a surgery. Children shouldn’t be allowed to take an herbal treatment since there is no study to prove how safe it is for them. But if you have the green light from your doctor and nothing could interfere with your Tea for Cellulite cure, choose a tea that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Cramps are described as a strong abdominal pain that is due to a series of causes, starting with menstruation, menopause and ending with liver and kidney failure. Also, exercising too much can lead to muscular pains and painful muscular contractions. Generally, practitioners around the world recommend a pause and a number of traditional pain killers. But, since cramps is a temporary condition, alternative medicine fans vote for an herbal treatment. How a Tea for Cramps Works Basically, a Tea for Cramps’ main goal is to distress your entire body, not just the cramps, inducing a state of calmness to the affected areas. The main thing about these teas is that they can trigger a natural positive reaction from your body that will release endorphins, making you feel a lot better. Don’t use a massage for cramps under no circumstance! Cramps are caused by deep structures and massage will only give you a vomiting sensation. Efficient Tea for Cramps When choosing a Tea for Cramps, you must keep in mind the fact that it has to be both efficient and safe (you don’t want to aggravate your state or cause new problems thanks to this tea). If you don’t know which teas are appropriate for your condition, here’s a list to guide you: - Chamomile Tea – well known thanks to its anti inflammatory and astringent properties, this particular Tea for Cramps is also a great healer when it comes to many other disorders, such as nausea, stress, anxiety, menstrual and menopausal symptoms and even diabetes. It has a pleasant taste and a nice fragrance and it can easily become a daily habit since it’s one hundred percent safe. However, don’t drink more than 6 cups per day in order to avoid diarrhea. - Wild Yam Tea – it is very effective in treating pre and postmenstrual syndromes and it is responsible for your body’s positive response. Its action is very effective and rapid, but you must not take more than two cups per day in order to avoid other health complications. - Corn Silk Tea – can ameliorate any kind of localized pain, provide that you don’t forget this is a medical treatment and it could cause negative reactions. Since this Tea for Cramps is a powerful diuretic, make sure you do not exceed the number of cups recommended per day (this way, you will avoid diarrhea or uterine infections). - Raspberry Leaf Tea – also used to treat menstrual and menopausal pains, this tea is well known for its ability to treat infertility and other conditions of the female reproductive system. Thanks to its vitamin C level, Raspberry Leaf Tea can also treat auto-immune deficiencies, such as anemia, colds, or flu. Tea for Cramps Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, do not exceed the number of cups recommended per day and always ask your doctor’s advice before starting any herbal treatment. Do not take a Tea for Cramps if you are pregnant, on anti-coagulants or blood thinners. These teas may cause miscarriage due to their strong diuretic and purgative properties. If you have the medical approval and you feel like trying an herbal remedy this time, choose a Tea for Cramps that fits you best and enjoy its natural benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

When it comes to erectile dysfunctions, not many men have the courage to accept the fact that there’s something wrong with their body and ask for medical assistance. However, you must know that there’s nothing to be ashamed of and that there’s a high percentage of men around the world who suffer from the same disorder you do. Scientists have proved that most erectile dysfunction causes are external and one could hardly be blamed for it. Also, the treatment is rarely painful and it’s best to cure your affection than wait for it to get worse. How a Tea for Erectile Dysfunction Works A Tea for Erectile Dysfunction’s main goal is to make your body produce enough natural enzymes and endorphins to induce a state of calmness to your male reproductive system. A Tea for Erectile Dysfunction must be rich in tannins, volatile oils, nutrients and minerals (manganese, magnesium, iron, sodium) and must not do you any harm. If you found out about a risky treatment, it’s best to avoid it and ask a specialist for assistance. Efficient Tea for Erectile Dysfunction In order to work properly, a Tea for Erectile Dysfunction needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. Of course, traditional medicine has a various number of treatments in store for you, but they are not always effective, so it’s possible to ingest pills for no reason, putting your liver through an unnecessary stress. If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list for guidance: - Ginseng Tea – is best known for its contribution to a better sexual life. However, make sure you only use a small amount of herb when preparing this decoction in order to avoid nervous system ailments, such as nausea, hallucinations and severe headaches. - Gingko Tea – this Tea for Erectile Dysfunction is also a great help for memory loss, asthenia and anemia. You can drink as much as you want (however, it’s best to not exceed 6 cups per day or you’ll develop an acid foods and drinks gastric intolerance). - Catuaba Tea – is very popular in the South American regions and it’s mainly used as a sexual enhancer. However, this decoction has also healing properties, being able to induce sexual desire while calming the affected areas. Anyway, you need to pay attention to the amount of Catuaba Tea you’re ingesting, since it’s not a very safe remedy. Even better, ask for medical assistance before taking a treatment based on Catuaba Tea. - Black Cohosh- contains three classes of compounds and acts as a natural sexual enhancer, but it also has a lot of curative properties, being able to treat infertility in both men and women. However, since this treatment it’s not a very safe one, it’s best not to take it unsupervised. Tea for Erectile Dysfunction Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are one hundred percent safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of problems, such as gastric problems, nausea, headaches, migraines and upset stomach. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual symptoms, ask for medical assistance immediately! Do not take a Tea for Erectile Dysfunction if you’re on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a surgery (some of the active constituents found in these teas may elevate your heartbeat and cause cardiac arrest). If your doctor gives you the green light, choose a Tea for Erectile Dysfunction that fits best your problems and enjoy its great health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Eye infection is a general name for all ailments linked to your eye vision. Generally, these problems are bacterial or microbial and traditional medicine recommends a series of treatments, from creams to tinctures. However, before rushing out the door to buy all the expensive medications, you may want to give herbal remedies a try. They cost less and you don’t have to worry about putting your liver to hard work. How a Tea for Eye Infection Works A Tea for Eye Infection’s main goal is to stop all infection triggers and make your body produce enough antibodies to treat your immunity threats. In order to be efficient, a Tea for Eye Infection needs to show results quickly and be one hundred percent safe (some of the active constituents may interfere with your general health status. Before starting an herbal treatment, find out more about the risks and the side effects). Efficient Tea for Eye Infection A Tea for Eye Infection needs to contain the right amount of tannins, nutrients, volatile oils, acids and minerals (sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese). If you don’t know which teas contain the right amount of active constituents, here’s a list to choose from: - Black Tea – some say that it’s more effective than a lot of the antibiotics that can be found on the market. It’s very rich in acids and tannins and it can be useful for many other disorders, such as infertility, sore throats, colds, asthenia and anemia. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day for a short amount of time (one or two weeks) in order to avoid other health problems. - Green Tea – as scientists have proven, this Tea for Eye Infection contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life. It’s useful for colds, flu, loss of appetite, but it’s best to avoid it in case you’re experiencing menstrual and menopausal symptoms (in high dosages, it might cause uterine contractions). - Chamomile Tea – of course, let’s not forget the world’s greatest panacea. This decoction has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell and it can be used for a series of affections, from flu and headaches to menstrual pains and even diabetes. Plus, Chamomile Tea it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want! Tea for Eye Infection Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day could cause uterine contractions, upset stomach, nausea and skin rash. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and something doesn’t feel quite right, ask for medical assistance immediately! Don’t take a Tea for Eye Infection if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a surgery. Also, children should not take one of these teas unsupervised. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment for your eye infection, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy nature’s great benefits!  ... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Fertility is a woman’s body capacity to conceive and give birth to children. Unfortunately, less and less women are one hundred percent fertile, due to birth control pills or other health problems that interfere with their reproductive system. Fertility is what makes us women, thought ancient Romans, who banished from the city any infertile woman. Fortunately, things have evolved and modern medicine found a treatment for almost any disease, including infertility. On the other side, alternative medicine also invested a lot of time to find the best herbal treatment in order to solve all fertility problems and turn infertile women around the world into happy and proud mothers. How Tea for Fertility Works A Tea for Fertility’s main purpose is to increase the hormone level and also your glands’ action. When choosing a tea for fertility, you need to look for the ones that have a high level of nutrients and natural enzymes capable to rejuvenate your female reproductive system. In other words, flu or cold teas are rarely helpful in cases of infertility. It’s true that you need to look hard for these teas, but patients around the world say it’s totally worth it. Efficient Tea for Fertility If you want to increase your estrogen level in order to make sure you will avoid miscarriages and you don’t know which Tea for Fertility to choose, here is a list to help you out: - Raspberry Leaf Tea – not only that it contains a high level of vitamin C that can nourish your entire body, but Raspberry Tea can also increase your hormone flow, by inducing a state of relaxation and calmness to your reproductive system. However, it’s best to use it more as a prevention method and less as infertility treatment, since its action is rather mild than powerful. - Green Tea – aside from the fact that is good for almost any affection (except for menstrual and menopausal pains), Green Tea can make your reproductive system work at its full capacity and restore its already lost functions, by triggering the natural body response in cases on infertility. - Chasteberry Tea – is a very safe and efficient Tea for Fertility, which can also be used to calm pains caused by menstruation, menopause or stress. Its active ingredient is responsible for your female reproductive system well being and also well functioning. If you haven’t tried it yet, now would be a good time! - Lemongrass Tea – also a great helper in cases of pulmonary edema, pleurisy, flu or colds, Lemongrass Tea can elevate your hormonal reactions and positive responses from your female reproductive system. However, make sure you don’t drink too much in order to avoid severe diarrhea which may lead to miscarriage. Tea for Fertility Side Effects When taken properly, teas for fertility are generally safe. However, don’t drink more than 3 cups per day in order to avoid other complications, such as diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, headaches, migraines and upset stomach. If you have any doubts regarding any of these teas, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor. It’s best to postpone a treatment based on a Tea for Fertility if you are also suffering from a serious disease. In order to gather more information, ask your doctor about the ups and downs of a Tea for Fertility. Once he gives you the green light, choose a tea that fits your needs best and enjoy its wonderful benefits responsibly!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Fibroids are described as growths of your uterus muscles. This problem doesn’t really affect your uterus, but your cervix and the rest of your female reproductive system. A large number of hysterectomies are performed every month around the world, even if traditional medicine found other treatments as well. However, hysterectomy remains the only permanent remedy, even if it means that your uterus will be removed from your body. Alternative medicine fans advice against it due to the mental state that follows this procedure. It’s true that many women say they feel less of a woman since they had their hysterectomy. If you’re suffering from fibroids and you want to avoid a major surgery and a depression, choose a Tea for Fibroids and see how it goes! How a Tea for Fibroids Works A Tea for Fibroids’ main purpose is to get rid of the unwanted growths and stop them from developing in future. Their effect may take from a couple of days to several months, depending on the organism. Thanks to their anti inflammatory properties, these teas have the ability to restore your general health and your well being. However, don’t forget that this is a medical treatment and it shouldn’t be taken unsupervised. Efficient Tea for Fibroids A Tea for Fibroids must be both efficient and safe (you don’t want more complications). If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to guide you on: - Chamomile Tea – has anti inflammatory and anti septic properties which allows you to use it for almost any health problem you have. Doctors prescribe a cure of Chamomile Tea in most fibroids cases mostly because it’s one hundred percent safe. The other reason is that there are no side effects and you can drink as much as you want. It has a pleasant taste and a lovely fragrance, so you can even turn it into a daily habit! - Willow Bark Tea – is a well known pain reliever and a great fever reducer. Its action on abnormal growths consists of decreasing their negative effect on your health and slowly eliminating them. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day for no longer than 2 months in order to avoid other health complications. - Nettle Herb Tea – it’s rich in acids and minerals and it’s also good for menopause, infertility in women and menstruation. You can find it in almost any teashop and preparing it at home couldn’t be any easier! Don’t drink more than 2 cups per day for a small amount of time (2 weeks). Tea for Fibroids Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to vomiting, nausea, headaches or uterine contractions. Don’t take a treatment based on a Tea for Fibroids if you’re breastfeeding, on anti coagulants or blood thinners. When in doubt, always ask your doctor’s opinion. Also, don’t start an herbal treatment without gathering more information! If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical assistance and don’t try to treat it at home! If you have the green light from your doctor, choose a Tea for Fibroids that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Heart conditions may be triggered by many causes, from stomach pains to vascular strokes and depression. However, some people have a congenital predisposition for cardiac problems and all they can do is treat this affection as it is. Having a heart problem could mean that your heart is not pumping enough blood (or too much), that you have an abnormal growth which weakens your circulatory system or that you suffer from arrhythmia (a disease in which your blood flow is never constant, but fluctuates depending on the situation). How a Tea for Heart Health Works A Tea for Heart Health’s main goal is to prevent diseases from developing and treating the already installed ones. If that is the case, you may want to look after teas and tinctures which contain a high level of antioxidants, natural enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese) and are low on acids (in high concentrations, they may cause heartburn). Efficient Tea for Heart Health In order to work properly, a Tea for Heart Health needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. Remember that you must schedule an appointment with your doctor before self medicating! This way, you’ll eliminate the risk of triggering other health problems and you’ll know for sure what’s wrong with your body. If you don’t know which teas could have a positive effect on you, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – according to specialists, this Tea for Heart Health contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, from sore throats, headaches and migraines to infertility and erectile dysfunctions. However, you may want to avoid it if you’re experiencing menstrual and menopausal symptoms (due to its acids level, it may cause uterine contractions). - Yerba Mate Tea – named “the new green tea” by the herbalists, this decoction is a great choice for many problems, such as loss of appetite, asthenia or anemia. Although it remains yet unknown to European public, Yerba Mate Tea is very popular in South American regions. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day! High dosages may lead to death! - Chamomile Tea – has curative properties which are benefic for a series of health problems, from nausea, diarrhea, upset stomach to infertility and hot flashes. This Tea for Heart Health has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe, so you can drink as much as you want. If you’re thinking about giving up on coffee, Chamomile Tea can be a great replacer. Tea for Heart Health Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of problems, such as stomach pain, nausea, headaches and even death. Before starting any kind of herbal treatment, make sure you’re well informed of the risks that may occur. Don’t take a Tea for Heart Health if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and something doesn’t feel quite right, ask for medical assistance right away! Once you have the green light from your doctor and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Heart Health that fits best your condition and enjoy its great benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

If you have joint pains it’s best to treat them as soon as possible in order to avoid further complications, such as arthritis. Other than making your life a lot harder, joint pains may trigger other health complications such as bone cancer or even spinal cord issues. Joint problems consist of localized pain in your member and the incapacity to walk or move your hands properly. If that is the case, you better talk to a doctor before shopping for remedies, in order to find out which affection you’re dealing with. How a Tea for Joints Works A Tea for Joints’ main goal is to trigger a positive response from your body and to trick it into directing all reconstructing agents to the affected areas. These teas are well known for their curative properties, which spread from bringing relief in cases of stress, anxiety, headaches, migraines and even generalized pain. Efficient Tea for Joints In order to be efficient, a Tea for Joints needs to be one hundred percent safe (you may want to avoid other health complications) and to have a quick and positive effect on your body. To be able to do that, a Tea for Joints has to contain an elevated level of nutrients, enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (iron, sodium, magnesium and manganese). If you don’t know which teas contain all the necessary constituents, here’s a list to choose from: - Green Tea – can induce a state of calmness to both your articulations and bone system thanks to its substances. Scientists have shown that this Tea for Joints contains all the necessary ingredients that could sustain life, so you must have it in your medicine cabinet. However, if you’re experiencing menstrual or menopausal symptoms, it’s best to avoid it at all costs: it may cause uterine contractions. - Chamomile Tea – has soothing properties and it’s also good for a wide range of health complaints, from headaches to sore throats and even diabetes. It has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell. Not only that, but this tea is also one hundred percent safe, so you can drink as much as you want. - Raspberry Leaf Tea – contains a high level of vitamin C, which will enhance your health and give you an energy boost. You can also use it for female reproductive problems, such as infertility or even menopause. Two cups of Raspberry Leaf Tea per day might work miracles on your health! Tea for Joints Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups may lead to a number of affections, such as upset stomach, skin rash, diarrhea and nausea. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical assistance immediately. Don’t take a Tea for Joints if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery (some of the active constituents might interfere with your anesthetic). But if you have the green light from your doctor, choose a Tea for Joints that fits best your needs and enjoy its great health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

If you’re experiencing abdominal pain and you’re sure it’s not a digestive tract ailment, it’s very possible that you’re suffering from a kidney disorder. The same if the pain is localized in the back or on one side of your body. Usually, kidney problems appear when there’s something wrong with your urinary tract and not only. Overexposing your body to low temperatures may cause urinary infections, impurity accumulations lead to kidney stones. Also, kidney problems can be caused by other health complaints, such as pulmonary edema and cancers. However, it’s best to schedule an appointment with your doctor in order to find out what’s actually going on with your body. How a Tea for Kidney Problems Works A Tea for Kidney Problems’ main goal is to purify your body by triggering a positive response from it. Once the main substances of these teas reach the affected areas, your organism produces enough endorphins (which are cells specialized in making you feel a lot better by bringing relief to your wounds) and antibodies to reconstruct the damaged tissue. Efficient Tea for Kidney Problems In order to work properly, a Tea for Kidney Problems needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. Also, it must contain the right amount of nutrients, natural enzymes, volatile oils, antioxidants and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron and manganese). This way, that tea will make your body eliminate the unwanted impurities and improve your kidney function. If you don’t know which teas would be appropriate for your condition, here’s a list to choose from: - Dandelion Tea – can be prepared from dandelion roots and it’s also a great adjuvant in diarrhea and urinary infection cases. This Tea for Kidney Problems has a bitter taste, but you can add ginger, lemon, mint or honey in order to make it more adequate for you. Avoid it at all costs if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding: due to its strong purgative and diuretic properties, Dandelion Tea can cause uterine contractions which may lead to miscarriages. - Marshmallow Root Tea – this lovely tea with a hint of Christmas is useful for a large variety of problems, from infertility to gastrointestinal and digestive complaints. Take a sip at every 5 minutes for an hour and enjoy the wonderful health benefits! - Buchu Tea – contains antioxidants and antibacterial agents, being a great help in cases of cystitis, urethritis and kidney failure. This Tea for Kidney acts like a natural diuretic and should not be taken by pregnant women. - Green Tea – as the scientists have proved, this decoction contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for many problems, not just kidney disorders. However, don’t take it if you’re experiencing menstrual and menopausal symptoms (it can cause uterine contractions and stomach acidity). Tea for Kidney Problems Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day might lead to a number of health problems such as miscarriages, hallucinations, headaches and skin rash. If you’ve been taking one of these teas and something doesn’t feel quite right, talk to your doctor as soon as possible. Don’t take a Tea for Kidney Problems if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you have the medical approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Kidney problems that fits best your needs and give it a try today!  ... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Having a lucid dream means dreaming while being aware of the fact that you are dreaming. However, many people become lucid in the middle of the dream or, on the contrary, fall lose reality contact after being lucid at first. Although traditional medicine can’t be very helpful in these cases, alternative medicine has a few tricks up its sleeve. How a Tea for Lucid Dreams Works A Tea for Lucid Dreams’ main purpose is to make you recall what you have dreamed by calming your nervous system and improving your memory function. These teas are good for a number of other diseases, such as memory loss, headaches or migraines. However, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment in order to make sure everything will be alright. Efficient Tea for Lucid Dreams In order to work properly, a Tea for Lucid Dreams needs to be both very efficient and one hundred percent safe (since lucid dreams are not exactly a medical problem, you may want to avoid developing one). A tea that is rich in antioxidants, nutrients, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese) would be very adequate. You may want to avoid teas with a large amount of acid agents (they could cause stomach pain). If you don’t know which teas could be useful for lucid dreams, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, not just lucid dreams. If you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite, digestive tract complaints or nervous system failure, this decoction could also be useful. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms. The same advice if you’re pregnant (it may cause uterine contractions and therefore miscarriage). - Valerian Tea – was been used as a sleep aid since ancient times, when the Romans and the Greeks took it before going to bed. This Tea for Lucid Dreams, thanks to its active compounds, is a mild sedative and could also work miracles on your nervous system. However, you need to make sure that you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid hallucinations, tiredness or even death. - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea shouldn’t be left aside. If you’re having trouble remembering your dreams, try a cup of Chamomile Tea before you go to bed! This Tea has a great fragrance and a pleasant smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want. Tea for Lucid Dreams Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even death! If you’ve been taking one of these decoctions for a while and you’re experience a negative response from your body, ask for medical assistance right away! Don’t take a Tea for Lucid Dreams if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice in case you’re preparing for a surgery. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful benefits!  ... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Meditation is not something that your doctor can induce since this is not a medical problem. However, even if meditation has nothing to do with your physical status, there are a couple of remedies recommended by the alternative medicine. Some teas have the ability to enhance your respiration, concentration and decrease your blood pressure, which will definitely help you meditate a lot better. These teas could have a great effect on your entire health system by making your body release endorphins. However, you must keep in mind the fact that this is a medical treatment and it shouldn’t be used unsupervised. How a Tea for Meditation Works A Tea for Meditation’s main goal is to cleanse your respiratory system and improve your coronary system’s functions. In order to do that, a tea for Meditation needs to contain an important amount of volatile oils, nutrients, enzymes and minerals, such as manganese, magnesium and iron. This way, you’ll be able to loosen up and concentrate on your mental exercises. These teas have the ability to induce a state of calmness and nourish your nervous system so no headaches or migraines would interfere with your meditation. Efficient Tea for Meditation In order to be efficient, a Tea for Meditation must be one hundred percent safe and show results quickly (it’s understandable, considering the fact that you will take the decoction within minutes before meditation). If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to guide you on: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, according to specialists and it can treat a wide range of affections, from headaches, sore throats to infertility and even diabetes. Also, you may want to give it a try if you suffer from hangovers. However, avoid this Tea for Meditation at all costs if you’re experiencing menstrual or menopausal symptoms (due to a high acids level, Green Tea may cause uterine contractions). - Oolong Tea – has half the amount of caffeine that other teas have and it’s recommended for many affections, such as infertility and sore throats. And if you’re thinking about giving up on coffee, Oolong Tea could be e great replacer. Oolong Tea will treat your stress accumulations and calm the affected areas. - Pu’er Tea – is not very popular among Europeans, but its wonderful benefits should not be left aside. If you find a provider specialized in Pu’er Tea, hold on to it because this decoction can treat nausea, stomach pain and even indigestion. Take a sip or two of Pu’er Tea before meditation and enjoy the great benefits that this tea has in store for you! Tea for Meditation Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day might lead to a series of health problems, such as skin rash, vomiting, nausea and diarrhea. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical assistance immediately. Don’t take a Tea for Meditation if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants.The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery (some of the active constituents in these teas could interfere with your anesthetic). Once you have the green light from your doctor and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Meditation that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits at home!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Morning Sickness is not particularly a disease, but a symptom of pregnancy. If you feel that the room is spinning around and that all scents are too strong, it is possible that you’re pregnant. However, morning sickness usually consists of vomiting, nausea, headaches, back pains and, at times, fever. This affection looks a lot like food intoxication. But just to be sure, schedule an appointment with your gynecologist. How Tea for Morning Sickness Works A Tea for Morning Sickness’ main goal is to ameliorate your weakness and restore your general health. Thanks to the active ingredients in these teas, your abdominal muscles will stop their negative response, while nourishing the nervous system. Also, morning sickness has a lot to do with your hormones, so you may want to try a tea with an elevated estrogen level or at least one that could stop your hormone level from growing. Efficient Tea for Morning Sickness In order to be efficient, a Tea for Morning Sickness needs to have the right amount of nutrients, enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (a tea rich in manganese, iron, magnesium is the best choice for your condition). You may want to avoid the ones with a high acids level, since they cause stomach acidity and, at times, even uterine contractions which might lead to miscarriage. If you don’t know which teas are best for your problem, here’s a list to help you out: - Peppermint Tea – this Tea for Morning Sickness is well known as a stomach soothing decoction, with various uses which spread on many areas of interest, from cosmetic industry to pharmaceutical remedies. This tea could lower your hormone level and induce a state of calmness to your abdominal area. You can also use it to treat diarrhea, sore throats, nausea and even headaches. Peppermint Tea is one hundred percent safe and you can take as much as you want. - Ginger Tea – although Ginger Tea is a great nausea reliever, practitioners around the world are concerned when it comes to administrating it to pregnant women. Even if this Tea for Morning Sickness is very efficient for nausea, using too much herb will cause uterine contractions due to its acid compounds. The best thing you can do is ask your doctor’s advice before taking this tea. - Raspberry Leaf Tea – also a great remedy for infertility, anemia, asthenia and other problems, this tea has a sweet taste and a pleasant smell. Practitioners around the world have discovered that this Tea for Morning Sickness could take your pain away in no time thanks to its active constituents, which include tannins, manganese and iron. And let’s not forget the vitamin C, which will energize your entire body. Tea for Morning Sickness Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to other affection such as constipation, migraines or stomach irritations. Talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment and make sure that everything will be ok. However, if you’ve been taking one of these teas and you’re noticing some unusual responses from your body, ask for medical assistance immediately! If you have the medical approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Morning Sickness that fits best your needs and give it a try!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

The nervous system is responsible for almost any reaction that comes from your body. From eyes to muscles and even hair, your body is a very complex electric system directed by your brain. Most of the problems that a person has in a lifetime are related to a nervous system failure. In order to treat this kind of problems or prevent them from happening, you may want to try a tea instead of all those traditional pills. How a Tea for Nervous System Works A Tea for Nervous System is indeed helpful if it contains an important amount of nutrients, enzymes, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese). You may want to avoid a tea that has an elevated acids level since it may cause you even more damages. A Tea for Nervous System will make your body send all the active constituents to the affected areas and heal the damaged tissue. Efficient Tea for Nervous System In order to work properly, a Tea for Nervous System must show results in a short time period and be one hundred percent safe (you don’t want any more complications than you already have). However, before starting any kind of herbal treatment, remember to take the indicated dose and never surpass it in order to avoid other health problems. If you don’t know which teas could be helpful for you, here’s a list for guidance: - Oolong Tea – contains half the amount of caffeine that other teas have so it’s best for your health to give it a try every once in a while. This Tea for Nervous System will also strengthen your entire organism and rejuvenate the aspect of your skin. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day. - Green Tea – as the scientists have proved, this decoction contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s good for a number of other health complaints, such as infertility, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, anemia and asthenia. Just make sure you avoid it at all costs in case you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms (it may cause uterine contractions and internal bleedings). - Black Tea – some say that it does more damages than good for your nervous system and some others think that this tea is worth a try. Having an elevated level of caffeine, this tea is highly addictive. In right amount, it can treat infertility, erectile dysfunctions, sore throats and colds. However, ask an herbalist before starting a treatment based on this Tea for Nervous System in order to find out which are the risks. Tea for Nervous System Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to other health complaints, such as nausea, diarrhea, uterine contractions, internal bleedings and headaches. If you’ve tried one of these teas and something doesn’t feel quite right, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Don’t take a Tea for Nervous System if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery (some of the active compounds in these teas may interfere with your anesthetic and cause death). But if you have the green light from your doctor, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

There are over 50 million people suffering from arthritis in the world. Many of them drink tea on a regular basis not knowing that there are some teas which could ease their problems while the rest of them are still reluctant to herbal remedies. Rheumatoid Arthritis consists of localized joint pains and abnormal members growth. Even if there are many empirical remedies described by the folklore, traditional medicine would recommend an expensive and painful surgery, while alternative medicine fans still think that there’s no reason to put your liver to hard work. How a Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis Works A Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis’ main purpose is to trigger a positive reaction from your body while making it produce enough active agents to reduce inflammations and restore your initial health. In order to work properly, you need to make sure you pick a tea with enough nutrients, volatile oils, tannins, acids and minerals (sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese). Efficient Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis is a very common disease, unfortunately. There are many people around the globe who would rather self medicate than ask for a medical consult. However, before starting any kind of herbal treatment, it’s best to be well informed of all the risks. Better than that, schedule an appointment with your doctor in order to find out which disease you’re suffering from. If you don’t know which teas could have a positive effect on your condition, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of health problems, from infertility to upset stomach, nausea, anemia and asthenia. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing menopausal or menstrual symptoms (it may cause internal bleedings and uterine contractions). - Chamomile Tea – is probably the most popular Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis thanks to its active compounds which have the ability to lower your cholesterol and improve your coronary system action. This panacea has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell and it’s one hundred percent safe, so you can take as much as you want. - Peppermint Tea – has anti inflammatory and antiseptic properties thanks to an active ingredient called menthol. This decoction is also good for a number of other disorders, such as digestive tract ailments, menstrual and menopausal pains, sore throats and kidney problems. Peppermint Tea has a lovely smell and a pleasant taste and it’s also very safe. Plus, if you’ve decided you want to give up coffee, this Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis could be a great replacer. Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are one hundred percent safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to nausea, vomiting, uterine contractions and skin rash. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, talk to a doctor as soon as possible. Don’t take a Tea for Rheumatoid Arthritis if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. If you have your doctor’s approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a tea that fits best your problems and enjoy its wonderful effects!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Vomiting is a response from your body to let you know that something is wrong with your digestive tract. Vomiting is never a disease, but a symptom of other problems. Food poisoning, toxic infections, pregnancy and hangover can present vomiting episodes. Of course, every problem has its remedies, but there are some teas capable of inhibiting the vomiting sensation and promoting a good digestive tract action. How a Tea for Vomiting Works A Tea for Vomiting’s main goal is to energize your body and provide it with enough strength to fight infections and stabilize your health. In order to function properly, a Tea for Vomiting needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. When choosing teas, make sure you’re looking for an herbal treatment rich in acids and tannins. This way, your stomach enzymes will stop the vomiting sensation and cure the affected regions. Efficient Tea for Vomiting When choosing a Tea for Vomiting, make sure you pick one with an elevated active constituents level and with a low side effects percentage. If you don’t know which these teas are, here’s a list to help you out: - Spearmint Tea – has a pleasant taste and a lovely fragrance and it’s well known for its curative properties. Both cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies use Spearmint extract to produce acne treatments, skin creams, diarrhea, constipation pills and digestive supplements. This tea is one hundred percent safe, so you can drink as much as you want. However, more than 6 cups per day may lead to diarrhea. Other than that, feel free to try this tea today! - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea should always be in your medicine cabinet. A sip of this Tea for Vomiting will improve all gastrointestinal functions and inhibit the vomiting sensation. You can also use it to treat sore throats, diarrhea, colic, chest pain or nausea. Also, this tea is very safe so there’s nothing to be worried about. - Ginger Tea – is a great home remedy for all gastric ailments, starting with nausea and ending with menstrual pains. However, don’t drink more than one cup per day and make sure you’re using a small amount of herb when preparing the treatment, in order to avoid developing an acid foods and drinks intolerance. Also, if you’re pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking Ginger Tea. - Green Tea – is a great remedy for asthenia, anemia and loss of appetite. Take it to treat infertility, sore throats and pleurisy as well. However, don’t take it if you’re experiencing menstrual or menopausal symptoms (it may cause uterine contractions). Tea for Vomiting Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. Just make sure you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid digestive tract problems. Talk to an herbalist or to your doctor in order to gather more information and be well informed of the risks. If your doctor says it’s ok to start a treatment based on a Tea for Vomiting, choose one that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

Beneficial Teas

Tribulus Tea is a well known for its aphrodisiac properties and for its ability to enhance the sexual activity, even if Tribulus plant is still considered a pest in many areas of the world. Tribulus is a perennial herb that grows mainly in sunny and warm places, such as Southern Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, with small green leaves and bright yellow flowers. Its fruits contain a fruit that is round and hard. You can recognize it by its short needles, places on the back side of the leaves and all over the roots. Tribulus Tea Properties The main ingredient of Tribulus Tea is called steroidal sapoins and it can be found mainly in the leaves. However, drinking too much Tribulus Tea may increase your body’s toxicity level and cause great damages to your health. A great amount of steroidal sapoins is hard to be flushed out of your system, so if you’re not sure about taking it and you don’t know how much steroidal sapoins your system can take, talk to a herbalist or to your doctor. Tribulus Tea Benefits Tribulus Tea is a great help when it comes to increasing the libido. However, too much of it may cause you problems. It is also used to treat infertility in men, some erectile disorders and it is said that Tribulus Tea has also anti-tumor properties. Herbalists say that this tea can also increase your muscular mass, lower your blood pressure and your cholesterol. How to make Tribulus Tea Infusion Preparing Tribulus Tea involves following a number of simple steps. Take the fresh or dried herbs (you can use any parts of tribulus plant), put them in a teapot and add boiling water. Leave it for 10 or 15 minutes and drink it hot or cold. Use a teaspoon of herbs for every cup of tea and don’t drink more than 1 or 2 cups per day, for a short time period. Do not turn drinking Tribulus Tea into a daily habit, just take it as long as you need to take advantage of its benefits and then take some time off. This way, your system will be able to flush away any trace of toxicity that this tea could leave. Tribulus Tea Side Effects The main concern when it comes to taking Tribulus Tea is that you shouldn’t drink more than one or two cups per day, for not longer than 7 days. When enhancing your libido, Tribulus Tea increases your hormone level, especially your estrogen and testosterone level. If you are a female, pay attention to hair growth and other male characterics, and if you are a male, make sure you keep an eye on how your glands are behaving. Let’s not forget that Tribulus Tea is a medical treatment and should not be used unsupervised. Before starting a Tribulus Tea Treatment, talk to a specialist. Tribulus Tea Contraindications Do not take Tribulus Tea if you are suffering from one of these conditions: stomach disorders, ulcers, breast and prostate cancers as well as other hormone-dependent problems. The same advice if you are pregnant or breastfeeding: since the active ingredient of this tea enhances your libido by increasing your hormone level, it is best to avoid taking it. If you have already taken it and you’re experiencing vomiting episodes or any other side effect, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! But, if both your health and will are strong, there’s no reason not to take Tribulus Tea. At least give it a try and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea!... Beneficial Teas

Medical Dictionary

Ultrasound, or ultrasonic, waves comprise very-high-frequency sound waves above 20,000 Hz that the human ear cannot hear. Ultrasound is widely used for diagnosis and also for some treatments. In OBSTETRICS, ultrasound can assess the stage of pregnancy and detect abnormalities in the FETUS (see below). It is a valuable adjunct in the investigation of diseases in the bladder, kidneys, liver, ovaries, pancreas and brain (for more information on these organs and their diseases, see under separate entries); it also detects thromboses (clots) in blood vessels and enables their extent to be assessed. A non-invasive technique that does not need ionising radiation, ultrasound is quick, versatile and relatively inexpensive, with scans being done in any plane of the body. There is little danger to the patient or operator: unlike, for example, XRAYS, ultrasound investigations can be repeated as needed. A contrast medium is not required. Its reliability is dependent upon the skill of the operator.

Ultrasound is replacing ISOTOPE scanning in many situations, and also RADIOGRAPHY. Ultrasound of the liver can separate medical from surgical JAUNDICE in approximately 97 per cent of patients; it is very accurate in detecting and de?ning cystic lesions of the liver, but is less accurate with solid lesions – and yet will detect 85 per cent of secondary deposits (this is less than COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY [CT] scanning). It is very accurate in detecting gall-stones (see GALL-BLADDER, DISEASES OF) and more accurate than the oral cholecystogram. It is useful as a screening test for pancreatic disease and can di?erentiate carcinoma of the pancreas from chronic pancreatitis with 85 per cent accuracy.

Ultrasound is the ?rst investigation indicated in patients presenting with renal failure, as it can quickly determine the size and shape of the kidney and whether there is any obstruction to the URETER. It is very sensitive to the presence of dilatation of the renal tract and will detect space-occupying lesions, di?erentiating cysts and tumours. It can detect also obstruction of the ureter due to renal stones by showing dilatations of the collecting system and the presence of the calculus. Adrenal (see ADRENAL GLANDS) tumours can be demonstrated by ultrasound, although it is less accurate than CT scanning.

The procedure is now the ?rst test for suspected aortic ANEURYSM and it can also show the presence of clot and delineate the true and false lumen. It is good at demonstrating subphrenic and subhepatic abscesses (see ABSCESS) and will show most intra-abdominal abscesses; CT scanning is however better for the retroperitoneal region. It has a major application in thyroid nodules as it can di?erentiate cystic from solid lesions and show the multiple lesions characteristic of the nodular GOITRE (see also THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). It cannot differentiate between a follicular adenoma and a carcinoma, as both these tumours are solid; nor can it demonstrate normal parathyroid glands. However, it can identify adenomas provided that they are more than 6 mm in diameter. Finally, ultrasound can di?erentiate masses in the SCROTUM into testicular and appendicular, and it can demonstrate impalpable testicular tumours. This is important as 15 per cent of testicular tumours metastasise whilst they are still impalpable.

Ultrasonic waves are one of the constituents in the shock treatment of certain types of gallstones and CALCULI in the urinary tract (see LITHOTRIPSY). They are also being used in the treatment of MENIÈRE’S DISEASE and of bruises and strains. In this ?eld of physiotherapy, ultrasonic therapy is proving of particular value in the treatment of acute injuries of soft tissue. If in such cases it is used immediately after the injury, or as soon as possible thereafter, prompt recovery is facilitated. For this reason it is being widely used in the treatment of sports injuries (see also SPORTS MEDICINE). The sound waves stimulate the healing process in damaged tissue.

Doppler ultrasound is a technique which shows the presence of vascular disease in the carotid and peripheral vessels, as it can detect the reduced blood ?ow through narrowed vessels.

Ultrasound in obstetrics Ultrasound has particular applications in obstetrics. A fetus can be seen with ultrasound from the seventh week of pregnancy, and the fetal heart can be demonstrated at this stage. Multiple pregnancy can also be diagnosed at this time by the demonstration of more than one gestation sac containing a viable fetus. A routine obstetric scan is usually performed between the 16th and 18th week of pregnancy when the fetus is easily demonstrated and most photogenic. The fetus can be measured to assess the gestational age, and the anatomy can also be checked. Intra-uterine growth retardation is much more reliably diagnosed by ultrasound than by clinical assessment. The site of the placenta can also be recorded and multiple pregnancies will be diagnosed at this stage. Fetal movements and even the heartbeat can be seen. A second scan is often done between the 32nd and 34th weeks to assess the position, size and growth rate of the baby. The resolution of equipment now available enables pre-natal diagnosis of a wide range of structural abnormalities to be diagnosed. SPINA BIFIDA, HYDROCEPHALUS and ANENCEPHALY are probably the most important, but other anomalies such as multicystic kidney, achondroplasia and certain congenital cardiac anomalies can also be identi?ed. Fetal gender can be determined from 20 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound is also useful as guidance for AMNIOCENTESIS.

In gynaecology, POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME can readily be detected as well as FIBROID and ovarian cysts. Ultrasound can monitor follicular growth when patients are being treated with infertility drugs. It is also useful in detecting ECTOPIC PREGNANCY. (See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

A group of micro-organisms which plays a larger part in the causation of disease than was at one time suspected. One of them, Urea-plasma urealyticum, is now recognised as a cause of chronic prostatitis (see under PROSTATE GLAND, DISEASES OF), NON-SPECIFIC URETHRITIS (NSU) – see also URETHRA, DISEASES OF AND INJURY TO – and INFERTILITY.... Medical Dictionary

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