Keywords of this word:


Indian Medicinal Plants

Stapf ex Holmes.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas from Hazara to Kashmir and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, between altitudes of 2,100 m and 3,600 m.

English: Indian Napellus.

Ayurvedic: Visha, Shringika-Visha, Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Folk: Mohri, Meethaa Zahar.

Action: Sedative, antirheumatic, analgesic, antitussive, antidiar- rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. (See A.ferox.) It has the same uses as A. ferox. The alkaloid content of the root ranges from 2.98 to 3.11%; includes chasmaconitine and chasmanthinine.

Napellus, equated with Aconitum napellus Linn., is indigenous to Central Europe (named after the Black sea port Aconis and known as Wolfsbane, Monkshood). Aconitum of homoeopathic medicine is an alkaloid obtained from the roots and stems of A. nepellus. Used as an analgesic and sedative. It contains terpenoids up to 1.2%, including aconitine and aconine.

Toxic constituents of A. napellus are aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconi- tine, 3-acetylacoitine, lappaconitine (diterpenoid-ester alkaloids), benza- conine, benzoylaconine.

Aconitine, mesaconitine and hyp- aconitine exert widespread effects on cardiac, neural and muscle tissue by activitating sodium channels. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Aconitine is absorbed through mucus membranes and the skin. (Francis Brinker.) It is a cardiotoxin and interacts with antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, Digoxin/cardiac glycosides. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Dosage: Root—10-15 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America and Brazil. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Golden Trumpet.

Folk: Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—cathartic (in moderate doses; emetic in large doses). Bark—hydragogue, in ascites.

The purgative property of the aqueous extract of leaves was confirmed pharmacologically in rats. The extract also showed antifungal activity against ringworm causing fungi. Flower extract inhibits fungal growth.

EtOH extract of roots showed in- vivo activity against P-388 leukaemia in mouse and in vitro against human carcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB). The root contains antileukaemic iri- doid lactone, allamandin and two other iridoids, allamandicin and allamdin.

The stems and leaves contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Petals gave flavonoids—kaem- pferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(African) A trustworthy woman Amana... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Latin) One who is much loved Amandi, Amandah, Amandea, Amandee, Amandey, Amande, Amandie, Amandy, Amandya, Amandalee, Amandalyn, Amandia, Amandina, Amandine... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Emanating the light of peace

Amanpreet, Amanjot... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African) A powerful woman... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African / Arabic) One who is peaceful / one with wishes and dreams Amanie, Amany, Amaney, Amanee, Amanye, Amanea, Amaneah... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Agaricaceae; Amanitaceae.

English: Fly Agaric (mushroom), Aga, Soma.

Ayurvedic: Identified as Soma of Rigveda (controversial). (Sushruta described 24 varieties of Soma and 18 other drugs as its substitutes.) Intensely poisonous; used for intoxication.

The fungus has been used in Russia for preparing an intoxicating drink.

Toxic principles arecholine, mus- carine and mycetoatropine (muscari- dine). Muscarine stimulates postgan- glionic, cholinergic and neuroeffector junctions. The isoxazole constituents are psychoactive.

2-4 Fly Agaric (more than 10 g fresh) are toxic; 20 (more than 100 g fresh) are lethal. (Francis Brinker.)

A. pantherina is used in Japan for intoxication.

Aga is not a true hallucinogen. The illusions are a misinterpretation of sensory stimuli due to isoxazole, ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscazone and traces of muscarine. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

A drug used to treat certain virus infections which is also of value in the prevention of some forms of in?uenza. It is also used to treat PARKINSONISM.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Marshy areas throughout India, as a weed.

English: Blistering Ammannia.

Ayurvedic: Agnipatri.

Folk: Daadmaari. (Also known as Paashaanabheda.)

Action: Stomachic, laxative, antirheumatic, febrifuge. Leaves— used externally for ringworm, herpic eruptions and other skin diseases; rubefacient.

Leaves contain lawsone. Plant extract—antibacterial. Extracts of stem, leaf and inflorescence are more effective as compared with the seed and root extract.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) Feminine form of Armando; battlemaiden... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Persian) One who is desired; a goal Armanee, Armanii, Armahni, Arman, Armanie, Armany, Armaney, Armanea, Armaneah... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

Bercht. & Presl.

Synonym Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Habitat: Native to Mexico; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Angel's Trumpet.

Action: Leaf and flower—used to treat asthma; to induce hallucinations. Can cause severe toxicity.

All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids (concentration highest in the foliage and seeds), particularly atropine, hyoscyamine and hyoscine (scopolamine.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

See “case management”.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Anglo-Saxon) A powerful queen... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A continuous process of planning, arranging and coordinating multiple health care services across time, place and discipline for persons with high-risk conditions or complex needs in order to ensure appropriate care and optimum quality, as well as to contain costs.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(English) From the islands Cayeman, Caman, Caiman, Caeman, Caymanne, Caimanne, Caemanne, Camanne... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) Resembling a sunflower

Chamaniah, Chamanea, Chamaneah, Chamaniya, Chamaniyah, Chamaran, Chamarann, Chamarana, Chamaranna... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A multi-tentacled box-jellyfish present on the eastern coastline of tropical America. It has caused at least one documented death in Texas, U.S.A.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) Covered with dew

Chumanah, Chumanna, Chumannah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) Resembling a dewdrop

Chumanie, Chumany, Chumaney, Chumanee, Chumanea, Chumaneah... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

An instrument that estimates the extent to which a health care provider delivers clinical services that are appropriate for each patient’s condition; provides them safely, competently and in an appropriate time-frame; and achieves desired outcomes in terms of those aspects of patient health and patient satisfaction that can be affected by clinical services.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

Initially driven by anxiety about the possibility of medical negligence cases, clinical risk management has evolved into the study of IATROGENIC DISEASE. The ?rst priority of risk managers is to ensure that all therapies in medicine are as safe as possible. Allied to this is a recognition that errors may occur even when error-prevention strategies are in place. Lastly, any accidents that occur are analysed, allowing a broader understanding of their cause. Risk management is generally centred on single adverse events. The threat of litigation is taken as an opportunity to expose unsafe conditions of practice and to put pressure on those with the authority to implement change. These might include senior clinicians, hospital management, the purchasing authorities, and even the Secretary of State for Health. Attention is focused on organisational factors rather than on the individuals involved in a speci?c case.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(American) An adventurer Colmand, Colemyan, Colemyand, Colmyan, Colmyand... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The practice of promoting and maintaining continence and the assessment, evaluation and action taken to support this.... Community Health


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A spectrum of skin disease caused by protozoan Leishmania spp, with a lifecycle and vectors identical to that of Leishmania donovani (see visceral leishmaniasis). The spectrum of disease ranges from a single, dry cutaneous lesion (L. tropica) through to destructive mucocutaneous lesions (L. braziliensis braziliensis).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

(American) Of a bright tomorrow Damanie, Damany, Damaney, Damanee, Damanea, Damaneah... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Willingness and/or ability to seek, use and, in some settings, pay for services. Sometimes further subdivided into expressed demand (equated with use) and potential demand or need.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(French) Woman of high value; resembling a diamond Diamanda, Diamonda, Diamantina, Diamantia, Diamantea, Diamante, Diamond, Diamonde, Diamonique, Diamontina... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A morbid and insatiable craving for ALCOHOL.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The process of identifying and delivering, within selected populations (e.g. people with asthma or diabetes), the most efficient, effective combination of resources, interventions or pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of a disease. Disease management could include team-based care, where medical practitioners and/or other health professionals participate in the delivery and management of care. It also includes the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Emmanuel; God is with us Emmanuella, Emmanuele, Emmanuelle, Emunah, Emanuela, Emanuele, Emanuelle, Emanuella, Eman, Emman, Emmuna, Emann... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Making temporary changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

(German) An honorable woman Eramanna, Eramanah, Eramane, Eramann, Eramanne... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia. Now cultivated mainly on lower slopes of the Nilgiris.

English: Mangosteen, Dodol.

Siddha/Tamil: Sulambuli, Mangusta.

Folk: Mangustaan.

Action: Fruit—antileucorrhoeic, astringent, antifungal, antibacterial; used in cystitis, diseases of the genitourinary tract, diarrhoea, tropical dysentery and fevers. Pericarp—used externally for eczema and other skin diseases. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, anti- immunosuppressive, antiprotozoal, antimicrobial.

The plant contains anthocyanin gly- cosides, a benzophenone, maclurin and several prenylated and related xan- thones. The leaves contain terpenoids, xanthones and long chain hydrocarbons.

The pericarp (fruit hull) contains the xanthone derivatives, mangostin, nor- mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma- mangostin, isomangostin as major constituents.

Mangostin, isolated from the rind of fruit, inhibited primary and secondary responses to adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Mangostin, isoman- gostin and mangostin triacetate exhibited pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in rats both by i.p. and oral routes.

Mangostin also produced antiulcer activity in rats.

Mangostin and some of its derivatives produced CNS depression, characterized by ptosis, sedation and decreased motor activity.

Gamma-mangostin showed more potent radical scavenging and antioxi- dant activity than BHA.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Gelidaceae, Rhodophyceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Japan.

English: Agar Agar, Japanese Isinglass. (Dried mucilaginous extract.)

Folk: Agar-Agar.

Action: Bulk-laxative. Agar-Agar does not increase peristaltic action. Its action is similar to that of cellulose of vegetable foods which aids the regularity of the bowel movement. (Often made into an emulsion with liquid paraffin for use in constipation.)

Most agars consist of two major polygalactoses, the neutral agarose and the sulphonated polysaccharide agaropectin, with traces of amino acids and free sugars.

Agar contains a large amount of pectin which may precipitate when exposed to alcohol. (Sharon M Herr.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

See RUBELLA.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) Worker of the oil press

Gethsemanie, Gethsemana, Gethsemani, Gethsemaney, Gethsemany, Gethsemanee, Gethsemanea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

These can be acquired or congenital. The acquired type presents as a red PAPULE which bleeds easily; treatment is normally by cautery. A ‘strawberry NAEVUS’ is a ‘capillarycavernous’ haemangioma appearing at or soon after birth, which may grow to a large size. Treatment is not usually required, as most of them fade – although this may take a few years. Where a haemangioma is dis?guring or interfering with vision or breathing, treatment is necessary: this may be by laser, by using CORTICOSTEROIDS or INTERFERON treatment, or by surgery.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(German) A warrior maiden Harimanne, Harimana, Harimane... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Born during the spring Harimantie, Harymanti, Harimanty, Harymanty, Harymantie, Harimantea, Harymantea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A solution commonly used as a means of ?uid replacement in dehydrated patients (see also DEHYDRATION). Each litre contains 3·1 grams of sodium lactate, 6 grams of sodium chloride, 0·4 grams of potassium chloride, and 0·7 grams of calcium chloride.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The administrative machinery for planning, delivering and monitoring health care provided by health professionals and their supporting sta?. This may range from running a small primary-care centre to organising a large hospital or being responsible for meeting the health needs of a region or a nation. Whether the overall structure for proving care is state-funded, insurance-based, private-practice or a mixture of these, health-service management is essential in an era of rapidly evolving and expensive scienti?c medicine. Health-service managers are administrators with special training and skills in managing health care; sometimes they are doctors, nurses or other health professionals, but many have been trained in management in commercial, civil service or industrial environments.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) The golden child; one who shines

Hemangi, Hemangie, Hema, Hemlata, Hem... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Born during the early winter

Hemantie, Hemanty, Hemantey, Hemantee, Hemantea... Medical Dictionary


Herbal Manual

Herbal Manual

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... Herbal Manual


Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A wellborn woman Hermandine, Hermandyna, Hermandeena, Hermandena, Hermandyne, Hermandeene, Hermandeane, Hermandeana... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The name of the causative agent of AIDS.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Community Health

Human skills and capabilities generated by investments in education and health.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the PLACENTA in early pregnancy, and stimulating the CORPUS LUTEUM within the ovary (see OVARIES) to secrete OESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE, and relaxin. The hormone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy up to about 6–8 weeks of gestation. A RADIOIMMUNOASSAY can be used to detect its presence, and pregnancy can be diagnosed as early as six days after conception by testing for it in the urine. Some tumours also secrete human chorionic gonadotrophin, particularly HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, which produces large amounts.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A composite index that measures the overall achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development— longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living. It is measured by life expectancy, educational attainment and adjusted income per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollars. The HDI is a summary, not a comprehensive measure of human development.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

In simple terms, this is the genetic recipe for making a human being. GENOME is a combination of the words gene and chromosome, and a genome is de?ned as all the genetic material – known as deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA – in a cell. Most genes encode sequences of AMINO ACIDS, the constituents of proteins, thus initiating and controlling the replication of an organism. The identi?cation and characterisation of the human genetic puzzle have been a key bioscience research target. The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 (and completed in 2003) to produce a full sequence of the three million base pairs that make up the human genome.

Carried out as two separate exercises – one by a privately funded American team; another by an international joint venture between tax-funded American laboratories, a charitably funded British one and several other smaller research teams from around the world – the ?rst results were announced on 26 June 2000. In February 2001 the privately funded American group, known as Celera Genomics, announced that it had identi?ed 26,558 genes. At the same time the Human Genome Project consortium reported that it had identi?ed 31,000. Allowing for margins of error, this gives a ?gure much lower than the 100,000 or more human genes previously forecast by scientists. Interestingly, genes were found to make up only 3 per cent of the human genome. The remaining 97 per cent of the genome comprises non-coding DNA which, though not involved in producing the protein-initiating genetic activity, does have signi?cant roles in the structure, function and evolution of the genome.

One surprise from the Project so far is that the genetic di?erences between humans and other species seem much smaller than previously expected. For example, the Celera team found that people have only 300 genes that mice do not have; yet, the common ancestor of mice and men probably lived 100 million years or more in the past. Mice and humans, however, have around twice as many genes as the humble fruit ?y.

Cells die out when they become redundant during embryonic development: genes also die out during evolution, according to evidence from the Genome Project – a ?nding that supports the constant evolutionary changes apparent in living things; the Darwinian concept of survival of the ?ttest.

Apart from expanding our scienti?c knowledge, the new information – and promise of much more as the Genome Project continues – should enhance and expand the use of genetic engineering in the prevention and cure of disease. Studies are in progress on the gene for a receptor protein in the brain which will shed light on how the important neurotransmitter SEROTONIN in the brain works, and this, for example, should help the development of better drugs for the treatment of DEPRESSION. Another gene has been found that is relevant to the development of ASTHMA and yet another that is involved in the production of amyloid, a complex protein which is deposited in excessive amounts in both DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

UK legislation that lays down the framework and rules governing organ transplantation. The UK Transplant Support Service Authority (UKTSSA), a special health authority set up in 1991, is responsible for administering the NHS Organ Donor Registry and the Act (see APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The study of the interrelationships between humans, the tools they use, and the environment in which they live and work.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

Hypomania is a modest manifestation of mania (see under MENTAL ILLNESS). The individual is elated to an extent that he or she may make unwise decisions, and social behaviour may become animated and uninhibited. To the casual observer individuals may, however, seem normal. Treatment is advisable to prevent them from harming their own or their family’s interests. Treatment is as for mania.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) Having great faith Imani, Imanie, Imania, Imaan, Imany, Imaney, Imanee, Imanea, Imain, Imaine, Imaen, Imaene, Imayn, Imayne... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) A faithful woman Imanuella, Imanuel, Imanuele, Imanuell... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Decision processes oriented towards the creation or acquisition of information and knowledge, the design of information storage and flow, and the allocation and utilization of information in organizational work processes. See also “health information system”.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants


English: Orris, Iridis Rhizome, German Iris.

Ayurvedic: Paarseeka Vachaa, Haimavati, Shveta Vachaa (also considered as Pushkarmuula), Baal-bach.

Action: Demulcent, antidiarrhoeal, expectorant. Extract of the leaf is used for the treatment of frozen feet.

Key application: In irritable bowel, summer diarrhoea in children, in stubborn cases of respiratory congestion. (Folk medicine.) (Claims negatively evaluated by German Commission E: "blood-purifying," "stomach-strengthening" and "gland-stimulating.")

The rhizomes gave triterpenes, beta- sitosterol, alpha-and beta-amyrin and isoflavonoids; an essential oil, about 0.1-2%, known as "Orris butter," consisting of about 85% myristic acid, with irone, ionone, methyl myris- tate. Isoflavonoids include irisolidone, irigenin and iridin. In volatile oil, chief constituents are cis-alpha and cis-gamma-irones. Triterpenes include iridal and irigermanal. Rhizomes also gave xanthones C. glucosylxanthones (Orris root is the root of Iris germanica. In homoeopathy, Iris versicolor is used.)

Related species ? I. florentina Linn.; I. pallida Lam.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Arunachal Pradesh at 2,400-3,600 m.

Folk: Karkar, Tezma (Punjab).

Action: Diuretic, spasmolytic, febrifuge; antidote for opium addiction.

The rhizomes contain isoflavones— iridin, iriskumaonin and its methyl ether, irisflorentin, junipegenin A and irigenin.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) Resembling a silver pearl Jumana, Jumanna, Jumannah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) One who is desired Kamanah, Kammana, Kamanna, Kamna... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A person chosen to answer a survey on the grounds of a better knowledge and understanding of the issues under consideration.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(American) Girl from the meadow Kimanah, Kimanna, Kimannah, Kymana, Kymanah, Kymanna, Kymannah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A psychological disorder in which the person a?icted has an irresistible compulsion to steal things, without necessarily having any need for the object stolen.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African) Fulfilling one’s destiny Kumanie, Kumany, Kumaney, Kumanee, Kumanea... Medical Dictionary


Herbal Manual

Alchemilla vulgaris. N.O. Rosaceae.

Synonym: Lion's Foot.

Habitat: Hedgerows and waysides.

Features ? Whole plant covered with silky hairs. Leaves rounded, about two inches across, nine blunt, serrate lobes, on long stalks. Greenish flowers, without petals, bloom in small clusters from forked stem. Astringent, saliva-drying taste.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Astringent, nervine, antispasmodic.

In excessive menstruation and flooding, as well as spasmodic nervous complaints. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is used as an injection in the menstrual disorders. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken internally in teacupful doses as required.... Herbal Manual


Beneficial Teas

Lady’s Mantle Tea is a popular tea known especially for its astringent properties. Lady’s Mantle, also known as alchemilla vulgaris, is a perennial herb that grows in North America, Europe and Asia. It has pleated leaves that look like the cloak ladies used to wear during the medieval era. The constituents of lady’s mantle herb are tannins and various flavonoids such as quercetin. How to Make Lady’s Mantle Tea To make Lady’s Mantle Tea you have to infuse 3-4 grams of dried lady’s mantle stems, leaves and flowers, in about 5 ounces of boiling water. Reduce the heat and let the mix stand for 10 minutes. After that, strain and pour the tea into your cup. Lady’s Mantle Tea Benefits
  • Relieves menstrual cramps and discomfort during menopause.
  • When applied on skin, it can heal wounds, cuts, burns or other skin conditions.
  • Helps relieving nausea.
  • Effective in treating diarrhea and gastroenteritis.
  • May heal bleeding gums.
Lady’s Mantle Side Effects
  • Do not drink Lady’s Mantle Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Stop drinking Lady’s Mantle tea if you experience weakness or fatigue.
  • It may interact with the effects of some medications, so always consult your doctor before drinking any herbal tea, including Lady’s Mantle Tea.
Lady’s Mantle Tea is a wonderful tea with many benefits for your body and general well-being. Just try not to drink too much of this tea in order to not experience any of its side effects.... Beneficial Teas


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Labiatae.

Habitat: Plain and hills of Kumaon and Punjab, extending westwards to Afghanistan. Imported into India from Persia.

Unani: Baalango, Tukhm-e- Baalango.

Folk: Tuut-malangaa.

Action: Seed—cooling, diuretic, sedative; given internally as a soothing agent during urinary troubles, also for cough. A poultice of seeds is applied to abscesses, boils and inflammations. (Seeds are not to be used as a substitute for Plantago sp.)

Seeds contain linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids; beta-sitosterol. Gum contains L-arabinose, D-galac- tose, L-rhamnose, pentosans, protein, uronic anhydride. Amino acids are also found in the plant.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants

(Houtt.) Merrill.

Synonym: L. grandis (Dennst.) Engl.; Odina wodier Roxb.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to 1,500 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Jingini, Jhingan, Gudamanjari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalasan, Anaikkarai, Odiyan.

Action: Bark—stimulant and astringent; used in gout; decoction for aphthae of the mouth and for toothache. Leaves— boiled and applied to sprains, bruises, local swellings, elephantiasis. Gum— given in asthma; as a cordial to women during lactation.

The roots contain cluytyl ferulate; heartwood gave lanosterol; bark, dl- epi-catechin and (+)-leucocyanidin; flowers and leaves, ellagic acid, querce- tin and quercetin-3-arabinoside. Flowers also contain iso-quercetin and morin. Leaves in addition contain beta-sitosterol, leucocyanidin and leu- codelphinidin.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

(LD Bodies) Amastigote stages of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. These stages in a skin biopsy, bone marrow or spleen aspirate are diagnostic of Leishmaniasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

A group of infections caused by parasites transmitted to humans by sand?ies.

Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) A systemic infection caused by Leishmania donovani which occurs in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean littoral (and some islands), and in tropical South America. Onset is frequently insidious; incubation period is 2–6 months. Enlargement of spleen and liver may be gross; fever, anaemia, and generalised lymphadenopathy are usually present. Diagnosis is usually made from a bone-marrow specimen, splenic-aspirate, or liver-biopsy specimen; amastigotes (Leishman-Donovan bodies) of L. donovani can be visualised. Several serological tests are of value in diagnosis.

Untreated, the infection is fatal within two years, in approximately 70 per cent of patients. Treatment traditionally involved sodium stibogluconate, but other chemotherapeutic agents (including allupurinol, ketoconazole, and immunotherapy) are now in use, the most recently used being liposomal amphotericin B. Although immunointact persons usually respond satisfactorily, they are likely to relapse if they have HIV infection (see AIDS/HIV).

Cutaneous leishmaniasis This form is caused by infection with L. tropica, L. major,

L. aethiopica, and other species. The disease is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and the former Soviet Union. It is characterised by localised cutaneous ulcers

– usually situated on exposed areas of the body. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the causative organism in a skin biopsy-specimen; the leishmanin skin test is of value. Most patients respond to sodium stibogluconate (see above); local heat therapy is also used. Paromomycin cream has been successfully applied locally.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis This form is caused by L. braziliensis and rarely L. mexicana. It is present in Central and South America, particularly the Amazon basin, and characterised by highly destructive, ulcerative, granulomatous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, especially involving the mucocutaneous junctions of the mouth, nasopharynx, genitalia, and rectum. Infection is usually via a super?cial skin lesion at the site of a sand?y bite. However, spread is by haematogenous routes (usually after several years) to a mucocutaneous location. Diagnosis and treatment are the same as for cutaneous leishmaniasis.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) Talented with the flute

Lenmanna, Linmana, Linmanna, Lynmana, Lynmanna... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A colloquial term for Cyanea - used in many countries other than Australia.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medicinal Plants

German malt beverage; strong, bitter taste; used as a remedy by itself or combined with other ingredients; often added to botellas or bebedizos.... Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Incan) Resembling a falcon Mamanie, Mamanee, Mamaney, Mamany, Mamanea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Polynesian) A charismatic and prestigious woman Manah... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A health care delivery system which entails interventions to control the price, volume, delivery site and intensity of health services provided, the goal of which is to maximize the value of health benefits and the coordination of health care management for a covered population.... Community Health


Community Health

A health plan that uses managed care arrangements and has a defined system of selected providers who contract with the plan. Those enrolled have a financial incentive to use participating providers who agree to furnish a broad range of services to them. Providers may be paid on a pre-negotiated basis.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

This process aims to reduce the costs of health care while maintaining its quality. The concept originated in the United States but has attracted interest in the United Kingdom and Europe, where the spiralling costs of health care have been causing widespread concern. Managed care works through changing clinical practice, but it is not a discrete entity: the American I. J. Iglehart has de?ned it as ‘a variety of methods of ?nancing and organising the delivery of comprehensive health care in which an attempt is made to control costs by controlling the provision of services’. Managed care has three facets: health policy; how that policy is managed; and how individuals needing health care are dealt with. The process and its applications are still evolving and it is likely that di?erent health-care systems will adapt it to suit their own particular circumstances.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The sum of the measures taken to plan, organize, operate and evaluate all the many interrelated elements of a system. Such measures are required to translate policies into strategies and strategies into plans of action for determining the action required to define and operate health programmes and ensure that the health system infrastructure is built up to deliver them efficiently and effectively.... Community Health


Community Health

A system of databases designed to process and exchange information to support decision-making as well as implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes, activities and projects. See also “health information system”.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) An accomplished woman Manala, Manall, Manalle, Manalla, Manali... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Japanese) Having a love of the ocean

Manamie, Manamy, Manamey, Manamee, Manamea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) Woman of the light Manara, Manaria, Manarr, Manarre, Manarra, Manari, Manarri, Mannara, Mannarra... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Having great strength of mind

Maanasa, Manassa, Manasah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Persian) Beauty everlasting Mandanah, Mandanna, Mandannah... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A system under which medical practitioners or other health professionals are required by law to inform health authorities when a specified event occurs (i.e. a medical error or the diagnosis of a certain disease). See also “incidence monitoring and reporting”.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Having a bright mind Mandeepe, Mandyp, Mandype, Mandeepa, Mandypa... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Also known as mandelamine, a non-toxic keto-acid used in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, especially those due to the Escherichia coli and the Streptococcus faecalis or Enterococcus. It is administered in doses of 3 grams several times daily. As it is only e?ective in an acid urine, ammonium chloride must be taken at the same time.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The bone of the lower JAW.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African) A sweet woman Mandisah, Mandysa, Mandysah... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: M. microcarpa Bertol. M. officinarum Linn.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region.

English: Mandrake.

Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Lakshmanaa, a fertility promoting herb. (In Indian medicine, Panax quinquefolium Linn. and Panax schinseng Nees have been equated with Lakshmanaa.)

Action: Anaesthetic, narcotic, poisonous. Alkaloid pattern similar to Atropa belladona. A sample of roots from Morocco contained atropine (0.2% at flowering stage).

In India, Panax sp. are perceived as fertility and vitality promoting herbs, which have been attributed to Laksh- manaa. Mandrake exhibits anticholinergic effects.

English Mandrake and American Mandrake are equated with Bryonia alba and Podophyllum hexandrum respectively.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Protection, Love, Money, Fertility, Health...


Herbal Manual

Podophyllum peltatum. N.O. Berberidaceae.

Synonym: May Apple, Racoonberry, Wild Lemon.

Habitat: A common plant in the United States and Canada, the root is imported into this country in large quantities for medicinal purposes.

Features ? The rhizome (as the part used should more strictly be termed) is reddish- brown in colour, fairly smooth, and has knotty joints at distances of about two inches. The fracture shows whitish and mealy.

American Mandrake is an entirely different plant from White Bryony or English Mandrake, dealt with elsewhere. Preparations of the rhizome of the American Mandrake are found in practice to be much more effective than those of the resin. This is one of the many confirmations of one of the basic postulates of herbal medicine—the nearer we can get to natural conditions the better the results. Therapeutic principles are never the same when taken from their proper environment.

Podophyllum is a very valuable hepatic, and a thorough but slow-acting purgative. Correctly compounded with other herbs it is wonderfully effective in congested conditions of the liver, and has a salutary influence on other parts of the system, the glands in particular being helped to normal functioning. Although apparently unrecognised in Coffin's day, the modern natural healer highly appreciates the virtues of this medicine and has many uses for it.

As American Mandrake is so powerful in certain of its actions, and needs such skillful combination with other herbs, it should not be used by the public without the advice of one experienced in prescribing it to

individual needs.... Herbal Manual


Medical Dictionary

(Sanskrit) An honorable woman Mandray, Mandrayia, Mandraye... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(English) Form of Amanda, meaning “one who is much loved” Mandi, Mandie, Mandee, Mandey, Manda, Mandalyn, Mandalynn, Mandelina, Mandeline, Mandalyna, Mandea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A metal, oxides of which are found abundantly in nature. Permanganate of potassium is a well-known disinfectant. The body requires small amounts of the metal for normal growth and development. (See also TRACE ELEMENTS.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) As sweet as a melody Mangenah, Mangenna, Mangennah... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.

English: Mango.

Ayurvedic: Aamra, Amb, Rasaal, Sa- hakaar, Pikavallabha, Madhudoot, Atisaurabha, Maakanda.

Unani: Aam, Ambaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Manga, Mau, Mamaram (bark), Mangottai Paruppu (seed).

Action: Unripe fruit—astringent, antiscorbutic. Ripe fruit—invigorating and refrigerant in heat apoplexy. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, chloretic, diuretic. Used in diabetes, externally in burns and scalds. Kernel—astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antispas- modic, antiscorbutic; given in diarrhoea, diabetes and menstrual disorders. Stem bark—astringent; used for haemorrhages, diarrhoea, rheumatism.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried seed in diarrhoea and dysentery; and the dried stem bark in genitourinary disorders.

Ripe mango contains sugars (9.518.6%), citric acid (0.12-0.34%), ascorbic acid (10.8-225.0 mg/100 g), carote- noids as beta-carotene (2,00017,000 mcg/100 g). The fruit gave phenolic compounds (m-digallic acid, gal- lotannin, phloroglucinol, protocate- chuic acid); flavonoids (1,2,3,4-tetrahy- droxy benzene, kaempferol and myri- cetin).

The seed kernel contains alpha-and beta-amyrins, gallotannin, glucogallin and several sterols.

The leaves contain a pentacyclic tri- terpene alcohol, indicol, besides tarax- one, taraxerol, friedelin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. Leaves contain several sugars, free malic and citric acids and amino acids. Some esters of ben- zophenone C-glucosides and kinic and shikmic acids have also been reported. Mangiferin is present predominantly in the leaves and twigs.

The bark contains phenolic compounds (gallocatechin, protocatechuic acid), xanthones (homomangiferin), several triterpenoids and sterols.

All parts gave phenolic acids (el- lagic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate); flavonoids (catechin), and xanthones (mangiferin).

Dosage: Dried seed—1-2 g powder (API, Vol. I); stem bark—3-6 g powder, 25-50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medicinal Plants

Mangifera indica

Description: This tree may reach 30 meters in height. It has alternate, simple, shiny, dark green leaves. Its flowers are small and inconspicuous. Its fruits have a large single seed. There are many cultivated varieties of mango. Some have red flesh, others yellow or orange, often with many fibers and a kerosene taste.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree grows in warm, moist regions. It is native to northern India, Burma, and western Malaysia. It is now grown throughout the tropics.

Edible Parts: The fruits area nutritious food source. The unripe fruit can be peeled and its flesh eaten by shredding it and eating it like a salad. The ripe fruit can be peeled and eaten raw. Roasted seed kernels are edible.


If you are sensitive to poison ivy, avoid eating mangoes, as they cause a severe reaction in sensitive individuals.... Medicinal Plants


Beneficial Teas

Mango tea is a complex type of tea, due to its ingredients: green tea, black tea and mango pieces. It is considered to be ideal both for tea consumers and fruit lovers worldwide. About Mango Tea Mango, originally coming fromsouth Asia, was brought to the United States in 1880. It symbolizes love and apparently, its leaves are a good choice to be gifted at weddings. It is a delicious and juicy fruit, that can be eaten fresh or cooked, sliced, pureed or, as part of several beverages. Mango tea is a type of tea resulting from mixing green tea, black tea and whole mango pieces. It gathers the freshness of mangoes and the strong flavor of the two teas mentioned above. How to make Mango Tea?
  • infuse 1 tablespoon per cup
  • use boiling water
  • infuse it for 3 minutes
Mango tea can be also consumed cold. In this case, ice is recommended to be added. To boost its freshness, connoisseurs indicate the use of fresh mint leaves use. Mango Tea benefits Owing to the high quantity of contained antioxidants, Mango tea is effectively used in treating cancer and helping cells to recover from this disease. This type of tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with:
  •  Anemia
  •  Stress
  • Muscle cramps
  • Digestion
  • Weight Control
  • Bone Growth
  • Immune Functions
  • Vision
  • Wound Healing
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Dehydration
Mango Tea side effects Mango tea side effects are generallyassociated to overconsumption or, citrus intolerance. It is indicated that individuals suffering from cardiac problems or hypertension to consume it moderately. Pregnant and breast-feeding women are advised to reduce the amount of Mango tea consumed (less than 2 cups per day), in order not to cause agitation to the baby. Mango teacould be successfully introduced in a daily diet, providing energy and enhancing mood for consumers of all ages and thus, carefully strengthening the immune system.... Beneficial Teas


Medical Dictionary

(English) From the whiskey town

Manhatton, Manhatan, Manhaton... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A form of mental disorder characterised by great excitement. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, the personification of insanity Maniah, Mainia, Maynia, Maniya... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Manic depression, or CYCLOTHYMIA, is a form of MENTAL ILLNESS characterised by alternate attacks of mania and depression.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil. Major crop in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Manioc, Tapioca, Cassava.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravalli kizhangu, Ezhalai kizhangu.

Folk: Tapioca.

Action: Staple food for poorer section of the population in many tropical countries. The starch is used for the manufacture of dextose, liquid glucose. The bitter variety is used for treating scabies and weeping skin.

The tuber is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids. It contains 0.1-3.0 mg/kg (fresh weight) of beta- carotene and 0.05-00.6 mg/kg (fresh weight) of lutein. The bitterness of the tuber is related to the cyanoglu- coside content which ranges from 320 to 1,100 mcg cyanide/g in very bitter tubers and from 27.5 to 77.5 mcg is non-bitter tubers. Boiling, crushing and sun-drying reduce bitterness and also cyanoglucoside content. The tannin equivalent content in the clones varies from 0.31 to 0.34% and saponin equivalent varies from 0.18 to 0.29%.

Feeding tapioca significantly reduced the plasma cholesterol profile experimentally in cats and rats.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Sanskrit) Her mind is a jewel Maanika, Manicka, Manyka, Manycka, Manicca, Manica, Maniya, Manikya, Maneka... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

(L.) Dubard.

Synonym: Minusops Kauki L.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: A native of Malaya; occasionally grown in gardens, especially in North India, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

English: Kauki.

Ayurvedic: Khirni.

Siddha: Palai.

Action: Root and bark—astringent. Given in infantile diarrhoea. Seed— febrifuge, anthelmintic, antileprotic. Leaf—used as poultice for tumours.

Seeds contain about 16% of fatty oil and 1% saponin.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Du- bard, synonym Mimusops hexandra Roxb., found in central India and Dec- can Peninsula, and cultivated throughout the greater part of India, is also equated with Khirni.

All parts gave taraxerol, a triterpene ketone, alpha-and beta-amyrin, cin- namates, alpha-sipnasterol, beta-sitos- terol, its beta-D-glucoside, quercitol, quercetin and its dihydroderivatives, ursolic acid.

The bark contains 10% tannin.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Polish) A warring woman Maninah, Maneena, Maneina, Manyna, Maneana, Maniena... Medical Dictionary


Medicinal Plants

Manihot utillissima

Description: Manioc is a perennial shrubby plant, 1 to 3 meters tall, with jointed stems and deep green, fingerlike leaves. It has large, fleshy rootstocks.

Habitat and Distribution: Manioc is widespread in all tropical climates, particularly in moist areas. Although cultivated extensively, it maybe found in abandoned gardens and growing wild in many areas.

Edible Parts: The rootstocks are full of starch and high in food value. Two kinds of manioc are known: bitter and sweet. Both are edible. The bitter type contains poisonous hydrocyanic acid. To prepare manioc, first grind the fresh manioc root into a pulp, then cook it for at least 1 hour to remove the bitter poison from the roots. Then flatten the pulp into cakes and bake as bread. Manioc cakes or flour will keep almost indefinitely if protected against insects and dampness. Wrap them in banana leaves for protection.


For safety, always cook the roots of either type.... Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

The passive movement (frequently forceful) of bones, joints, or soft tissues, carried out by orthopaedic surgeons, physiotherapists (see PHYSIOTHERAPY), osteopaths (see OSTEOPATHY) and chiropractors (see CHIROPRACTOR) as an important part of treatment – often highly e?ective. It may be used for three chief reasons: correction of deformity (mainly the reduction of fractures and dislocations, or to overcome deformities such as congenital club-foot – see TALIPES); treatment of joint sti?ness (particularly after an acute limb injury, or FROZEN SHOULDER); and relief of chronic pain (particularly when due to chronic strain, notably of the spinal joints – see PROLAPSED INTERVERTEBRAL DISC). Depending on the particular injury or deformity being treated, and the estimated force required, manipulation may be used with or without ANAESTHESIA. Careful clinical and radiological examination, together with other appropriate investigations, should always be carried out before starting treatment, to reduce the risk of harm, or disasters such as fractures or the massive displacement of an intervertebral disc.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) One who travels on foot

Manisah, Manysa, Manysah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Having great intelligence; a genius

Maneesha, Manishah, Manysha, Maniesha, Maneisha, Maneasha... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Of the sacred blossom Manjarie, Manjary, Manjarey, Manjaree, Manjarea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) A sweet young woman Manjulah, Manjulia, Manjulie, Manjule, Manjuli... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Sanskrit) As treasured as a box of gems

Manjushah, Manjushia, Manjousha, Manjoushia... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(English) Daughter of Man Maning, Mannyng, Manyng... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An osmotic diuretic (see DIURETICS) given by a slow intravenous infusion to reduce OEDEMA of the BRAIN or raised intraocular pressure in GLAUCOMA.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An instrument for measuring the pressure or tension of liquids or gases. (See BLOOD PRESSURE.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Persian) Born under the sweet sun Manoushe, Manousha, Manoushai, Manoushia, Manoushea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African) The third-born child Mansah, Mansia... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) Resembling a picked flower

Mansie, Mansy, Mansey, Mansee, Mansea, Mausi, Mausie, Mausee, Mausy, Mausey, Mausea... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A genus of filarial nematode worms which can infect humans in Africa and South America. Transmitted by biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides. Important species infecting humans include M. ozzardi, M. perstans and M. streptocerca.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A genus of mosquitoes, some species of which can be involved in the transmission of human filariasis due to Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medicinal Plants

Butter; can be butter from cow’s milk or the semi-solid fat of certain animals, such as snake butter (manteca de culebra) or iguana butter (manteca de iguana).... Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A prophetess; in mythology, mother of Mopsus

Mantia, Mantika, Manteia, Mantea, Mantai, Mantae... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for TUBERCULOSIS. It consists in injecting into the super?cial layers of the skin (i.e. intradermally) a very small quantity of old TUBERCULIN which contains a protein ANTIGEN to TB. A positive reaction of the skin – swelling and redness – shows that the person so reacting has been infected at some time in the past with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, it does not mean that such a person is su?ering from active tuberculosis.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Sanskrit) One who counsels others

Mantrini, Mantrania, Mantranna, Mantrani, Mantrinie, Mantranie... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Persian) One who is pure; chaste Mantre... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The tube between the stomach and the mouth of a jellyfish - equivalent to the oesophagus in humans.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The uppermost part of the STERNUM or breastbone.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) Feminine form of Emmanuel; God is with us Manuella, Manuelita, Manuelyta, Manueleeta, Manoela, Manuel, Manuelle, Manuele... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hawaiian) Resembling a bird in the heavens

Manulanie, Manulane, Manulaney, Manulanee, Manulanea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African) A humble woman Manyarah... Medical Dictionary


Medicinal Plants

Apple (Malus pumila).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root, flower, fruit, bulb, bark, whole plant.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit: raw, ingested, for treatment or prevention of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and nutrition; tea, orally, for common cold, flu-like symptoms, menopausal hot flashes and relaxation.

Safety: Fruit is widely consumed and generally considered safe.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: alleviation of gastro-intestinal enteritis (fruit).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic (ethanol extract).

In vitro: antioxidant (phenols).

* See entry for Manzana in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants


Medicinal Plants

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita & Chamaemelum nobile).

Plant Part Used: Flower.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Flowers: decoction/infusion, orally, for anxiety, nervousness, stress, insomnia (adults and children), menstrual cramps, post-partum recovery, childbirth and regulating blood pressure.

Safety: Considered safe for internal use; slight potential for hypersensitivity, especially in patients with a history of allergic reaction to Aster species.

Contraindications: Pregnancy: oral administration of whole plant extract at high doses may have emmenagogue effects; however, flower extracts have not shown this effect.

Clinical Data: Clinical case report: mouthwash for oral mucositis (plant extract).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antipruritic, antiulcerogenic (plant extract); anxiolytic (constituents); hypoglycemic (aerial parts of Chamaemelum nobile).

In vitro: antifungal (plant extracts).

* See entry for Manzanilla in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

A delusion of grandeur or an insane belief in a person’s own extreme greatness, goodness, or power.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) One who is faithful Mehumann, Mehumane, Mehumana, Mehumanna... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Activities that support a person in keeping control over bank accounts, finances, etc.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

Monomania is a form of MENTAL ILLNESS, in which the a?ected person has delusion (see DELUSIONS) upon one subject, although he or she can converse rationally and is a responsible individual upon other matters.... Medical Dictionary


Beneficial Teas

Mugwort tea is one of the many herbal teas that have many health benefits. Despite its bitter, tangy taste, it’s worth a try to drink some mugwort tea, as it’s good for your body. Find out more about the tea’s health benefits in this article. About Mugwort Tea Mugwort tea is a type of herbal tea made from mugwort dried leaves. The mugwort is an herbaceous perennial plant with a woody root; it can grow up to 2 meters tall. The stem is reddish in color, with dark green, pinnate leaves that are 5-20 cm long, and radially symmetrical small flowers which have many yellow or dark red petals. It grows in Europe, Asia, northern Africa, Alaska and North America; it is often considered an invasive weed. It is sometimes referred to by the following names: felon herb, chrysanthemum weed, wild wormwood, old Uncle Henry, sailor’s tobacco, or St. John’s plant (be careful not to confuse it with St. John’s wort). The leaves and buds of the plant are best picked right before the flowers of the plant bloom, between July and September. They can be used with season fat, meat and fish, to give them a bitter flavor. Native American legends say that mugwort leaves were rubbed all over one’s body in order to keep ghosts away, as well as to prevent one from dreaming about the dead. Nowadays, it is mixed with other herbs (chamomile, peppermint) to make the so-called “dream tea”, which helps you improve dream recall, and increases the number of dreams you have per night. Components of Mugwort Tea Mugwort, which is the main ingredient of the mugwort tea, has plenty of components that are good for our health. Some of them are essential oils (such as cineole/wormwood oil, and thujone), flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarin derivatives, tannins, and linalool. Thujone consumed in large amounts can be toxic. In many countries, the amount of thujone which can be added in food or drink products is regulated. The amount of thujone oil found in the plant is considered safe. How to make Mugwort Tea In order to enjoy a cup of mugwort tea, add one teaspoon of the dried mugwort herb to a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes before removing the dried plants. It is recommended that you drink the mugwort tea in mouthful doses throughout the whole day. If the mugwort tea is too bitter for your taste, you can add honey or sugar to sweeten it. Mugwort Tea Benefits Thanks to the many components of mugwort, the mugwort tea is full of health benefits. Mugwort tea is useful when it comes to having a good digestion. It stimulates the secretion of gastric juices, relieves flatulence and bloating, and helps in the treatment for intestinal worms. It also improves your appetite, and helps with indigestion, colic, and travel sickness. This tea might help in the treatment of various brain diseases. It is also a useful remedy when it comes to nervousness, exhaustion, depression, and insomnia. Mugwort tea is also useful during child birth. It has a calming effect when you are during labor, and it also lessens contraction pains. It is also useful when you get menstrual cramps, and stimulates irregular or suppressed menstruation. Considering the diuretic properties of mugwort, it is believed that mugwort tea can help with liver, spleen, and kidney problems. It is also recommended that you drink this type of tea if you’ve got a cold, a fever, or if you’re suffering from asthma or bronchitis. Mugwort Tea side effects Although mugwort tea contains little amount of thujone oil, it is recommended that you don’t drink if you’re pregnant. It might cause miscarriages. Consumed in large quantities, the thujone oil found in the composition of this tea may lead to side effects such as anxiety and sleeplessness. When drinking mugwort tea, be careful not to have an allergic reaction. You might be allergic to mugwort if you know you’re allergic to plants from the Asteraceae or Compositae family. These include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, chamomile, and many other plants. Also, avoid drinking this tea if you know you’re allergic to birch, celery, wild carrot, honey, royal jelly, cabbage, hazelnut, olive pollen, kiwi, peach, mango, apple, mustard, and sunflower. Don’t drink more than six cups of mugwort tea - or any other type of tea - a day. If you drink too much, it’ll end up doing more harm. The symptoms you might experience are headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats.   Despite its bitter taste, mugwort tea is definitely good for your body. It has lots of health benefits, but first make sure you’re not affected by any of its side effects. Once you’re sure it’s safe, you can enjoy a cup of this  delicious tea.... Beneficial Teas


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: N. grandiflora DC.

Family: Valerianaceae.

Habitat: Alpine Himalayas, Kumaon, Sikkim and Bhutan.

English: Spikenard, Musk-root.

Ayurvedic: Maansi, Jataamaansi, Bhuutajataa, Tapaswini, Sulo- mashaa, Jatilaa, Naladaa.

Unani: Sumbul-e-Hindi, Sambul-ut- Teeb, Naardeen-e-Hindi, Baalchhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Sadamanchil.

Action: Used as a substitute for Valerian. Tranquilizer, sedative, hypotensive. Used for the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, convulsive affections, palpitation of heart and in intestinal colic. A decoction of powdered roots is prescribed as a home remedy for high blood pressure. It is used in dysmenorrhoea for pain relief and smooth menstrual flow. It is used in hair oil for arresting hair loss and greying of hair.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia.

The rhizome is rich in sesquiter- penoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5% v/w), which contains d- nardostachone, valeranone and jata- mansone as the major ketonic sesqui- terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.

Jatamansone was shown to exert tranquilizing effect in mice and monkeys. In rabbits, jatamansone was found to impair biosynthesis of serotonin in the brain leading to a reduction in brain level of 5-hydroxytrypta- mine. The degradation of serotonin was unaffected. The mode of action of jatamansone was thus in variance with that of reserpine which has direct action on the cell to liberate serotonin.

On the other hand, the alcoholic extract of the roots of Indian Nard caused an overall increase in the levels of central monamines, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and the inhibitory amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in rat brain.

In a clinical trial on hyperkinetic children, jatamansone showed significant reduction in hyperactivity and improvement in restlessness and aggressiveness, almost at par with D- amphetamine.

The volatile oil was found to be less active than quinidine in several tests. It did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias.

Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antiestrogenic activity.

N. jatamansi is also used in place of Muraa (Selinum tenuifolium Wall. ex DC.)

Dosage: Root—2-3 g powder; 5-10 g for infusion; 50-100 ml infusion. (API, Vol. I; CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(French) Woman from Normandy

Normandi, Normandee, Normandy, Normandey, Normandea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) A lovely woman Omanah, Omanna, Omannah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(American) An exuberant woman Omani, Omany, Omaney, Omanee, Omanea... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A person who investigates complaints and mediates fair settlements, especially between aggrieved parties, such as consumers, and an institution or organization.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(German) Woman of the sea Ormandy, Ormandey, Ormadee, Ormandi, Ormandie, Ormandea... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Obleaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan. Found in Kumaon, Garhwal and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Vasuka (Also equated with Brihat Bakula.)

Folk: Silang, Silingi, Bagahul, Buuk.

Action: Diuretic, genitourinary tract disinfectant.

Flowers—antiseptic, insecticidal. Used for protecting clothes from insects.

The flowers yield an oil containing oleanolic and urosolic acids, beta- sitosterol, glycosides and a wax (0.04%) composed mainly of triacontane. The leaves are reported to contain a philly- rin-like glycoside.

Osmanthus suavis King, known as Silingi in Nepal and Chashing in Bhutan, is found in eastern Himalayas at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 m and in Aka hills in Assam. It is used as a var. of Vasuka.

Dosage: Flower—500 mg to 1 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

See PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The colloquial term for the multi-tentacled hydrozoan colony Physalia physalis, recentlydescribed on the eastern coast of Australia.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Community Health

A set of strategies to address an individual’s pain management requirements and supportive of the individual’s pain control.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(body louse) di?ers from the head and crab louse in that it lives in clothing and only goes on to the body to feed. Infestation is found in vagabonds, armies in the ?eld, or prisoners in conditions where even minimal hygiene is impossible. The lice are found in the seams of clothing together with multiple eggs. Typically excoriation and pigmentation are seen on the back of the infested person. Replacement of clothing or autoclaving or hot ironing of the clothes is curative.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The level of attainment of a goal in comparison to a given effort.... Community Health


Community Health

Criteria to be used to measure/assess performance.... Community Health


Community Health

Methods or instruments to estimate or monitor the extent to which the actions of an individual practitioner or whole programme conform to practice standards of quality or allow comparisons between services.... Community Health


Medicinal Plants Glossary

Documented verification of the appropriateness of critical process parameters, operating ranges and system reproducibility over an appropriate time period... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Medicinal Plants

Butter pomade; a slightly solidified nut butter used externally as an ointment or salve; for example, made from peanuts (maní) or sesame seeds (ajonjolí).... Medicinal Plants


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The colloquial term used for the multi-tentacled hydrozoan colony of Physalia physalis common in the north Atlantic Ocean.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

A salt of the metallic element POTASSIUM. It is used as a skin antiseptic (see ANTISEPTICS) and for cleaning wounds; its astringent e?ect is useful in the treatment of DERMATITIS. It should not be taken internally because the compound is poisonous.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A system of management which involves the integration of planning, resourcing and evaluation processes to achieve stated outcomes.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A powerful urge in a person to set things on ?re. A?ected individuals, more commonly males, are called pyromaniacs. They usually have a history of fascination with ?re since childhood and obtain pleasure or relief of tension from causing ?res. Treatment is di?cult and pyromaniacs commonly end up in the courts.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

QAPI establishes strategies for promoting high quality health care. First, each organization must meet certain required levels of performance when providing specific health care and related services. Second, organizations must conduct performance improvement projects that are outcome-oriented and that achieve demonstrable and sustained improvement in care and services. It is expected that an organization will continuously monitor its own performance on a variety of dimensions of care and services, identify its own areas for potential improvement, carry out individual projects to undertake system interventions to improve care, and monitor the effectiveness of those interventions.... Community Health


Community Health

The process of trying to attain the most rational use of manpower, knowledge, facilities and funds to achieve the intended purposes with the greatest effect with the least outlay.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

The function of identifying and assessing problems that could occur and bring about losses legally, clinically or financially.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A predictive technique for identifying potential untoward occurrences. It has been in use in certain industries (such as nuclear power generation) for many years and was introduced to the NHS in 1991 when self-governing trusts were ?rst set up. The reasons were, ?rstly, that Crown immunity had been removed from the health service in 1988, so that ceased to be immune from prosecution for non-compliance with health and safety legislation; secondly, because trusts were responsible for their own liabilities and any consequential costs. Risk management starts with three simple questions:

what can go wrong?

how likely is it to happen?

how bad would it be if it happened?

The combined answers allow an estimate to be made of the risk. Given the scope for clinical mishaps in the NHS – let alone sta? and corporate risks – the need for a credible, operational risk strategy is substantial.... Community Health


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Oedema of the eyelid in early Chagas’ Disease (South American trypanosomiasis) due to the infected faeces of the vector assassin (triatomid) bug causing swelling of the mucosa of the eye.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) A woman from a city in western Spain... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) Form of Samantha, meaning “one who listens well” Samanffa, Sammanfa, Sammanffa, Semenfa, Semenfah, Samenffa, Semenffah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Aramaic) One who listens well Samanthah, Samanthia, Samanthea, Samantheya, Samanath, Samanatha, Samana, Samanitha, Samanithia, Samanth, Samanthe, Samanthi, Samanthiah, Semantha, Sementha, Simantha, Smantha, Samantah, Smanta, Samanta, Sammatha, Samatha, Samea, Samee, Samey, Samie, Samy, Samye, Sami, Sammanth, Sammanthia, Sammanthiah, Sammanthya, Sammanthyah, Sammantha, Sammi, Sammie, Sammy, Samm, Samma, Sammah, Sammee, Sammey, Sammijo, Sammyjo... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The capacity of individuals, communities or national authorities to take the initiative in assuming responsibility for their own health development and adopting adequate measures to maintain health that are understood by them and acceptable to them, knowing their own strengths and resources and how to use them and knowing when, and for what purpose, to turn to others for support and cooperation.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(English) Form of Charmaine, meaning “charming and delightful woman” Sharman, Sharmaine, Sharmain, Sharmayne, Sharmayn, Sharmaen, Sharmaene... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) One who charms rattlesnakes

Shumane, Shumaine, Shumayne, Shumanne, Shumanna, Shumaene... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The traditional device for measuring blood pressure in clinical practice, devised by Riva-Rocci and Korotko? about a century ago. Measurement depends on accurate transmission and interpretation of the pulse wave to an artery. The sphygmomanometer is of two types, mercury and aneroid. The former is more accurate. Both have some features in common – an in?ation-de?ation system, an occluding bladder encased in a cu?, and the use of AUSCULTATION with a STETHOSCOPE. The mercury sphygmomanometer consists of a pneumatic armlet which is connected via a rubber tube with an air-pressure pump and a measuring gauge comprising a glass column containing mercury. The armlet is bound around the upper arm and pumped up su?ciently to obliterate the pulse felt at the wrist or heard by auscultation of the artery at the bend of the elbow. The pressure, measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg), registered at this point on the gauge is regarded as the pressure of the blood at each heartbeat (ventricular contraction). This is called the systolic pressure. The cu? is then slowly de?ated by releasing the valve on the air pump and the pressure at which the sound heard in the artery suddenly changes its character marks the diastolic pressure. Aneroid sphygmomanometers register pressure through an intricate bellows and lever system which is more susceptible than the mercury type to the bumps and jolts of everyday use which reduce its inaccuracy.

While mercury sphygmomanometers are simple, accurate and easily serviced, there is concern about possible mercury toxicity for users, those servicing the devices and the environment. Use of them has already been banned in some European hospitals. Although it may be a few years before they are widely replaced, automated blood-pressure-measuring devices will increasingly be in routine use. A wide variety of ambulatory blood-pressuremeasuring devices are already available and may be ?tted in general practice or hospital settings, where the patient is advised on the technique. Blood-pressure readings can be taken half-hourly – or more often, if required – with little disturbance of the patient’s daily activities or sleep. (See also BLOOD PRESSURE; HYPERTENSION.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) A good-natured woman Sumanah, Sumanna, Sumane, Sumanne, Sumann... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) One who is desired Tamannah, Tamana, Tamanah, Tammana, Tammanna... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

TQM is synonymous with continuous quality improvement (CQI). It is an integrative management concept of continuously improving the quality of delivered goods and services through the participation of all level and functions of the organization to meet the needs and expectations of the customer.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

An obsessional impulse to pull out one’s own hair.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Typhaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir (Gilgit), at 2,700 m. English: Scented Flag. Ayurvedic: Airakaa. Folk: Pizh (Kashmir). Action: Stamens—astringent and styptic. Used externally.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

This is carried out by closing the mouth, holding the nose and attempting to blow hard. The manoeuvre raises pressure in the chest – and, indirectly, the abdomen – and forces air from the back of the nose down the EUSTACHIAN TUBES to the middle ear. This latter e?ect can be used to clear the tube during descent in an aircraft, when it sometimes becomes blocked or partially blocked, producing di?erential pressures on the two sides of each eardrum, usually accompanied by temporary pain and deafness.

Valsalva’s manoeuvre is involuntarily performed when a person strains to open his or her bowels: in these circumstances the passage of air to the lungs is blocked by instinctive closure of the vocal cords in the LARYNX. The resultant raised abdominal pressure helps to expel the bowel contents. The manoeuvre is also used in the study of cardiovascular physiology because the rise in pressure in the chest restricts the return of venous blood to the right atrium of the HEART. Pressure in the peripheral VEINS is raised and the amount of blood entering and leaving the heart falls. This drop in cardiac output may cause the subject to faint because the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain is reduced.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani, found around parts of the Mediterranean basin, tropical Africa, South America, and central and eastern Asia. The disease is transmitted byfemale sandflies of the genus, Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. Full-blown disease is often fatal, if untreated. Growth nodules of the disease or leishmanioma form initially and, if spontaneous recoverydoes not occur, proliferating parasites burst out of the nodules, disseminating throughout the body.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

A rare condition in which, as a result of too great a pressure from splint or bandage in the treatment of a broken arm, the ?exor muscles of the forearm contract and thus obstruct free ?ow of blood in the veins; the muscles then swell and ultimately become ?brosed.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test introduced for the diagnosis of SYPHILIS by examination of the blood. It has now been largely supplanted by other, more speci?c tests.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Native American) Resembling a bird that walks... Medical Dictionary