Mortality | Health Dictionary

Death. Used to describe the relation of deaths to the population in which they occur.
The effects of something resulting in death. The quality of being mortal or dead. The death rate; the ratio of total number of deaths to the total population.
See DEATH, CAUSES OF; DEATH RATE; INFANT MORTALITY RATE (IMR).


Mortality | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Mortality


INFANT MORTALITY RATE (IMR)

Medical Dictionary

The number of deaths of infants under one year of age. The IMR in any given year is calculated as the number of deaths in the ?rst year of life in proportion to every 1,000 registered live births in that year. Along with PERINATAL MORTALITY, it is accepted as one of the most important criteria for assessing the health of the community and the standard of the social conditions of a country.

The improvement in the infant mortality rate has occurred mainly in the period from the second month of life. There has been much less improvement in the neonatal mortality rate – that is, the number of infants dying during the ?rst four weeks of life, expressed as a proportion of every 1,000 live births. During the ?rst week of life the main causes of death are asphyxia, prematurity, birth injuries and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the main cause of death is infection.

Social conditions also play an important role in infant mortality. In England and Wales the infant mortality rate in 1930–32 was: Social Class I (professional), 32·7; Social Class III (skilled workers), 57·6; Social Class V (unskilled workers), 77·1. Many factors come into play in producing these social variations, but overcrowding is undoubtedly one of the most important.

1838–9 146 1950–52 30 1851–60 154 1960–62 22 1900–02 142 1970–72 18 1910–12 110 1980–82 12 1920–22 82 1990–92 7 1930–32 67 1996 6·2 1940–42 59 1999 5.8 2000 5.6

It is thus evident that for a reduction of the infant mortality rate to the minimum ?gure, the following conditions must be met. Mothers and potential mothers must be housed adequately in healthy surroundings, particularly with regard to safe water supplies and sewage disposal. The pregnant and nursing mother must be ensured an adequate diet. E?ective antenatal supervision must be available to every mother, as well as skilled supervision during labour (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR). The newborn infant must be adequately nursed and fed and mothers encouraged to breast feed. Environmental and public-health measures must be taken to ensure adequate housing, a clean milk supply and full availability of medical care including such protective measures as IMMUNISATION against diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis and whooping-cough. (See also PERINATAL MORTALITY.)... Medical Dictionary

MORTALITY RATE

Community Health

See “death rate”.... Community Health

MORTALITY RATE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The percentage that die within a specified period of time.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

NEONATAL MORTALITY

Medical Dictionary

Neonatal mortality is the mortality of infants under one month of age. In England and Wales this has fallen markedly in recent decades: from more than 28 per 1,000 live births in 1939 to 3.6 in 2002. This improvement can be attributed to various factors: better antenatal supervision of expectant mothers; care to ensure that expectant mothers receive adequate nourishing food; improvements in the management of the complications of pregnancy and of labour; and more skilled resuscitation at birth for those who need it.

Nearly three-quarters of neonatal deaths occur during the ?rst week of life. For this reason, increasing emphasis is being laid on this initial period of life. In Britain, in the last four decades of the 20th century, the number of deaths in the ?rst week of life fell dramatically from 13.2 to just over 2.7 per 1,000 live births. The chief causes of deaths in this period are extreme prematurity (less than 28 weeks’ gestation), birth asphyxia with oxygen lack to the brain, and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the commonest cause is infection.... Medical Dictionary

PERINATAL MORTALITY

Medical Dictionary

Perinatal mortality consists of deaths of the FETUS after the 28th week of pregnancy and deaths of the newborn child during the ?rst week of life. Today, more individuals die within a few hours of birth than during the following 40 years. It is therefore not surprising that the perinatal mortality rate, which is the number of such deaths per 1,000 total births, is a valuable indicator of the quality of care provided for the mother and her newborn baby. In 2002, the perinatal mortality rate was 7.87 in the United Kingdom compared with 11.4 in 1982 – and over 30 in the early 1960s.

The causes of perinatal mortality include extreme prematurity, intrapartum anoxia (that is, di?culty in the birth of the baby, resulting in lack of oxygen), congenital abnormalities of the baby, and antepartum anoxia (that is, conditions in the terminal stages of pregnancy preventing the fetus from getting su?cient oxygen).

The most common cause of perinatal death is some complication of placenta, cord or membranes. The next most common is congenital abnormality. Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia comprise the third most common cause.... Medical Dictionary

PROPORTIONAL MORTALITY RATE (PMR)

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A measure of the relative contribution to total mortality by a specific cause and these are expressed as number of deaths assigned to the state cause in a calendar year per 1000 total deaths in that year.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine