New Technology | Health Dictionary

New Technology | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: New Technology


Community Health

Methods, procedures, techniques and equipment that are scientifically valid, adapted to local needs and acceptable to those who use them and to those for whom they are used, and that can be maintained and utilized with resources the community or country can afford.... Community Health


Community Health

An umbrella term for any device or system that allows individuals to perform tasks they would otherwise be unable to do or increases the ease and safety with which tasks can be performed.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A potentially serious disease of the newborn, characterised by haemolytic ANAEMIA (excessive destruction of red blood cells) and JAUNDICE. If severe, it may be obvious before birth because the baby becomes very oedematous (see OEDEMA) and develops heart failure – so-called hydrops fetalis. It may ?rst present on the ?rst day of life as jaundice and anaemia. The disease is due to blood-group incompatibility between the mother and baby, the commoneset being rhesus incompatibility (see BLOOD GROUPS). In this condition a rhesus-negative mother has been previously sensitised to produce rhesus antibodies, either by the delivery of a rhesus-positive baby, a miscarriage or a mismatched blood transfusion. These antibodies cross over into the fetal circulation and attack red blood cells which cause HAEMOLYSIS.

Treatment In severely a?ected fetuses, a fetal blood transfusion may be required and/or the baby may be delivered early for further treatment. Mild cases may need observation only, or the reduction of jaundice by phototherapy alone (treatment with light, involving the use of sunlight, non-visible ULTRAVIOLET light, visible blue light, or LASER).

Whatever the case, the infant’s serum BILIRUBIN – the bilirubin present in the blood – and its HAEMOGLOBIN concentration are plotted regularly so that treatment can be given before levels likely to cause brain damage occur. Safe bilirubin concentrations depend on the maturity and age of the baby, so reference charts are used.

High bilirubin concentrations may be treated with phototherapy; extra ?uid is given to prevent dehydration and to improve bilirubin excretion by shortening the gut transit time. Severe jaundice and anaemia may require exchange TRANSFUSION by removing the baby’s blood (usually 10 millilitres at a time) and replacing it with rhesus-negative fresh bank blood. Haemolytic disease of the newborn secondary to rhesus incompatibility has become less common since the introduction of anti-D (Rho) immunoglobulin. This antibody should be given to all rhesus-negative women at any risk of a fetomaternal transfusion, to prevent them from mounting an antibody response. Anti-D is given routinely to rhesus-negative mothers after the birth of a rhesus-positive baby, but doctors should also give it after threatened abortions, antepartum haemorrhages, miscarriages, and terminations of pregnancy.

Occasionally haemolytic disease is caused by ABO incompatibility or that of rarer blood groups.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... Community Health


Community Health

The application of scientific knowledge to solving health problems. Health technologies include pharmaceuticals, medical devices, procedures or surgical techniques and management, communication and information systems innovations.... Community Health


Community Health

The systematic evaluation of the properties, effects or other impacts of health care technology. HTA is intended to inform decision-makers about health technologies and may measure the direct or indirect consequences of a given technology or treatment.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

The advent of computing has had widespread e?ects in all areas of society, with medicine no exception. Computer systems are vital – as they are in any modern enterprise – for the administration of hospitals, general practices and health authorities, supporting payroll, ?nance, stock ordering and billing, resource and bed management, word-processing correspondence, laboratory-result reporting, appointment and record systems, and management audit.

The imaging systems of COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (see MRI) have powerful computer techniques underlying them.

Computerised statistical analysis of study data, population databases and disease registries is now routine, leading to enhanced understanding of the interplay between diseases and the population. And the results of research, available on computerised indexes such as MEDLINE, can be obtained in searches that take only seconds, compared with the hours or days necessary to accomplish the same task with its paper incarnation, Index Medicus.

Medical informatics The direct computerisation of those activities which are uniquely medical – history-taking, examination, diagnosis and treatment – has proved an elusive goal, although one hotly pursued by doctors, engineers and scientists working in the discipline of medical informatics. Computer techniques have scored some successes: patients are, for example, more willing to be honest about taboo areas, such as their drug or alcohol consumption, or their sexual proclivities, with a computer than face to face with a clinician; however, the practice of taking a history remains the cornerstone of clinical practice. The examination of the patient is unlikely to be supplanted by technological means in the foreseeable future; visual and tactile recognition systems are still in their infancy. Skilled interpretation of the result by machine rather than the human mind seems equally as remote. Working its way slowly outwards from its starting point in mathematical logic, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that in any way mimics its natural counterpart seems a distant prospect. Although there have been successes in computer-supported diagnosis in some specialised areas, such as the diagnosis of abdominal pain, workable systems that could supplant the mind of the generalist are still the dream of the many developers pursuing this goal, rather than a reality available to doctors in their consulting rooms now.

In therapeutics, computerised prescribing systems still require the doctor to make the decision about treatment, but facilitate the process of writing, issuing, and recording the prescription. In so doing, the system can provide automated checks, warning if necessary about allergies, potential drug interactions, or dosing errors. The built-in safety that this process o?ers is enhanced by the superior legibility of the script that ensues, reducing the potential for error when the medicine is dispensed by the nurse or the pharmacist.

Success in these individual applications continues to drive development, although the process has its critics, who are not slow to point to the lengthier consultations that arise when a computer is present in the consulting room and its distracting e?ect on communication with the patient.

Underlying these many software applications lies the ubiquitous personal computer – more powerful today than its mainframe predecessor of only 20 years ago – combined with networking technology that enables interconnection and the sharing of data. As in essence the doctor’s role involves the acquisition, manipulation and application of information – from the individual patient, and from the body of medical knowledge – great excitement surrounds the development of open systems that allow di?erent software and hardware platforms to interact. Many problems remain to be solved, not least the fact that for such systems to work, the whole organisation, and not just a few specialised individuals, must become computer literate. Such systems must be easy to learn to use, which requires an intuitive interface between user(s) and system(s) that is predictable and logical in its ordering and presentation of information.

Many other issues stand in the way of the development towards computerisation: standard systems of nomenclature for medical concepts have proved surprisingly di?cult to develop, but are crucial for successful information-sharing between users. Sharing information between existing legacy systems is a major challenge, often requiring customised software and extensive human intervention to enable the previous investments that an organisation has made in individual systems (e.g. laboratory-result reporting) to be integrated with newer technology. The beginnings of a global solution to this substantial obstacle to networking progress is in sight: the technology that enables the Internet – an international network of telephonically linked personal computers – also enables the establishment of intranets, in which individual servers (computers dedicated to serving information to other computers) act as repositories of ‘published’ data, which other users on the network may ‘browse’ as necessary in a client-server environment.

Systems that support this process are still in early stages of development, but the key conceptualisations are in place. Developments over the next 5–10 years will centre on the electronic patient record available to the clinician on an integrated clinical workstation. The clinical workstation – in essence a personal computer networked to the hospital or practice system – will enable the clinician to record clinical data and diagnoses, automate the ordering of investigations and the collection of the results, and facilitate referral and communication between the many professionals and departments involved in any individual patient’s care.

Once data is digitised – and that includes text, statistical tables, graphs, illustrations and radiological images, etc. – it may be as freely networked globally as locally. Consultations in which live video and sound transmissions are the bonds of the doctor-patient relationship (the techniques of telemedicine) are already reality, and have proved particularly convenient and cost-e?ective in linking the patient and the generalist to specialists in remote areas with low population density.

As with written personal medical records, con?dentiality of personal medical information on computers is essential. Computerised data are covered by the Data Protection Act 1984. This stipulates that data must:

be obtained and processed fairly and lawfully.

be held only for speci?ed lawful purposes.

•not be used in a manner incompatible with those purposes.

•only be recorded where necessary for these purposes.

be accurate and up to date.

not be stored longer than necessary.

be made available to the patient on request.

be protected by appropriate security and backup procedures. As these problems are solved, concerns about

privacy and con?dentiality arise. While paper records were often only con?dential by default, the potential for breaches of security in computerised networks is much graver. External breaches of the system by hackers are one serious concern, but internal breaches by authorised users making unauthorised use of the data are a much greater risk in practice. Governing network security so that clinical users have access on a need-to-know basis is a di?cult business: the software tools to enable this – encryption, and anonymisation (ensuring that clinical information about patients is anonymous to prevent con?dential information about them leaking out) of data collected for management and research processes – exist in the technical domain but remain a complex conundrum for solution in the real world.

The mushroom growth of websites covering myriad subjects has, of course, included health information. This ranges from clinical details on individual diseases to facts about medical organisations and institutes, patient support groups, etc. Some of this information contains comments and advice from orthodox and unorthodox practitioners. This open access to health information has been of great bene?t to patients and health professionals. But web browsers should be aware that not all the medical information, including suggested treatments, has been subject to PEER REVIEW, as is the case with most medical articles in recognised medical journals.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Gaelic) Born during the spring Newlynn, Newlynne, Newlin, Newlinn, Newlinne, Newlen, Newlenn, Newlenne... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See GENETIC ENGINEERING.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The application of science to health care.... Community Health


Community Health

A comprehensive form of policy research that examines the technical, economic and social consequences of technological applications.... Community Health


Beneficial Teas

Yerba Mate Tea remained unknown to the general public until a while ago, when the South American tea gained an impressive popularity among world-wide practitioners. Yerba Mate is a small tree that grows mainly in hot climate regions such as Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Yerba Mate Tea can be made from this tree’s leaves and stems. Ancient civilizations believed that this tea was the drink of gods thanks to its curative properties and its ability to purify houses and temples. The custom is to drink Yerba Mate tea from a special container called bombilla and using a straw. Yerba Mate Tea Properties Yerba Mate Tea has a bitter-sweet taste and is very similar to the camellia sinensis tea. Scientists found that Yerba Mate tea contains 196 active ingredients, making this South American tea one of the richest decoctions on Earth. The main substances of this tea are: tannins, antioxidants, polyphenols, amino acids, saponins, vitamins and flavonoids. Herbalists discovered that Yerba Mate Tea contains all the ingredients capable to sustain life. Many recent studies refer to this tea as “the new green tea”. Yerba Mate Tea Benefits Aside from its cultural background, Yerba Mate Tea is one of the best teas on Earth, thanks not only to its numerous chemical ingredients, but also to a large amount of diseases that can treat. Although in the Latin Americas this tea is as popular (if not more popular) than the tea, it remains still unknown to European public. However, Yerba Mate Tea may come in hand in case you’re suffering from one of the following problems: - Low energy level and fatigue, by giving your health system a boost. - Central nervous system problems, such as headaches and severe migraines, by helping your body produce and release more endorphins. - Gastrointestinal disorders, such as stomach pains and intestinal infections, flushing out of your system all microbes and unwanted parasites. How to make Yerba Mate Tea Infusion Preparing Yerba Mate Tea couldn’t be any easier. Just take the dried lives (if you live in South America, try to use the freshly-picked ones. They have a stronger flavor), put them in a teapot and add boiling water. Use a teaspoon of every cup of tea you want to make and wait 15 minutes for the wonderful benefits of this tea to be released. Drink it hot or cold, from a glass or a bombilla. Yerba Mate Tea Side Effects There are no reported cases of Yerba Mate Tea side effects. However, in order to avoid any kind of complications, it’s best not to drink more than 4 cups of tea per day. If you’re still having doubts about taking a treatment based on Yerba Mate Tea, talk to a specialist and gather more information. Yerba Mate Tea Contraindications When taken in high dosages, Yerba Mate Tea may lead to a number of negative reactions from your body, such as lung cancer, esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and kidney cancer. Before starting any herbal treatment, talk to a specialist in order to be informed of the implied risks. If you feel confident in your health, you already have your doctor’s ok on this matter andyou’re willing to follow a list of basic instructions, give Yerba Mate Tea a try and enjoy its great benefits!... Beneficial Teas