Piper Longum | Health Dictionary

Linn.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Warmer parts of India, from Central Himalayas to Assam, lower hills of West Bengal; Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Western

Ghats from Konkan southwards to Trivandrum. Often cultivated.

English: Indian Long Pepper, Joborandi.

Ayurvedic: Pippali, Maagadhi, Maagadha, Maagadhaa, Maagad- hikaa, Magadhodbhavaa, Vaidehi, Upkulyaa, Pippalikam, Chapalaa, Kanaa, Krishnaa. Uushnaa, Shaun- di, Kolaa, Tikshna-tandulaa.

Unani: Filfil Daraaz, Daarfilfil.

Siddha/Tamil: Thippili, Arisi thippili. Thippiliver (root).

Action: Fruits—used for diseases of the respiratory tract (cough, bronchitis, asthma); as sedative (in insomnia and epilepsy); as chola- gogue (in obstruction of bile duct and bladder), as emmenagogue, as digestive, appetizer and carminative (in indigestion); as general tonic and haematinic (in anaemia, chronic fevers and for improving intellect). Applied locally on muscular pains and inflammations.

Several aristolactams and dioxoa- porphines have been isolated from Indian long pepper. It also contains the long chain isobutyl amide, longamide, besides guineensine and the lignans, pluviatilol, methyl pluviatilol (farge- sin), sesamin and asarinine.

Piperine is the major alkaloid of peppers.

Piperine is antipyretic, hypotensive, analeptic, CNS stimulant. It has been reported to exert significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. It improves drug availability in experimental animals, and is used for enhancing the efficacy of co- administered medicaments.

Piperine enhanced bioavailability of hexobarbital, phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline. (Sharon M. Herr.) (Piperine is also a component of Piper nigrum.)

N - isobutyl - deca - trans - 2 - trans - 4 - dienamide, isolated from the fruit, exhibited antitubercular property.

Milk extract of the fruit effectively reduced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. It protected guinea-pigs against antigen-induced bronchospasm.

In China, Piper longum oil constituents were reported to inhibit the increase in serum total cholesterol induced by triton in mice.

The root powder exhibited antifer- tility activity.

A related species, P. peepuloides Roxb., is known as Saamvali Peepal. It is used specifically against obstinate skin diseases and as a sialagogue.

Dosage: Fruit—1-3 mg (API, Vol. IV); root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)


Piper Longum | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Piper Longum


MENTHA PIPERATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. emend. Huds.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Maharashtra, Kashmir and Punjab.

English: Peppermint, Brandy Mint.

Ayurvedic: Vilaayati Pudinaa.

Action: Oil—digestive, carminative, chloretic, antispasmodic, diuretic, antiemetic, mild sedative, diaphoretic, antiseptic, antiviral, used in many mixtures of indigestion and colic and cough and cold remedies.

Key application: Leaf—internally for spastic complaints of the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and bile ducts. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) The British Herbal Compendium indicates peppermint leaf for dyspepsia, flatulence, intestinal colic, and biliary disorders.

Key application: Oil—as a carminative. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In spastic discomfort fo the upper gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts, irritable colon, the respiratory tract and inflammation of the oral mucosa. Externally, for myalgia and neuralgia. (German Commission E.) ESCOP indicates its use for irritable bowel syndrome, coughs and colds. Externally, for coughs and colds, rheumatic complaints, pruritus, urticaria, and pain in irritable skin conditions. (ESCOP.)

The essential oil has both antibacterial and antifungal properties.

The major constituents of the essential oil are: menthol, menthone, pulegone, menthofuran, 1,8-cineole, men- thyl acetate, isomenthone. The leaves contain flavonoid glycosides, erioc- itrin, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, hesperi- din, isorhoifolin, diosmin, eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside and narirutin, besides rosmarinic acid, azulenes, cholene, carotenes.

Peppermint oil relaxed carvachol- contracted guinea-pig tenia coli, and inhibited spontaneous activity in guinea-pig colon and rabbit jejunum. It relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle by reducing calcium influx. Peppermint oil reduced gastric emptying time in dyspeptics.

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts exhibited antiviral activity against RPV (rinder pest virus), a highly contagious viral disease of cattle.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who plays the flute Pipere, Piperel, Piperell, Piperele, Piperelle, Piperela, Piperella, Pyper, Pypere, Pyperelle, Pyperella... Medical Dictionary

PIPER ATTENUATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Buch.-Ham. ex Miq.

Synonym: P. bantamense Blume.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Eastern tropical Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills and the Nilgiris.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattumilaaku.

Action: Root—diuretic. Plant— rubefacient; used for muscular pains and headache.

Several aristolactams have been reported from the aerial parts of the plant. Crotepoxide exhibited significant antitumour activity.

Roots contain alkamides including piperine, piperlonguminine and guineensine.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER BETLE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in warmer and damper parts of India; Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala.

English: Betel pepper.

Ayurvedic: Taambula, Naagvallari, Naagini, Taambulvalli, Saptashiraa, Bhujangalataa.

Unani: Paan, Tambool.

Siddha/Tamil: Vetrilai Nagavalli, Kammaaruvetritai.

Action: Leaf—stimulant, carminative, astringent, antiseptic. Essential oil from leaves—antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used in respiratory catarrhs. Fruit—bechic.

The leaves afforded beta- and gam- ma-sitosterol, hentriacontane, pen- tatriacontane, n-triacontanol, stearic acid and chavicol. The essential oil from leaves contained carvacrol, euge- nol, chavicol, allyl catechol, cineole, estragol, caryophyllene, cardinene, p- cymene and eugenol methyl ether.

Administration of the leaf extract resulted in decreased tumour burden and tumour incidence and a delay in the onset of mammary tumour in Wistar rats.

The alcoholic extract of the leaf stalk is reported to show antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic effect in male albino rats.

The essential oil exhibited hypoten- sive, cardiac as well as respiratory depressant and cardiotonic properties.

The leaf showed antifungal and antibacterial activity. The antiseptic activity is attributed to chavicol.

Dosage: Leaf—10-15 ml juice. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER CHABA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hunter non-Blume.

Synonym: P. retrofractum Vahl. P. officinarum DC.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Native to Moluccas, cultivated in Indonesia, also in India.

English: Java Long Pepper.

Ayurvedic: Gajapippali (spikes of Scindapsis officinalis, Araceae, are also known as Gajapippali), Chavya, Chavika.

Siddha/Tamil: Chevuyam.

Action: Similar to P. longum and P. nigrum. Fruits—stimulant, carminative; used in haemorrhoidal affections; as a tonic, after- childbirth. Roots—chewed or brewed in decoction for colic, dyspepsia and gastralgia.

Key application: In diseases of the spleen, chlorosis, diseases of the abdomen. colic, worm infestation. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

Java long pepper is similar in composition to black pepper; it contains less piperine and volatile oil (piperine 4.5 and volatile oil 1.5%).

The stem is used as a substitute for Piper longum root. It contains the alkaloids piperine and piplartine. Beta- sitosterol, glycosides, glucose and fructose and mucilage have also been reported. Active principles show muscle relaxant property.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER CUBEBA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Native to Indonesia; cultivated in Assam and Karnataka.

English: Cubeb, Tailed Pepper.

Ayurvedic: Kankola, Kakkola, Kankolaka, Takkola, Koraka, Kolaka, Kashphala, Sheetalchini, Chinoshana.

Unani: Kabaabchini, Habb-ul- uruus.

Siddha/Tamil: Valmilagu.

Action: Fruit—Carminative, diuretic, expectorant. Used for coughs, bronchitis, asthma, urinary tract infections, amoebic dysentery. Stimulates genitourinary mucous surfaces. Oil—antibacterial, used in genitourinary diseases and cystitis.

Key application: In dysuria. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The ground fruits have been found to be effective in treating amoebic dys- tentery.

The oil exhibits antiviral activity in rats and antibacterial in vitro.

Unripe fruit contains volatile oil (1020%) consisting of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons; lignans, mainly cubebine (about 2%), with (-)-cubebinin and ki- nokinin; cubebic acid. The oxygenated cyclohexanes, piperenol A and B, together with (+)-crotepoxide and (+)- zeylenol, have been isolated from the fruit. Polyhydroxy cyclohexanes possess antitumour, antileukaemic and antibiotic activities.

Dosage: Fruit—1-2 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER HAMILTONII

Indian Medicinal Plants

C. DC.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Sikkim, Terai, West Bengal and Khasi hills, up to 900 m.

English: Wild Pepper.

Folk: Jangali Paan.

Action: Carminative and diuretic.

Kadsurin A and isodihydrofuto- quinol B have been isolated from aerial parts.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER LONGUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Warmer parts of India, from Central Himalayas to Assam, lower hills of West Bengal; Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Western

Ghats from Konkan southwards to Trivandrum. Often cultivated.

English: Indian Long Pepper, Joborandi.

Ayurvedic: Pippali, Maagadhi, Maagadha, Maagadhaa, Maagad- hikaa, Magadhodbhavaa, Vaidehi, Upkulyaa, Pippalikam, Chapalaa, Kanaa, Krishnaa. Uushnaa, Shaun- di, Kolaa, Tikshna-tandulaa.

Unani: Filfil Daraaz, Daarfilfil.

Siddha/Tamil: Thippili, Arisi thippili. Thippiliver (root).

Action: Fruits—used for diseases of the respiratory tract (cough, bronchitis, asthma); as sedative (in insomnia and epilepsy); as chola- gogue (in obstruction of bile duct and bladder), as emmenagogue, as digestive, appetizer and carminative (in indigestion); as general tonic and haematinic (in anaemia, chronic fevers and for improving intellect). Applied locally on muscular pains and inflammations.

Several aristolactams and dioxoa- porphines have been isolated from Indian long pepper. It also contains the long chain isobutyl amide, longamide, besides guineensine and the lignans, pluviatilol, methyl pluviatilol (farge- sin), sesamin and asarinine.

Piperine is the major alkaloid of peppers.

Piperine is antipyretic, hypotensive, analeptic, CNS stimulant. It has been reported to exert significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. It improves drug availability in experimental animals, and is used for enhancing the efficacy of co- administered medicaments.

Piperine enhanced bioavailability of hexobarbital, phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline. (Sharon M. Herr.) (Piperine is also a component of Piper nigrum.)

N - isobutyl - deca - trans - 2 - trans - 4 - dienamide, isolated from the fruit, exhibited antitubercular property.

Milk extract of the fruit effectively reduced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. It protected guinea-pigs against antigen-induced bronchospasm.

In China, Piper longum oil constituents were reported to inhibit the increase in serum total cholesterol induced by triton in mice.

The root powder exhibited antifer- tility activity.

A related species, P. peepuloides Roxb., is known as Saamvali Peepal. It is used specifically against obstinate skin diseases and as a sialagogue.

Dosage: Fruit—1-3 mg (API, Vol. IV); root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER NIGRUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Native of the Indo- Malaysian region; cultivated in Western Ghats, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Assam and Kerala.

English: Black Pepper.

Ayurvedic: Maricha, Vellaja, Uushna, Suvrrita, Krishnaa.

Unani: Filfil Siyaah, Safed.

Siddha/Tamil: Milagu. Milaguver (root).

Action: Stimulant, carminative, diuretic, anticholerin, sialagogue, bechic, antiasthmatic. Used in fevers, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, and as mucous membrane and gastro-intestinal stimulant. Externally—rubefacient and stimulant to the skin. Used as a gargle for sore throat. Used with ginger and Piper longum for viral hepatitis.

The fruit yielded piperine, pipera- tine and piperidine; amides, pipery- line, piperoleins A and B, and N-i'so- butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienami- de.

The aqueous extract of roasted black pepper is reported to show cholinomi- metic effect on rat abdominis muscles.

Dosage: Fruit—500 mg to 1 g. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER SCHMIDTII

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Western Ghats, the Nilgiris and Palni hills above 1,500 m.

English: Nilgiri Pepper.

Action: Carminative.

The neolignan schmiditin, together with lignin galgravin as well as friedelin, beta-sitosterol and its beta- O-glucoside have been isolated from the extract of aerial parts. The extract exhibited antiamoebic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER SYLVATICUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Habitat: Assam and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Vana-Pippali.

Folk: Pahaari Peepal.

Action: Fruit—carminative. Aerial parts—diuretic.

The root yielded a lignin, sesamin; amides (including piperine, piperlon- gumine) and beta-sitosterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER THOMSONI

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Sikkim, Bengal, Manipur, Khasi and Jaintia hills.

Folk: Jangali Paan.

Action: Root—(macerated in water) diuretic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPER WALLICHII

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hand.-Mazz.

Synonym: P aurantiacum Wall ex DC.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Nepal, Lakhimpur and Khasi Hills in Assam.

Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Sambhaaluka. (Sambhaalu has been identified as Vitex negundo.) Renukaa is also a wrong synonym (it is equated with the seed of Vitex agnus-castus).

Siddha/Tamil: Kaattu-milagu.

Action: Fruits—used as uterine stimulant.

The fruit contain piperine, piperet- tine and sylvatine, besides beta-sitos- terol. The seeds gave aurantiamide, its acetate and auranamide.

The fraction, containing alkaloids, showed oxytocic activity. The lignin constituents inhibited platelet aggregation caused by platelet-activating factor.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIPERACILLIN

Medical Dictionary

A ureidopenicillin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The drug is active against the serious infective agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (See PENICILLIN.)... Medical Dictionary

PIPERAZINE

Medical Dictionary

A drug used for the treatment of threadworms (see ENTEROBIASIS) and ASCARIASIS.... Medical Dictionary

POLYGONUM HYDROPIPER

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in wet places.

English: Water Pepper, Pepperwort, Smartweed.

Folk: Paakur-muula, Paani-maricha (Bengal).

Action: Haemostatic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, lithotriptic, emmenagogue (used as infusion for delayed menses and amenorrhoea), antifungal (root and leaf used externally). Contraindicated during pregnancy.

The herb contains sesquiterpenes, including warburganal and polygodial, in the leaves; polygonal, isodrimeni- nol, isopolygodial and confertifolin in the seeds; and flavonoids including quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rhamnesin; polygonolide (an iso- coumarin).

Isoquercitrin exhibited significant anti-oxidative activity. Polygodial and warburganal possess significant an- tifungal property. Warburganal also possesses potent cytotoxic and antibiotic activity. (The herb is used against cancer.)

Folk: Muniyaaraa (Bihar), Raani- phool, Macheti, Dubiaa Saaga.

Action: Galactogenic, antidiar- rhoeal. Powdered herb is given in pneumonia.

The whole plant yields 11% tannin. The rootstock contains oxymethylan- thraquinone.

Flowers gave oleanolic acid, betulin- ic acid, epi-friedelanol, beta-sitosterol, and flavonoids—quercetin, quercetin- 3-arabinoside and quercetin-3-rutino- side.... Indian Medicinal Plants