Pterocarpus Marsupium | Health Dictionary

Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the tropical zones of India in the hilly regions.

English: Indian Kino tree, Malabar Kino tree.

Ayurvedic: Asana, Bijaka, Priyaka, Pitashaala.

Unani: Bijaysaar.

Siddha/Tamil: Vengai.

Action: Bark-kino—astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal. Flowers—febrifuge. Leaves—used externally for skin diseases.

Key application: Heartwood— in anaemia, worm infestation, skin diseases, urinary disorders, lipid disorders and obesity. Stem bark—in diabetes. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The heartwood and roots contain isoflavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Tannins include the hypoglycaemic principle (-)-epicatechin. Stilbenes, such as pterostilbene; flavonoids, including liquiritigenin, isoliquiritige- nin, 7-hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihy- droxyflavanone, 5-deoxykaempferol and pterosupin; a benzofuranone mar- supsin and propterol, p-hydroxy-ben- zaldehyde are active principles of therapeutic importance.

The gum-kino from the bark provides a non-glucosidal tannin, Kino tannic acid (25-80%).

The (-)-epi-catechin increases the cAMP content of the islets which is associated with the increased insulin release, conversion of proinsulin to insulin and cathepsin B activity.

Oral administration of ethylacetate extract of the heartwood and its fla- vonoid constituents, marsupin, ptero- supin and liquiritigenin, for 14 consecutive days to rats exhibited a significant reduction of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels, but it did not exert any significant effect on HDL- cholesterol.

The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the heartwood exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and some strains of fungi.

Kino is powerfully astringent. The therapeutic value of kino is due to Kino tannic acid.

Dosage: Heartwood—50-100 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I); stem bark—32-50 g for decoction (API, Vol. III).


Pterocarpus Marsupium | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Pterocarpus Marsupium


DIPTEROCARPUS ALATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: D. incanus Roxb.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans.

English: Gurjun.

Ayurvedic: Ashwakarna, Garjan, Shveta-Garjan, Jarandruma.

Action: Decoction of the bark is prescribed in rheumatism. Oil— applied to ulcerated wounds. Balsam—applied externally in gonorrhoea.

Dipterocarpus resin gave sesquiter- penoids. The essential oil contains 2 sesquiterpenoids of eudesmane series.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIPTEROCARPUS TURBINATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Gaertn. f.

Synonym: D. indicus Bedd.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans and Assam.

English: Common Gurjun tree, Wood Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Ajakarna, Chhaagakar- na, Ashwakarna.

Siddha/Tamil: Enney, Saara.

Folk: Gurjan.

Action: Oleo-resin (known as Gurjan Oil or Gurjan Balsam)— stimulant to genitourinary system, diuretic, spasmolytic; used externally on ulcers, ringworm and other cutaneous affections. Bark—a decoction is prescribed rheumatism.

Essential oil from oleo-resin contained humulene, beta-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and a sesquiterpene alcohol.

The twig bark contains 9% tannin and 7.3% soluble non-tans.

Dosage: Oil—3-5 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PTEROCARPUS DALBERGIOIDES

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans, sparingly cultivated in West Bengal.

English: Andaman Padauk, Andaman Redwood.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-chandana (var.).

Siddha: Vengai (Tamil), Yerravegisa (Telugu).

Folk: Chalangada (Andamans). Action: See Pterocarpus santalinus.

The wood contains a red pigment santalin and a yellow flavonoid santal, both of which also occur in Pterocarpus santalinus. The bark and the heartwood contain pterostilbene. The heartwood yields pterocarpin, liquirit- igenin and isoliquiritigenin. The sapwood gave homopterocarpin additionally.

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. non-Baker, Malay Padauk, is also known as Vengai in Tamil and Yerravegisa in Telugu. A decoction of the wood is given in dropsy and for stone in the bladder. The bark-kino is used as an application for sores and a decoction of the bark or kino is used for diarrhoea.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the tropical zones of India in the hilly regions.

English: Indian Kino tree, Malabar Kino tree.

Ayurvedic: Asana, Bijaka, Priyaka, Pitashaala.

Unani: Bijaysaar.

Siddha/Tamil: Vengai.

Action: Bark-kino—astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal. Flowers—febrifuge. Leaves—used externally for skin diseases.

Key application: Heartwood— in anaemia, worm infestation, skin diseases, urinary disorders, lipid disorders and obesity. Stem bark—in diabetes. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The heartwood and roots contain isoflavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Tannins include the hypoglycaemic principle (-)-epicatechin. Stilbenes, such as pterostilbene; flavonoids, including liquiritigenin, isoliquiritige- nin, 7-hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihy- droxyflavanone, 5-deoxykaempferol and pterosupin; a benzofuranone mar- supsin and propterol, p-hydroxy-ben- zaldehyde are active principles of therapeutic importance.

The gum-kino from the bark provides a non-glucosidal tannin, Kino tannic acid (25-80%).

The (-)-epi-catechin increases the cAMP content of the islets which is associated with the increased insulin release, conversion of proinsulin to insulin and cathepsin B activity.

Oral administration of ethylacetate extract of the heartwood and its fla- vonoid constituents, marsupin, ptero- supin and liquiritigenin, for 14 consecutive days to rats exhibited a significant reduction of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels, but it did not exert any significant effect on HDL- cholesterol.

The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the heartwood exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and some strains of fungi.

Kino is powerfully astringent. The therapeutic value of kino is due to Kino tannic acid.

Dosage: Heartwood—50-100 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I); stem bark—32-50 g for decoction (API, Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants

PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Found in Cuddaph district of Andhra Pradesh, neighbouring areas of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

English: Red Sandalwood, Red Sanders.

Ayurvedic: Raktachandana, Raktasaara.

Unani: Sandal Surkh.

Siddha/Tamil: Shivappu chandanam.

Folk: Laal-chandan.

Action: Heartwood—antibilious, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge.

A paste of wood is used externally for inflammations and headache. Fruit—antidysenteric

The heartwood contains terpeno- ids—eudesmol, iso-pterocarpolone, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol, ptero- carptriol and pterocarpdiolone; pigments santalins A and B. The bark contains triterp enoids—b eta- ampyrone, lupenone and lupeol derivatives. The sapwood gave acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, acetyl oleanolic acid and ery- throdiol.

An ethanolic extract (95%) of the wood powder was found effective in lowering blood sugar levels in fasting, fed, glucose-loaded and streptozotocin diabetic models in rats.

A cream prepared from the metha- nolic extract of the heartwood of Red Sandalwood and rhizomes of Curcuma longa showed 95.46% inhibition of oedema in combination (Curcuma lon- ga and red sandalwood showed 65.62 and 64.14% inhibition respectively, when used individually).

A decoction of the heartwood produced potentiation of pentobarbitone- induced hypnosis in albino mice; blocked conditioned avoidance response in rats and showed anticonvul- sant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Dosage: Heartwood—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants