Quantitative Research | Health Dictionary

Involves the use of data in numerical quantities such as continuous measurements or counts.


Quantitative Research | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Quantitative Research


ABREACTION

Medical Dictionary

An emotional release caused by the recall of past unpleasant experiences. This is normally the result of psychoanalytical treatment in which psychotherapy, certain drugs, or hypnosis (see HYPNOTISM) are used to e?ect the abreaction. The technique is used in the treatment of anxiety, hysteria, or other neurotic states.... Medical Dictionary

ABRUS PRECATORIUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country, ascending to an altitude of about 1,050 m in the outer Himalayas.

English: Indian Wild Liquorice, Jequirity, Crab's Eye, Precatory Bean.

Ayurvedic: Gunjaa, Gunjaka, Chirihintikaa, Raktikaa, Chirmi- ti, Kakanti, Kabjaka, Tiktikaa, Kaakananti, Kaakchinchi. (Not to be used as a substitute for liquorice.)

Unani: Ghunghchi, Ghamchi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kunri.

Folk: Chirmiti, Ratti.

Action: Uterine stimulant, abortifa- cient, toxic. Seeds—teratogenic. A paste of seeds is applied on vitiligo patches.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India has indicated the use of seeds in baldness.

Seeds contain abrin, a toxalbumin, indole derivatives, anthocyanins, ste- rols, terpenes. Abrin causes agglutination of erythrocytes, haemolysis and enlargement of lymph glands. A non- toxic dose of abrin (1.25 mcg/kg body weight), isolated from the seeds of red var., exhibited a noticeable increase in antibody-forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase-positive bone marrow cells.

Oral administration of agglutinins, isolated from the seeds, is useful in the treatment of hepatitis and AIDS.

The seed extract exhibited antischis- tosomal activity in male hamsters.

The methanolic extract of seeds inhibited the motility of human spermatozoa.

The roots contain precol, abrol, gly- cyrrhizin (1.5%) and alkaloids—abra- sine and precasine. The roots also contain triterpenoids—abruslactone A, methyl abrusgenate and abrusgenic acid.

Alkaloids/bases present in the roots are also present in leaves and stems.

A. fruticulosus Wall. Ex Wight and Arn. synonym A. pulchellus Wall., A. laevigatus E. May. (Shveta Gunjaa) is also used for the same medicinal purposes as A. precatorius.

Dosage: Detoxified seed—1-3 g powder. Root powder—3-6 g. (API Vols. I, II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ABSOLUTE RISK REDUCTION

Community Health

A measure of treatment effect that compares the probability (or mean) of a type of outcome in the control group with that of a treatment group.... Community Health

ACCREDITATION

Community Health

A process whereby a programme of study or an institution is recognized by an external body as meeting certain predetermined standards. Accreditation is often carried out by organizations created for the purpose of assuring the public of the quality of the accredited institution or programme. The state or federal governments can recognize accreditation in lieu of, or as the basis for licensure or other mandatory approvals. Public or private payment programmes often require accreditation as a condition of payment for covered services. Accreditation may either be permanent or may be given for a specified period of time. See also “licence”.... Community Health

ACCREDITATION STANDARD

Community Health

A standard against which facilities or programmes are evaluated to determine if they will be accredited.... Community Health

ACCRETION

Medical Dictionary

Addition to an object of the substance of which it is comprised. An example is the growth of crystals in a ?uid, or overgrowth of bone after injury. The term also describes foreign material collecting on the surface of a body structure: for example, PLAQUE on teeth.... Medical Dictionary

ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A severe manifestation of infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

ACTH (ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE)

Medical Dictionary

ACTH is the commonly used abbreviation for CORTICOTROPIN.... Medical Dictionary

ACTION RESEARCH

Community Health

A family of research methodologies which pursue action (or change) and research (or understanding) at the same time.... Community Health

ACUPUNCTURE

Medical Dictionary

A traditional Chinese method of healing by inserting thin needles into certain areas beneath the skin and rotating them. Its rationale is that disease is a manifestation of a disturbance of Yin and Yang energy in the body, and that acupuncture brings this energy back into balance by what is described as ‘the judicious stimulation or depression of the ?ow of energy in the various meridians’. What is still unclear to western doctors is why needling, which is the essence of acupuncture, should have the e?ect it is claimed to have. One theory is that the technique stimulates deep sensory nerves, promoting the production of pain-relieving ENDORPHINS. Of its e?cacy in skilled hands, however, there can be no question, and in China the technique is an alternative to anaesthesia for some operations. Acupuncture is increasingly used in the west, by medically quali?ed doctors as well as other practitioners of complementary medicine. As long as proper sterilisation procedures are followed, the treatment is safe: two recent and extensive UK studies detected no serious adverse e?ects.... Medical Dictionary

ACUTE CARE / ACUTE HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Care that is generally provided for a short period of time to treat a new illness or a flare-up of an existing condition. This type of care may include treatment at home, short-term hospital stays, professional care, surgery, X-rays and scans, as well as emergency medical services.... Community Health

ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS)

Medical Dictionary

Formerly known as adult respiratory distress syndrome. A form of acute respiratory failure in which a variety of di?erent disorders give rise to lung injury by what is thought to be a common pathway. The condition has a high mortality rate (about 70 per cent); it is a complex clinical problem in which a disproportionate immunological response plays a major role. (See IMMUNITY.)

The exact trigger is unknown, but it is thought that, whatever the stimulus, chemical mediators produced by cells of the immune system or elsewhere in the body spread and sustain an in?ammatory reaction. Cascade mechanisms with multiple interactions are provoked. CYTOTOXIC substances (which damage or kill cells) such as oxygen-free radicals and PROTEASE damage the alveolar capillary membranes (see ALVEOLUS). Once this happens, protein-rich ?uid leaks into the alveoli and interstitial spaces. SURFACTANT is also lost. This impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and gives rise to the clinical and pathological picture of acute respiratory failure.

The typical patient with ARDS has rapidly worsening hypoxaemia (lack of oxygen in the blood), often requiring mechanical ventilation. There are all the signs of respiratory failure (see TACHYPNOEA; TACHYCARDIA; CYANOSIS), although the chest may be clear apart from a few crackles. Radiographs show bilateral, patchy, peripheral shadowing. Blood gases will show a low PaO2 (concentration of oxygen in arterial blood) and usually a high PaCO2 (concentration of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). The lungs are ‘sti?’ – they are less e?ective because of the loss of surfactant and the PULMONARY OEDEMA.

Causes The causes of ARDS may be broadly divided into the following:... Medical Dictionary

ADAPTATION (OF RESIDENCE)

Community Health

Permanent fixtures or alterations to a home to help someone get about or manage better (distinguished from ‘aids’ or ‘equipment’, which are more portable).... Community Health

ADERES

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) One who protects her loved ones... Medical Dictionary

ADISHREE

Medical Dictionary

(Hindi) One who is exalted Adishrey, Adishry, Adishri, Adishrie, Adishrea, Adishreah, Adyshree, Adyshrea, Adyshreah, Adyshri, Adyshrie, Adyshry, Adyshrey... Medical Dictionary

ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD

Community Health

A record concerned with administrative matters, such as length of stay, details of accommodation, or billing.... Community Health

ADRENAL CORTEX

Herbal Medical

The outer covering of the two adrenal glands that lie atop each kidney. Embryonically derived from gonad tissue, they make steroid hormones that control electrolytes, the management of fuels, the rate of anabolism, the general response to stress, and maintenance of nonspecific resistance.... Herbal Medical

ADRENAL GLANDS

Medical Dictionary

Also known as suprarenal glands, these are two small triangular ENDOCRINE GLANDS situated one upon the upper end of each kidney. (See diagram of ABDOMEN.)

Structure Each suprarenal gland has an enveloping layer of ?brous tissue. Within this, the gland shows two distinct parts: an outer, ?rm, deep-yellow cortical (see CORTEX) layer, and a central, soft, dark-brown medullary (see MEDULLA) portion. The cortical part consists of columns of cells running from the surface inwards, whilst in the medullary portion the cells are arranged irregularly and separated from one another by large capillary blood vessels.

Functions Removal of the suprarenal glands in animals is speedily followed by great muscular prostration and death within a few days. In human beings, disease of the suprarenal glands usually causes ADDISON’S DISEASE, in which the chief symptoms are increasing weakness and bronzing of the skin. The medulla of the glands produces a substance – ADRENALINE – the e?ects of which closely resemble those brought about by activity of the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: dilated pupils, hair standing on end, quickening and strengthening of the heartbeat, immobilisation of the gut, increased output of sugar from the liver into the bloodstream. Several hormones (called CORTICOSTEROIDS) are produced in the cortex of the gland and play a vital role in the metabolism of the body. Some (such as aldosterone) control the electrolyte balance of the body and help to maintain the blood pressure and blood volume. Others are concerned in carbohydrate metabolism, whilst others again are concerned with sex physiology. HYDROCORTISONE is the most important hormone of the adrenal cortex, controlling as it does the body’s use of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It also helps to suppress in?ammatory reactions and has an in?uence on the immune system.... Medical Dictionary

ADRENAL MEDULLA

Herbal Medical

The inner part of the adrenals, derived embryonically from spinal nerve precursors, they secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine; used locally as neurotransmitters, sensitive receptors can be mobilized totally by the adrenal medullas.... Herbal Medical

ADRENALIN

Herbal Medical

Called epinephrine in the U.S., this is a substance secreted into the bloodstream and reacted to by specialized receptors throughout the body, initiating a “code blue” or flight-or-fight response. Many receptors are a regular part of sympathetic function, and respond to their own local relative, norepinephrine or noradrenalin, in the course of normal autonomic nervous system interplay. See: SYMPATHETIC, PARASYMPATHETIC, LIMBIC... Herbal Medical

ADRENALINE

Medical Dictionary

Adrenaline is the secretion of the adrenal medulla (see ADRENAL GLANDS). Its e?ect is similar to stimulation of the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM as occurs when a person is excited, shocked or frightened. In the United States Pharmacopoeia it is known as epinephrine. It is also prepared synthetically. Among its important e?ects are raising of the blood pressure, increasing the amount of glucose in the blood, and constricting the smaller blood vessels.

Adrenaline has an important use when injected intramuscularly or intravenously in the treatment of ANAPHYLAXIS. Many patients prone to this condition are prescribed a pre-assembled adrenaline-containing syringe and needle (Min-i-Jet, Epipen) and are taught how to self-administer in an emergency. Adrenaline may be applied directly to wounds, on gauze or lint, to check haemorrhage; injected along with some local anaesthetic it permits painless, bloodless operations to be performed on the eye, nose, etc. Nowadays it is rarely, if ever, used hypodermically and is no longer given to treat ASTHMA. In severe cardiac arrest, adrenaline (1 in 10,000) by central intravenous injection is recommended. It can be given through an endotracheal tube as part of neonatal resuscitation.... Medical Dictionary

ADRENERGIC

Herbal Medical

Functions that are dominated by epinephrine (the blood hormone) or norepinephrine (local sympathetic adrenergic nerve stimulus)... Herbal Medical

ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS

Medical Dictionary

The sites in the body on which ADRENALINE and comparable stimulants of the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM act. Drugs which have an adrenaline-like action are described as being adrenergic. There are ?ve di?erent types of adrenergic receptors, known as alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 and beta3 respectively. Stimulation of alpha receptors leads to constriction of the bronchi, constriction of the blood vessels with consequent rise in blood pressure, and dilatation of the pupils of the eyes. Stimulation of beta1 receptors quickens the rate and output of the heart, while stimulation of beta2 receptors dilates the bronchi. Beta3 receptors are now known to mediate so-called non-shivering thermogenesis, a way of producing heat from specialised fat cells that is particularly relevant to the human infant.

For long it had been realised that in certain cases of ASTHMA, adrenaline had not the usual bene?cial e?ect of dilating the bronchi during an attack; rather it made the asthma worse. This was due to its acting on both the alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. A derivative, isoprenaline, was therefore produced which acted only on the beta receptors. This had an excellent e?ect in dilating the bronchi, but unfortunately also a?ected the heart, speeding it up and increasing its output – an undesirable e?ect which meant that isoprenaline had to be used with great care. In due course drugs were produced, such as salbutamol, which act predominantly on the beta2 adrenergic receptors in the bronchi and have relatively little e?ect on the heart.

The converse of this story was the search for what became known as BETA-ADRENOCEPTORBLOCKING DRUGS, or beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs. The theoretical argument was that if such drugs could be synthesised, they could be of value in taking the strain o? the heart – for example: stress ? stimulation of the output of adrenaline ? stimulation of the heart ? increased work for the heart. A drug that could prevent this train of events would be of value, for example in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Now there is a series of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs of use not only in angina pectoris, but also in various other heart conditions such as disorders of rhythm, as well as high blood pressure. They are also proving valuable in the treatment of anxiety states by preventing disturbing features such as palpitations. Some are useful in the treatment of migraine.... Medical Dictionary

ADRENOCORTICAL

Herbal Medical

Pertaining to the adrenal cortex.... Herbal Medical

ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE (ACTH)

Medical Dictionary

See also CORTICOTROPIN. A hormone which is released into the body during stress. Made and stored in the anterior PITUITARY GLAND, ACTH regulates the production of corticosteroid hormones from the ADRENAL GLANDS, and is vital for the growth and maintenance of the adrenal cortical cells. Its production is in part controlled by the amount of HYDROCORTISONE in the blood and also by the HYPOTHALAMUS. ACTH participates in the FEEDBACK MECHANISM of hormone production and actions involving particularly the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hormone is used to test adrenal function and treat conditions such as ASTHMA. (See also CUSHING’S SYNDROME.)... Medical Dictionary

ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME

Medical Dictionary

An inherited condition, the adrenogenital syndrome – also known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia – is an uncommon disorder a?ecting about 1 baby in 7,500. The condition is present from birth and causes various ENZYME defects as well as blocking the production of HYDROCORTISONE and ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL GLANDS. In girls the syndrome often produces VIRILISATION of the genital tract, often with gross enlargement of the clitoris and fusion of the labia so that the genitalia may be mistaken for a malformed penis. The metabolism of salt and water may be disturbed, causing dehydration, low blood pressure and weight loss; this can produce collapse at a few days or weeks of age. Enlargement of the adrenal glands occurs and the a?ected individual may also develop excessive pigmentation in the skin.

When virilisation is noted at birth, great care must be taken to determine genetic sex by karyotyping: parents should be reassured as to the baby’s sex (never ‘in between’). Blood levels of adrenal hormones are measured to obtain a precise diagnosis. Traditionally, doctors have advised parents to ‘choose’ their child’s gender on the basis of discussing the likely condition of the genitalia after puberty. Thus, where the phallus is likely to be inadequate as a male organ, it may be preferred to rear the child as female. Surgery is usually advised in the ?rst two years to deal with clitoromegaly but parent/ patient pressure groups, especially in the US, have declared it wrong to consider surgery until the children are competent to make their own decision.

Other treatment requires replacement of the missing hormones which, if started early, may lead to normal sexual development. There is still controversy surrounding the ethics of gender reassignment.

See www.baps.org.uk... Medical Dictionary

ADULT CARE HOME / RESIDENTIAL FACILITY

Community Health

A residence which offers housing and personal care services to a number of residents. Services (such as meals, supervision and transportation) are usually provided by the owner or manager. Usually 24-hour professional health care is not provided on site. See also “assisted living facility”.... Community Health

ADULT DAY CARE

Community Health

See “day care centre”.... Community Health

ADVANCE CARE PLANNING

Community Health

Planning in advance for decisions that may have to be made prior to incapability or at the end of life. People may choose to do this planning formally, by means of advance directives, or informally, through discussions with family members, friends and health care and social service providers, or a combination of both methods.... Community Health

ADVANCE DIRECTIVE

Community Health

A mechanism by which a competent individual expresses his or her wishes should circumstances arise in which he or she no longer is able to make rational and sound decisions regarding his or her medical treatment. Usually ‘advance directive’ refers to orders for withholding and/or withdrawing life support treatments at the end of life, made by writing living wills and/or granting power of attorney to another individual.... Community Health

ADVERSE EVENT / REACTION

Community Health

Any undesirable or unwanted consequence of a preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic procedure.... Community Health

ADVERSE REACTIONS TO DRUGS

Medical Dictionary

When a new drug is introduced, it has usually been studied only in relatively few patients – typically 1,500. If n patients have been studied, and no serious e?ects observed, there is still a chance of a serious adverse e?ect occurring in the general population as frequently as 3/n (1:500).

Adverse e?ects can be divided into types. First, those which are closely related to the concentration of the drug and accord with what is known of its PHARMACOLOGY. These so-called type A (augmented pharmacological) e?ects are distinguished from type B (bizarre) e?ects which are unpredictable, usually rare, and often severe. ANAPHYLAXIS is the most obvious of these; other examples include bone-marrow suppression with CO-TRIMOXAZOLE; hepatic failure (see HEPATITIS) with SODIUM VALPROATE; and PULMONARY FIBROSIS with AMIODARONE. A more comprehensive classi?cation includes reactions type C (chronic e?ects), D (delayed e?ects – such as teratogenesis or carcinogenesis) and E (end-of-dose e?ects – withdrawal e?ects). Examples of adverse reactions include nausea, skin eruptions, jaundice, sleepiness and headaches.

While most reported adverse reactions are minor and require no treatment, patients should remind their doctors of any drug allergy or adverse e?ect they have su?ered in the past. Medical warning bracelets are easily obtained. Doctors should report adverse e?ects to the authorities – in the case of Britain, to the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), using the yellow-card reporting machinery.... Medical Dictionary

AETHELREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English) A maiden born into nobility... Medical Dictionary

AFFERENT

Medical Dictionary

An adjective to describe nerves, blood vessels or lymphatic vessels that conduct their electrical charge or contents inwards to the brain, spinal cord or relevant organ. (Opposite: EFFERENT.)... Medical Dictionary

AFREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English / Arabic) Elf counselor / one who is created

Afredah, Afreeda, Aafreeda, Afrida, Afridah, Aelfraed, Afreedah, Afryda, Afrydah... Medical Dictionary

AFTER-CARE

Community Health

Care provided to individuals after their release from institutional care.... Community Health

AGARICUS OSTREATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Jacq.) Fries

Family: Agaricaceae.

Habitat: Artocarpus interifolia, indigenous to the western Ghats.

English: Oyster Mushroom (grows on Artocarpus integrifolia).

Action: Prevents excessive salivation. Also given internally in dysentery, diarrhoea, stomatitis; as a paste to gums in apthae.... Indian Medicinal Plants

AGED CARE

Community Health

Services provided to people deemed to be aged or elderly.... Community Health

AGED CARE ASSESSMENT TEAM

Community Health

Multidisciplinary team of health professionals that is responsible for comprehensive assessments of the needs of older persons, including their suitability for hospital, home or institutional care.... Community Health

AGGRESSION

Medical Dictionary

A general term that covers a range of hostile behaviour, some of which may extend beyond normal social behaviour. Some physical diseases cause aggressive outbursts: temporal lobe EPILEPSY and hypoglycaemia (see DIABETES MELLITUS) are examples. Certain mental disorders – such as antisocial personality disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, and SCHIZOPHRENIA – may be associated with aggression.

Male sex hormones (see under ANDROGEN) appear to be linked to aggressive behaviour, and aggression is more common among adolescents and young adults than other sections of the population.... Medical Dictionary

AGROPYRON REPENS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Beauv.

Synonym: Triticum repens L.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas and Kashmir at altitudes between 2,700 and 3,600 m.

English: Couch grass, dog grass, wheat grass.

Action: Demulcent (used in cystitis, nephritis), aperient, diuretic and urinary antiseptic, anticholesterolaemic.

Key application: In irrigation therapy for inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract and for the prevention of kidney gravel. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) It is contraindicated in oedema due to cardiac or renal insufficiency.

The juice of rhizomes is used for cystitis, nephritis, scirrhous liver; decoction for tonsils and as an adjuvant for cancer; also used for gout and rheumatism, and chronic skin disorders.

The rhizome contains triticin, a carbohydrate allied to starch, a fruc- tosan polysaccharide, inositol, manni- tol; volatile oil up to about 0.05%, consisting mainly of agropyrene; vanillin glucoside; mucilage, gum, large quantities of silica; iron, minerals, vitamins, K salt. Agropyrene is reported to have broad antibiotic properties. Extracts show uric acid solvent properties. Agropyrene is antifungal.... Indian Medicinal Plants

AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A variety of chronic symptoms and physical findings that occur in some persons who are infected with HIV, but do not meet the Centres for Disease Control’s definition of AIDS. Symptoms may include chronic swollen glands, recurrent fevers, unintentional weight loss, chronic diarrhoea, lethargy, minor alterations of the immune system (less severe than those that occur in AIDS), and oral thrush. ARC may or may not develop into AIDS.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

ALBREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who receives counsel from the elves... Medical Dictionary

ALDREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English) Feminine form of Aldred; one who provides wise counsel... Medical Dictionary

ALFREDA

Medical Dictionary

(German) Feminine form of Alfred; one who counsels the elves Alfreeda, Alfrida, Alfrieda, Alfryda, Alfreida, Alfreada... Medical Dictionary

ALOPECIA AREATA

Medical Dictionary

Alopecia areata is a common form of reversible hair loss which may be patchy, total on the scalp, eyebrows or eyelashes, or universal on the body. The onset is sudden at any age and the a?ected scalp-skin looks normal. The hair follicles remain intact but ‘switched o?’ and usually hair growth recovers spontaneously. No consistently e?ective treatment is available but injections of CORTICOSTEROIDS, given with a spray gun into the scalp, may be useful. The regrown hair may be white at ?rst but pigmentation recovers later.... Medical Dictionary

ALPHA ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS

Medical Dictionary

Also called adrenoceptor-blocking agents or alpha blockers, these drugs stop the stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors at the nerve endings of the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM by HORMONES with ADRENALINE-like characteristics. The drugs dilate the arteries, causing a fall in blood pressure, so they are used to treat HYPERTENSION and also benign enlargement of the PROSTATE GLAND. Examples of this group of drugs are doxazosin, indoramin, phentolamine and prazosin. The drugs should be used with caution as some may cause a severe drop in blood pressure when ?rst taken.... Medical Dictionary

ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY HEALTH CARE / MEDICINE / THERAPIES

Community Health

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... Community Health

AMADORE

Medical Dictionary

(Italian) One who has the gift of love

Amadora, Amadorah, Amadorra, Amadorrah... Medical Dictionary

AMBRETTE

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Abelmoschus moschatus

Malvaceae

San: Latakasturika Hin, Guj,

Ben: Mushkdana Mal: Kasthurivenda Mar: Kasthuri- bhendi

Tel: Kasturi benda

Tam: Varttilaikasturi

Kan: Kasturi bende Ass: Gorukhiakorai

Importance: Ambrette, also popularly known as musk or Muskmallow, is an erect annual herb which yields musk-like scented seeds and woos everybody through its sensuous musky fragrance. Every part of this medicinal plant is used in one or the other way. Seeds are effective aphrodisiac and antispasmodic, and used in tonics. They check vomiting and cure diseases due to kapha and vata and are useful in treating intestinal disorders, urinary discharge, nervous disorders, hysteria, skin diseases, snake bites, pruritus, leucoderma and general debility. Flower infusion is contraceptive. The leaves and roots are used for gonorrhoea and to treat boils and swellings.

Ambrette oil of commerce is extracted from the seeds and is used in perfumery, flavouring, cosmetic and agarbathi industries. The essential oil is employed in non-alcoholic beverages, ice-creams, candies and baked foods. The aromatic concrete and absolute, extracted from seeds are used as base material for preparing high grade perfumes, scents and cosmetics. It is also known for exalting, amplifying and diffusing effects it imparts to perfumes. It blends well with rose, neroli, and sandal wood oil and aliphatic aldehydes.

The flowers are in great demand for making ‘zarda’ a flavoured tobacco in India. The seeds are mixed with tea and coffee for flavour. The seed is rich in essential amino acids and is used as cattle or poultry feed. The stem bark yields a good quality fibre. Seeds are used to protect woollen garments against moth and it imparts a musky odour to sachets, hair powder, panmasala and incense. Its tender shoots are used in soups, green pods as vegetable and seed husk in flower arrangements. From perfumes to panmasalas and tonics, it is the musky musk all the way. In addition to internal consumption, its seeds are exported to Canada, France and UK because of its diversified uses (Srinivasan et al, 1997).

Distribution: The musk plant is a native of India and it grows in the tropical subtropical and hilly regions of the country; particularly in the states of Maharashta, Gujarat, Madhyapresh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. More than 50 collections of the plant are maintained by the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi and its regional station in Akola, Maharashtra.

Botany: Abelmoschus moschatus Medicus syn. Hibiscus abelmoshus Linn. belongs to Family Malvaceae. Muskmallow is an erect annual or biennial hirsute or hispid herb of 60-180 cm height. The leaves are simple polymorphous, usually palmately 3-7 lobed; lobes narrow, acute or oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy on both surfaces. Flowers are large and bright yellow with purple centre. Fruits are fulvous, hairy and capsular. Seeds are many, subreniform, black or greyish - brown and musk scented (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: Ambrette is a hardy plant which can be grown in varied climate under tropical and subtropical conditions. It can be grown both as a rainfed crop and as an irrigated crop. It grows on well drained loamy and sandy loam soils. Loamy soils with neutral pH and plenty of organic matter are ideal for its cultivation.

Musk of propagated through seeds. The optimum time of sowing is June-July with pre- monsoon showers. The land is prepared well by ploughing, harrowing and levelling. Well decomposed FYM or compost is incorporated into the soil at 10 - 15 t/ha. Ridges and furrows are formed giving a spacing of 60 - 100 cm. Seed rate is 2-3 kg/ha. Seeds are soaked in water before sowing for 24 hours. Two to three seeds are sown per hole at 60 cm spacing on one side of the ridge at a depth of 1 cm and covered with a pinch of sand or loose soil. It takes 5-7 days for proper germination. After germination, extra seedlings are thinned out leaving one healthy growing plant per hole within 20 days. Fertilisers are applied at 120:40:40 kg N, P2O5, K2O/ha generally. However, a dose 160:80:80 kg/ha is recommended for best yields of seed and oil. Phosphorus is applied fully as basal. N and K are applied in 3 equal doses at planting, 2 and 4 months after planting. Fertilizers are applied 10 cm away from the plants. For irrigated crop, field is irrigated soon after sowing. Irrigation is given twice a week during the initial period and once a week thereafter. The field is kept weed free by regular weeding during the growing period (Farooqi and Khan, 1991).

Musk plants suffer from pests like spider mites, fruit bores and leaf eating caterpillars. Diseases like powdery mildew and wilt are also observed on the plant. Spider mites and powdery mildew are controlled by spraying 30g wettable sulphur in 10 litres of water. Pod borers can be controlled by spraying 20ml oxydemeton methyl in 10 litres of water.

The crop starts flowering about 75 days after sowing. The flowers set into fruits in 3-4 days and the pods take nearly a month to mature. Flowering and fruit setting extends from October to April. Harvesting is arduous. Fruits have to be plucked as soon as they attain black colour; otherwise, they split and seeds scatter. Therefore, weekly collection of pods is necessary and in all 20-25 pluckings may be required as it is a 170-180 days duration crop. The fruits are further dried and threshed to separate seeds. The seed yield is 1-1.5 /ha

Postharvest technology:. The oil is extracted from seed by steam distillation followed by solvent extraction.

The concrete of solvent extraction is further extracted with alcohol to get the absolute, that is, the alcohol soluble volatile concentrate.

Properties and activity: The fatty oil of seeds contain phospholipids as 2 - cephalin, phosphatidylserine and its plasmalogen and phosphatidyl choline plasmalogen. Absolute contains farnesol and ambrettolic acid lactone. - sitosterol and its - d - glucosides are isolated from leaves. Petals contain -sitosterol, flavonoid myricetin and its glucoside. Anthocyanins like cyanidin - 3 - sambubioside and cyanidin - 3 - glucoside are present in the flowers. (Chopra and Nayar, 1980) Seeds are aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent, antiseptic, stomachic, tonic, carminative, antihysteric, antidiarrhoeal, ophthalmic, cardiac and antivenum.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

AMBULATORY CARE

Community Health

Health services provided on an outpatient basis in contrast to services provided in the home or to persons who are inpatients. While many inpatients may be ambulatory, the term ambulatory care usually implies the patient travels to a location to receive services and no overnight stay in hospital is required. Many surgeries and treatments are now provided on an outpatient basis, while previously they were considered reason for inpatient hospitalization.... Community Health

AMORETTE

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) One who is beloved and loving

Amorete, Amorett, Amorit, Amoritt, Amoritte, Amoryt, Amortye, Amorytte, Amoreta, Amoretta, Amorita, Amoryta, Amor, Amora, Amorie, Amorina, Amory... Medical Dictionary

ANACYCLUS PYRETHRUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

DC.

Synonym: A. officinarum Hayne

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated in Algeria.

English: Spanish, Pellitory, Pyrethrum Root.

Ayurvedic: Aakaarakarabha, Aakallaka, Aakulakrit, Agragraahi.

Unani: Aaqarqarhaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Akkiraakaaram.

Action: Stimulant, cordial, rubefa- cient.A gargle of infusion is prescribed for relaxed vulva. Root— used for toothache, rheumatic and neuralgic affections and rhinitis. Roots, along with the root of Witha- nia somnífera and Vitis vinifera, are used in epilepsy.

Along with other therapeutic applications, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the root in sciatica, paralysis, hemiplegia and amenorrhoea.

The root contains anacycline, isobu- tylamide, inulin and a trace ofessential oil.

The local anaesthetic activity of the alcoholic (2%) extract of the root was found to be comparable to that of xy- locaine hydrochloride (2%) in dental patients.

Use of the drug in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus reduces the dose of insulin. It decreased the plasma glucose and serum cholesterol levels after oral administration for 3-6 weeks. (The plant is mixed with Helleborus nigar in a ratio of 1:3.) The plant extract inhibited tobacco-induced mutagenesis by 47.5% at a concentration of 1 mg/plate.

Dosage: Root—500 mg to 1 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ANAXARETE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, an unfeeling woman who was turned to stone Anawrete... Medical Dictionary

ANCHORET

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh / Latin) One who is loved / a hermit

Anachoret, Annchoret... Medical Dictionary

ANDREA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek / Latin) Courageous and ® strong / feminine form of Andrew; womanly

Andria, Andrianna, Andreia, Andreina, Andreya, Andriana, Andreana, Andera, Andraia, Andreja, Andrya, Andris, Andrette, Aindrea, Anda, Andee, Andena, Andere, Andra, Andralyn, Andi, Andie, Andranetta, Andraya, Andreanna, Andree, Andras, Andrena, Andrienne, Andrianne, Andrina, Andren, Andrya, Anndrea, Anndria, Aundrea... Medical Dictionary

ANDSWARE

Medical Dictionary

(Anglo-Saxon) An answer; a gift Andswaru, Andswara... Medical Dictionary

ANÍS DE ESTRELLA

Medicinal Plants

Chinese star anise (Illicium verum).

Plant Part Used: Fruit, seed.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The fruits or seeds are traditionally prepared as a decoction and taken orally for flatulence, headache, indigestion, stomach ache, upper respiratory tract infection and cleansing the intestines.

Safety: The fruit is generally considered safe for human consumption in small amounts and is widely used as a culinary spice. When taken in excessive quantities, isolated compounds from the fruit have shown neurotoxic effects in animal studies. Caution is advised due to possible adulteration with the highly poisonous look-alike, Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum).

Contraindications: Avoid use in small children due to potential contamination with misidentified toxic look-alike. Caution and avoidance is advised in patients with a history of convulsive disorders including epilepsy due to case reports of seizures associated with internal use of the tea. Caution advised in patients prior to surgery due to potential risk of increased bleeding.

Drug Interactions: Anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications and NSAIDS: based on animal studies in mice, star anise increases cytochrome P450 dependent 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity which may affect the metabolism of these drugs.

Clinical Data: No human clinical trials evaluating this plant species have been identified in the available literature.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: The following biological activities of this plant have been demonstrated in laboratory and preclinical studies using in vitro or animal models: antiangiogenic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, insecticidal, neurotropic and sepsis prevention.

* See entry for Anís de estrella in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

ANÍS ESTRELLADA

Medicinal Plants

See Anís de estrella.... Medicinal Plants

ANKAREEDA

Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) Resembling a night star; shining and graceful Ankaryda, Ankareda, Ankarida, Ankareeta, Ankaryta, Ankareta, Ankarita... Medical Dictionary

ANNA PERENNA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) In mythology, a goddess who was the personification of the perennial year... Medical Dictionary

ANNONA RETICULATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Annonaceae.

Habitat: Native to the West Indies. Cultivated in Bengal, Assam, Khasi Hills and southern India.

English: Bullock's Heart, Common Custard Apple.

Ayurvedic: Raamphala.

Siddha/Tamil: Aninuna.

Folk: Luvuni.

Action: Leaves—insecticide, an- thelmintic, styptic, externally used as suppurant. Unripe and dried fruit—antidysenteric. Bark— powerful astringent, used as antidysenteric and vermifuge.

Rootbark, leaves and stems gave iso- quinoline alkaloids. Two acetogenins, annoreticuin and isoannoreticuin, isolated from the leaves, were found to be selectively cytotoxic to certain human tumours.

The leaves and stems also gave al- kaloids—dopamine, salsolinol and co- claurine.

Annona reticulata, Annona muri- cata, Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola are known as Raampha- la, Lakshman-phala, Sitaa-phala and Hanumaan-phala, respectively.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ANORECTIC

Herbal Medical

Lacking appetite... Herbal Medical

ANORECTIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

An agent that suppresses appetite for food.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

ANOREXIA

Herbal Medical

A condition of having lost the appetite for food... Herbal Medical

ANOREXIA

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Having little or no appetite for food.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

ANOREXIA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Loss of appetite for food.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

ANOREXIA

Medical Dictionary

Loss of APPETITE.... Medical Dictionary

ANOREXIA NERVOSA

Medical Dictionary

See under EATING DISORDERS.... Medical Dictionary

ANTENATAL CARE

Medical Dictionary

The protocol which doctors and midwives follow to ensure that the pregnant mother and her FETUS are kept in good health, and that the pregnancy and birth have a satisfactory outcome. The pregnant mother is seen regularly at a clinic where, for example, her blood pressure is checked, the growth and development of her child-to-be are carefully assessed, and any problem or potential problems dealt with. Most antenatal care deals with normal pregnancies and is supervised by general practitioners and midwives in primary-care clinics. If any serious problems are identi?ed, the mother can be referred to specialists’ clinics in hospitals. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

ANTIDEPRESSANT

Herbal Medical

Literally, substances meant to oppose depressions or sadness, and generally heterocyclic types such as Elavil, MAO inhibitors like phenelzine, or lithium carbonate. This category of substances formerly included stuff like amphetamines and other stimulants. Our only plants that could fit the current definition would be Hypericum, Peganum and perhaps Oplopanax.... Herbal Medical

ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS

Medical Dictionary

These widely used drugs include a range of different preparations which relieve DEPRESSION. All the antidepressants available at the time of writing are more or less equally e?ective. In studies where patients agree to take either antidepressants or identical dummy PLACEBO pills (without knowing which), at least two-thirds of those who receive antidepressants feel much better within three months, while fewer than one-third of those on placebos recover naturally in the same period. In general these drugs are useful for severe and moderate depression including postnatal illness; they are not e?ective in milder forms of depression although they may be tried for a short time if other therapies have failed.

The most widely prescribed type of antidepressants are the tricyclics, so-called because their molecular structure includes three rings. The other commonly used types are named after the actions they have on chemicals in the brain: the SELECTIVE SEROTONIN-REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS) and the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIS) – see also below. All types of antidepressant work in similar ways. Tricyclic antidepressants have cured depression in millions of people, but they can cause unpleasant side-e?ects, particularly in the ?rst couple of weeks. These include SEDATION, dry mouth, excessive sweating, CONSTIPATION, urinary problems, and impotence (inability to get an erection). Up to half of all people prescribed tricyclic drugs cannot tolerate the side-e?ects and stop treatment before their depression is properly treated. More seriously, tricyclics can upset the rhythm of the heart in susceptible people and should never be given in the presence of heart disease.

The SSRIs are newer, coming into wide use in the late 1980s. They increase the levels in the brain of the chemical messenger SEROTONIN, which is thought to be depleted in depression. Indeed, the SSRIs are as e?ective as tricyclics and, although they can cause nausea and excessive sweating at ?rst, they generally have fewer side-e?ects. Their main disadvantage, however, is that they cost much more than the most commonly used tricyclic, amitriptyline. On the other hand, they are more acceptable to many patients and they cause fewer drop-outs from treatment – up to a quarter rather than a half. The money saved by completed, successful treatment may outweigh the prescribing costs. SSRIs have been reported as associated with an increased risk of suicide.

Another group of antidepressants, the MAOIs, have been in use since the late 1950s.

They are stimulants, rather than sedatives, and are particularly helpful for people who are physically and mentally slowed by depression. They work well but have one big disadvantage – a dangerous interaction with certain foods and other drugs, causing a sudden and very dangerous increase in blood pressure. People taking them must carry an information card explaining the risk and listing the things that they should avoid. Because of this risk, MAOIs are not used much now, except when other treatments have failed. A new MAOI, moclobemide, which is less likely to interact and so cause high blood pressure, is now available.

LITHIUM CARBONATE is a powerful antidepressant used for intractable depression. It should be used under specialist supervision as the gap between an e?ective dose and a toxic one is narrow.

St John’s Wort is a popular herbal remedy which may be e?ective, but which is handicapped by di?erences of strength between di?erent preparations or batches. It can interact with a number of conventional drugs and so needs to be used cautiously and with advice.

In general, antidepressants work by restoring the balance of chemicals in the brain. Improved sleep and reduced anxiety are usually the ?rst signs of improvement, particularly among people taking the more sedative tricyclic drugs. Improvement in other symptoms follow, with the mood starting to lift after about two weeks of treatment. Most people feel well by three months, although a few residual symptoms, such as slowness in the mornings, may take longer to clear up. People taking antidepressants usually want to stop them as soon as they feel better; however, the risk of relapse is high for up to a year and most doctors recommend continuing the drugs for around 4–6 months after recovery, with gradual reduction of the dose after that.

Withdrawal reactions may occur including nausea, vomiting, headache, giddiness, panic or anxiety and restlessness. The drugs should be withdrawn gradually over about a month or longer (up to six months in those who have been on maintenance treatment).

A wide range of antidepressant drugs is described in the British National Formulary. Examples include:

Tricyclics: amitryptyline, imipramine, doxepin.

MAOIs: phenelzine, isocarboxazid.

SSRIs: citalopram, ?uoxetine, paraxtene. (Antidepressant drugs not in these three

groups include ?upenthixol, mertazapine and venlafaxine.)... Medical Dictionary

ANTIDIARRHOEAL TREATMENTS

Medical Dictionary

Initial treatment of acute DIARRHOEA is to prevent or correct the loss of ?uid and ELECTROLYTES from the body. This is a priority especially in infants and elderly people. Rehydration can be achieved orally or, in severe cases, by urgent admission to hospital for the replacement of ?uid and electrolytes.

For adults with acute diarrhoea, short-term symptomatic treatment can be achieved with antimotility drugs such as codeine phosphate, co-phenotrope or loperamide hydrochloride. Adsorbent drugs, for example, KAOLIN, should not be used in acute diarrhoea, but bulk-forming drugs – ispaghula or methylcellulose

– can help to control the consistency of faeces in patients with ileostomies and colostomies (see ILEOSTOMY; COLOSTOMY), or those with diarrhoea caused by DIVERTICULAR DISEASE.

Irritable bowel syndrome, malabsorption syndrom, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and diverticular disease are often accompanied by diarrhoea; for more information on these conditions, see under separate entries.

ANTIBIOTICS may sometimes cause diarrhoea and this side-e?ect should be borne in mind when the cause of the condition is being investigated.... Medical Dictionary

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)

Medical Dictionary

See VASOPRESSIN.... Medical Dictionary

ANTIPYRETIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Counteracting fever... Medicinal Plants Glossary

ANTIPYRETICS

Medical Dictionary

Measures used to reduce temperature in FEVER. Varieties include cold-sponging, wet-packs, baths and diaphoretic (sweat-reducing) drugs such as QUININE, salicylates and ASPIRIN.... Medical Dictionary

ANUSREE

Medical Dictionary

(Indian) A pretty woman Anusry, Anusrey, Anusri, Anusrie, Anusrea, Anusreah, Anusrye... Medical Dictionary

APGAR SCORE

Medical Dictionary

A method of assessing at birth whether or not a baby requires resuscitation. The newborn is routinely assessed at 1 minute of age and again at 5 minutes, and a value of 0, 1 or 2 given to each of ?ve signs: colour, heart rate, muscle tone, respiratory (or breathing) e?ort, and the response to stimulation. A total score of 7 or more indicates that the newborn child is in excellent condition. An Apgar score of 5 or less at 15 or 20 minutes predicates an increased risk of subsequent CEREBRAL PALSY.... Medical Dictionary

APYREXIA

Medical Dictionary

Absence of FEVER.... Medical Dictionary

ARECA CATECHU

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia; now grown along the coasts of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam and Maharashtra.

English: Arecanut, Betel Nut.

Ayurvedic: Puuga, Puugi, Kramuka, Ghontaa, Guwaak, Ghorant.

Unani: Fufal, Chhaalia, Supaari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kottai Paakku, Kamugu.

Action: Taeniacide (confined to veterinary medicine), astringent, stimulant.

Along with other therapeutic application, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried ripe seed in leucorrhoea and vaginal laxity.

Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to pyridine group, the most important being arecoline (0.1-0.5%). Arecaidine, guvacine and isoguvacine are also present. Arecoline is an- thelmintic (in animals, not in humans). Arecaidine has no parasympa- thomimetic effects, but only stimulating properties; sedative in higher doses. Isoguvacine produces hypotension.

Contraindicated in asthma due to bronchoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid arecoline (human case reports). (Francis Brinker.)

Arecanut tannins (8.0-18.0%) are predominantly catechol tannins which closely resemble Mimosa bark tannins. Powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhoea and urinary disorders. In combination with other astringent and styptic herbs, arecanut is used as a major constituent in confections of Indian medicine for gynaecological disorders.

Aqueous extract of the nut exhibits direct vasoconstriction and adrenaline potentiation in rats. Antimicrobial activity is due to polyphenolic fraction. Tannins potentiated the action of acetylcholine in ileum and uterus of rat and noradrenaline on seminal vesicle at low concentration.

Due to increased incidence of oral cancer associated with betel chewing, the use of arecanut as a masticatory is being discouraged.

Seeds are toxic at 8-10 g, fluid extract at 3.7 ml; and arecoline hydrobromide at 4.3-6.5 mg. (Francis Brinker.)

Dosage: Dried ripe fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

AREEBAH

Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) One who is smart and witty Areeba, Aribah, Ariba, Arybah, Aryba, Arieba, Ariebah, Areaba, Areabah, Areiba, Areibah... Medical Dictionary

ARELLA

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) A messenger from heaven; an angel

Arela, Arelah, Arellah, Arelle, Areli, Arelie, Arely... Medical Dictionary

ARENAVIRUSES

Medical Dictionary

A group of viruses, so-called because under the electron microscope they have a sand-sprinkled (Latin, arenosus) appearance. Among the diseases in humans for which they are responsible are LASSA FEVER in West Africa, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (mortality rate 3–15 per cent), a similar disease in Bolivia (mortality rate 18 per cent), and lymphocytic choriomeningitis, in which deaths are uncommon.... Medical Dictionary

AREOLA

Medical Dictionary

Areola literally means a small space, and is the term applied to the red or dusky ring around the nipple, or around an in?amed part. Increase in the duskiness of the areola on the breast is an important early sign of pregnancy.... Medical Dictionary

ARETE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, the queen of the Phaeacians... Medical Dictionary

ARETHA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) One who is virtuous; excellent Areta, Aretta, Arette, Areata, Areatha, Areathia, Areeta, Areetha, Arethea, Arethia, Aretina, Arita, Aritha, Arytha, Arythya, Aret... Medical Dictionary

ARETHUSA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, a wood nymph... Medical Dictionary

ARGYREIA SPECIOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Sweet.

Synonym: A. nervosa (Burm. f.) Boj.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Found all over India, ascending to 300 m.

English: Elephant Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Vriddhadaaruka, Vriddhadaaru, Vriddhadaaraka, Bastaantri, Sthavira, Sthaviradaaru, Atarunadaaru, Samudrashosha. (Seeds of Salvia plebeia R. Br. are also known as Samudrashosha.)

Unani: Samunder sokh.

Siddha/Tamil: Ambgar, Samuddira- pacchai

Folk: Bidhaaraa.

Action: Root—aphrodisiac (considered as a rejuvenator), nervine (used in diseases of nervous system, sexual disorders), diuretic (used in strangury), antirheumatic. Seeds—hypotensive, spasmolytic. Leaves—used externally in skin diseases (ringworm, eczema, boils, swellings); rubefacient, topically stimulant.

The seeds contain hallucinogenic ergoline alkaloids, the main ones being ergine and isoergine. EtOH (50%) extract of seeds exhibits hypotensive activity. (Seeds of all species of Argyreia contain ergoline alkaloids and are hypotensive.) Leaves of Argyreia sp. contain sitosterol and are antiphlogistic.

In Indian medicine, A. speciosa is not used as a single drug for sexual disorders in men, but as a supporting drug for exerting its antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and hypotensive actions on the central nervous system. The drug, in itself, did not show anabolic- cum-androgen-like or spermogenetic activity experimentally.

Ipomoea petaloidea Chois and Ipo- moea biloba Forskofthe Convolvulacae family are also used as Vriddhadaaru.

In Western herbal medicine, Hawaiian Baby Woodrose is equated with Argyreia nervosa (synonym Argyreia speciosa; grows in Florida, California and Hawaii). The seed is used for pain relief and as a hallucinogen.

The seeds contain hallucinogens including ergonovine, isoergine (isoly- sergic acid amide) and ergine (lysergic acid amide). Four to eight seeds are equivalent to 10-100 mcg of LSD, a potent serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) agonist. The effects last 6-8 h. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Root—3-5 g powder.

(CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION

Medical Dictionary

See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.... Medical Dictionary

ASFOUREH

Medical Dictionary

(Arabic) A birdlike woman... Medical Dictionary

ASGRE

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) Having a noble heart... Medical Dictionary

ASHWAGANDHA TEA INCREASES LIBIDO

Beneficial Teas

Ashwagandha tea has a long medicinal history, being used for its healing properties byAyurveda practitioners, native Americans and Africans. At present, it is used to improve memory, but not only. What is Ashwagandha? Ashwagandha is a stout shrub that belongs to the nightshade family, but it does not possess poisonous properties.  It grows in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh. Literally translated, Ashwagandha means horse smell. It has been also known as “India’s ginseng” or “winter cherry.” In Ayurveda, practitioners use Ashwagandha for its medicinal properties which enhance longevity and health in general. Native Americans and Africans have been using Ashwagandha to heal inflammation, fevers and infection. The plant has anti-microbial and anti-bacterial properties. Ashwagandha can be taken as tea, as tincture, in capsule form, or as an extract. Ashwagandha tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Ashwagandha tea brewing To prepare Ashwagandha tea:
  • Place about 1 teaspoon of dried ashwagandha leaves in boiling water.
  • Let the mix steep for about 15 minutes and cool.
  • Strain and then drink.
Ashwagandha tea benefits Studies revealed that Ashwagandha tea is successfully used to:
  • calm the nerves and treat severe stress and nervous exhaustion
  • help in the treatment of hypertension
  • clear the mind, as well as to improve memory and cognitive abilities
  • help in fighting arthritis
  • help in restoring sexual vitality, especially in males
It also has anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer properties. Ashwagandha tea is recommended for expectant mothers. It is said to purify the mother’s blood and strengthen her immune system. Because it acts as a uterine sedative, Ashwagandha tea is used during childbirth, bytraditional Ayurvedic medicine. Ashwagandha tea side effects Ashwagandha tea is not recommended to pregnant women. To avoid any possible side effects, consumers should not intake the tea in high doses or for long periods of time. Ashwagandha tea is a good choice when looking for an increased libido, or an adjuvant against cancer, due to its antioxidant content. It can be also used to enhance the immune system and thus, to release stress.... Beneficial Teas

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITY / ASSISTED CARE LIVING FACILITY

Community Health

Establishment which provides accommodation and care for older or disabled persons who cannot live independently but do not need nursing care. Residents are also provided with domestic assistance (meals, laundry, personal care).... Community Health

ASTEREOGNOSIS

Medical Dictionary

Astereognosis means the loss of the capacity to recognise the nature of an object by feeling it, and indicates a lesion (e.g. tumour) of the brain.... Medical Dictionary

ASTHORE

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) One who is dearly loved Asthora, Asthoria, Asthorea, Asthoreah, Asthor... Medical Dictionary

AT-RISK REGISTER

Medical Dictionary

See RISK REGISTER.... Medical Dictionary

ATRESIA

Medical Dictionary

The absence of a natural opening, or closure of it by a membrane. Thus atresia may be found in newborn infants, preventing the bowels from moving. In young girls after puberty, absence of the menstrual ?ow may be due to such a malformation at the entrance to the VAGINA.... Medical Dictionary

ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE

Medical Dictionary

The atria (see ATRIUM) of the heart contain peptides with potent diuretic and vasodilating properties. It has been known since 1980 that extracts of human atria have potent diuretic and natriuretic e?ects in animals (see DIURETICS). In 1984 three polypeptide species were isolated from human atria and were called alpha, beta and gamma human atrial natriuretic peptides. Plasma concentration of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide can now be measured: the levels are low in healthy subjects and are increased in patients with congestive heart failure. Infusion of the peptides reduces blood pressure and causes a natriuresis and diuresis.... Medical Dictionary

ATTENDANT CARE

Community Health

Personal care for people with disabilities in non-institutionalized settings generally by paid, non-family carers.... Community Health

AUBREY

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who rules with elf- wisdom Aubree, Aubrie, Aubry, Aubri, Aubriana, Aubrianne, Aubrianna, Aubrea, Aurbreah... Medical Dictionary

AUDREY

Medical Dictionary

(English) Woman with noble strength Audree, Audry, Audra, Audrea, Adrey, Audre, Audray, Audrin, Audriya, Audrie, Audri, Audria, Audriana, Audrianna, Audrielle, Audrina, Audreana, Audreanna, Aude, Auda, Audelia, Audene, Aud, Audreah... Medical Dictionary

AUREAR

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who plays gentle music

Aureare, Auriar, Auriare, Auryare... Medical Dictionary

AURELIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Feminine form of Aurelius; golden-haired woman Aurelie, Aurielle, Arela, Arell, Arelie, Arella, Arely, Aurene, Aureli, Aurele, Aurek, Aureliana, Aurelianna, Aureline, Aurenne, Aurilia, Auriol, Aurlel, Aurnia, Aurum, Aurelea... Medical Dictionary

AZURE

Medical Dictionary

(French / Persian) Sky blue / resembling a blue semiprecious stone Azura, Azuree, Azurine, Azora, Azurah, Azurina, Azuryn, Azuryne... Medical Dictionary

B NOSED. THE TEST FOR BRAIN-STEM DEATH ARE:

Medical Dictionary

Fixed dilated pupils of the eyes

Absent CORNEAL REFLEX

Absent VESTIBULO-OCULAR REFLEX

No cranial motor response to somatic (physical) stimulation

Absent gag and cough re?exes

No respiratory e?ort in response to APNOEA despite adequate concentrations of CARBON DIOXIDE in the arterial blood.... Medical Dictionary

BABINSKI REFLEX

Medical Dictionary

When a sharp body is drawn along the sole of the foot, instead of the toes bending down towards the sole as usual, the great toe is turned upwards and the other toes tend to spread apart. After the age of about two years, the presence of this re?ex indicates some severe disturbance in the upper part of the central nervous system. The Babinski re?ex may occur transiently during COMA or after an epileptic ?t and need not indicate permanent damage.... Medical Dictionary

BACILLUS CEREUS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A Gram positive saprophytic rod which grows on parboiled unrefrigerated rice and other food. It produces potent exotoxins which can cause food poisoning – especially in Chinese and other restaurants specialising in rice dishes. Food poisoning from this organism can cause an emetic syndrome (associated with vomiting) or a diarrhoeal syndrome.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

BARBAREA VULGARIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

R. Br.

Family: Brassicaceae, Cruciferae.

Habitat: Subalpine and temperate Himalayas, at altitudes of 1,8003,750 m.

English: Bitter Cress, Hedge Mustard, Yellow Rocket, Winter Cress.

Folk: Cress.

Action: Diuretic, anthelmintic, stomachic, antiscorbutic, (leaves are rich in vitamin C 130 mg/100 g). Pulverised herb is used as an agent for stimulating spermatogenesis.

The roots contain sinigrin; seeds contain a glucoside, glucobarbarin, and myrosin.

The protein and phosphorus contents of the plant decrease with the maturity, whereas the calcium contents increase (tender stems are eaten as a salad). The leaves and buds are a rich source of provitamin A (beta- carotene).... Indian Medicinal Plants

BARMAH FOREST VIRUS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A mosquito-borne arbovirus causing symptoms similar to Ross River virus infection in Australia. (See also Ross River virus).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

BARORECEPTOR

Medical Dictionary

Specialised nerve ending which lines certain blood vessels and acts as a stretch receptor in the carotid sinus, aortic arch, atria, pulmonary veins and left ventricle. Increased pressure in these structures increases the rate of discharge of the baroreceptors. This information is relayed to the medulla and is important in the control of blood pressure.... Medical Dictionary

BARRETT

Medical Dictionary

(German / English) Having the strength of a bear / an argumentative person

Barett, Barrette, Barette, Barrete, Barete, Barretta, Baretta, Barreta, Bareta... Medical Dictionary

BARRIER CREAMS

Medical Dictionary

Substances, usually silicone-based, applied to the skin before work to prevent damage by irritants. They are also used in medicine – for the prevention of bedsores and nappy rash, for example.... Medical Dictionary

BAUHINIA PURPUREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Habitat: The Himalayas, and distributed in Northern India, Assam, Khasi Hills. Also cultivated in gardens.

English: Camel's Foot tree, Pink Bauhinia, Butterfly tree, Geramium tree, Orchid tree.

Ayurvedic: Kovidaara, Rakta Kaanchanaara.

Unani/Siddha: Sivappu mandaarai.

Siddha: Mandarai.

Folk: Koilaara, Khairwaal, Kaliaar, Rakta Kanchan.

Action: Bark—astringent, antidiar- rhoeal. Flower buds and flowers, fried in purified butter, are given to patients suffering from dysentery. Extract of stems are used internally and externally for fractured bones. Plant is used in goitre. It exhibited antithyroid-like activity in experimental animals.

The flowers contain astragalin, iso- quercitrin and quercetin, also antho- cyanins. Seeds contain chalcone gly- cosides.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BAUHINIA RETUSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: B. semla Wunderlin.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Northwestern Himalayas up to 1500 m, also in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

Siddha: Nirpa (Telugu).

Folk: Semalaa, Kathmahuli. Gum— Thaur

Action: Gum—emmenagogue, diuretic. (Gum resembles Gum arabic; used as an external application for sores). Protein isolated from seeds—hypoglycaemic, hypoc- holesterolaemic in young, normal as well as alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats.

The bark contains quercetin-3-O- beta-D-glucoside and rutin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BED SORES

Medical Dictionary

See ULCER.... Medical Dictionary

BENEFITS OF RED TEA

Beneficial Teas

Red Tea has gained popularity around the world due to its anti-viral, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. Often made under the name of „red tea” are Rooibos tea and Honeybush tea, because of their fiery shades similar to the color red. The constituents of Red Tea are basically antioxidants such as aspalathin and nothofagin. But red tea is also rich in vitamins and minerals: calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, vitamin C and zinc. It does not contain caffeine and it can be safely taken by people with kidney problems. How To Make Red Tea Brewing Rooibos Tea To brew Rooibos Tea, you will have to heat the water until it just begins to boil. Take it off the heat and pour it over a teaspoon of rooibos leaves or tea bag. Cover it and let the tea steep for about 4-6 minutes. You can either enoy rooibos tea as it is, or you can add honey, sugar or milk. Brewing Honeybush Tea To make Honeybush Tea, start by infusing 2 tablespoons of dried honeybush herbs in a liter of boiled water for about 20 minutes. After that, strain the Honeybush Tea and enjoy! To really maximize its health benefits, try not to add any sweetener or milk. Red Tea Benefits
  • Due to its antioxidant content, Red Tea may lower the risk of developing tumors and cancer.
  • Helps treat allergies like eczema, fever or asthma.
  • Keeps your skin healthy.
  • Strengthens your immune system.
  • Provides relaxation, calming the nervous system.
  • Helps control blood pressure.
Red Tea Side Effects
  • Red tea is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women. The herb can harm both infant or fetus.
  • Young children should not drink red tea since the herb may have adverse reactions for young patients.
  • People who suffer from diabetes should not consume red tea. The herb can drastically lower blood sugar levels.
 Red Tea is an amazing tea with a lot of health benefits. Make sure you read the side effects listed above and experience only its benefits!... Beneficial Teas

BENNETT’S FRACTURE

Medical Dictionary

Bennett’s fracture – so-called after an Irish surgeon, Edward Hallaran Bennett (1837–1907) – is a longitudinal fracture of the ?rst metacarpal bone in the wrist, which also involves the carpo-metacarpal joint.... Medical Dictionary

BEREAVEMENT

Medical Dictionary

A process of loss, grief and recovery, usually associated with death.... Medical Dictionary

BEREAVEMENT

Community Health

The normal mental state associated with the death of a loved one, and the slow coming to terms with that death. The well-recognised stages of the bereavement reaction are: denial, bargaining, anger and acceptance. If bereavement symptoms are severe or prolonged, expert counselling may help. Bereavement-like symptoms may occur after divorce, retirement or other life-changing experiences.... Community Health

BERENJENA

Medicinal Plants

Eggplant (Solanum melongena).

Plant Part Used: Fruit.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The raw fruit is traditionally chopped and soaked in water to extract its bitter constituents, and this water is taken as a drink for diabetes, high cholesterol and obesity.

Safety: The fruit is considered safe as a widely consumed vegetable.

Clinical Data: The fruit has been investigated in human clinical trials as a potential treatment for eye and vision problems due to its interocular pressure-lowering effects.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In laboratory and preclinical studies the fruit constituents have shown antioxidant activity in animal models. The following activities of this plant have been demonstrated using in vitro assays: antioxidant, antitumor and spasmogenic.

* See entry for Berenjena in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

BETA ADRENOCEPTOR

Medical Dictionary

See ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.... Medical Dictionary

BETA-ADRENOCEPTOR-BLOCKING DRUGS

Medical Dictionary

Also called beta blockers, these drugs interrupt the transmission of neuronal messages via the body’s adrenergic receptor sites. In the HEART these are called beta1 (cardioselective) receptors. Another type – beta2 (non-cardioselective) receptors – is sited in the airways, blood vessels, and organs such as the eye, liver and pancreas. Cardioselective beta blockers act primarily on beta1 receptors, whereas non-cardioselective drugs act on both varieties, beta1 and beta2. (The neurotransmissions interrupted at the beta-receptor sites through the body by the beta blockers are initiated in the ADRENAL GLANDS: this is why these drugs are sometimes described as beta-adrenergic-blocking agents.)

They work by blocking the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are produced at the nerve endings of that part of the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM – the autonomous (involuntary) network

– which facilitates the body’s reaction to anxiety, stress and exercise – the ‘fear and ?ight’ response.

Beta1 blockers reduce the frequency and force of the heartbeat; beta2 blockers prevent vasodilation (increase in the diameter of blood vessels), thus in?uencing the patient’s blood pressure. Beta1 blockers also a?ect blood pressure, but the mechanism of their action is unclear. They can reduce to normal an abnormally fast heart rate so the power of the heart can be concomitantly controlled: this reduces the oxygen requirements of the heart with an advantageous knock-on e?ect on the respiratory system. These are valuable therapeutic e?ects in patients with ANGINA or who have had a myocardial infarction (heart attack – see HEART, DISEASES OF), or who su?er from HYPERTENSION. Beta2 blockers reduce tremors in muscles elsewhere in the body which are a feature of anxiety or the result of thyrotoxicosis (an overactive thyroid gland – see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). Noncardioselective blockers also reduce the abnormal pressure caused by the increase in the ?uid in the eyeball that characterises GLAUCOMA.

Many beta-blocking drugs are now available; minor therapeutic di?erences between them may in?uence the choice of a drug for a particular patient. Among the common drugs are:

Primarily cardioselective Non-cardioselective

Acebutolol Labetalol Atenolol Nadolol Betaxolol Oxprenolol Celiprolol Propanolol Metoprolol Timolol

These powerful drugs have various side-e?ects and should be prescribed and monitored with care. In particular, people who su?er from asthma, bronchitis or other respiratory problems may develop breathing di?culties. Long-term treatment with beta blockers should not be suddenly stopped, as this may precipitate a severe recurrence of the patient’s symptoms – including, possibly, a sharp rise in blood pressure. Gradual withdrawal of medication should mitigate untoward e?ects.... Medical Dictionary

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

Medical Dictionary

The use of living organisms – or infectious agents derived from them – to disable or kill men, animals or plants in the pursuit of war. Such warfare, along with chemical warfare, was condemned in 1925 by the Geneva Convention, and the United Nations has endorsed this policy. Even so, some countries have experimented with possible biological agents, including those causing ANTHRAX and BOTULISM, with the intention of delivering them by land, sea or water-based missiles. These developments have prompted other countries to search for ways of annulling the lethal consequences of biological warfare.... Medical Dictionary

BIOREMEDIATION

Medical Dictionary

The use of the natural properties of living things to remove hazards that threaten human and animal health. When a pollutant ?rst appears in a local environment, existing microorganisms such as bacteria attempt to make use of the potential source of energy and as a side-e?ect detoxify the polluting substance. This is an evolutionary process that normally would take years.

Scientists have engineered appropriate genes from other organisms into BACTERIA, or sometimes plants, to accelerate this natural evolutionary process. For e?ective ‘digestion of waste’, a micro-organism must quickly and completely digest organic waste without producing unpleasant smells or noxious gases, be non-pathogenic and be able to reproduce in hostile conditions. For example, American researchers have discovered an anaerobic bacterium that neutralises dangerous chlorinated chemical compounds such as trichlorethane, which can pollute soil, into a harmless molecule called ethens. But the bacteria do not thrive in soil. So the dechlorinating genes in this bacterium are transferred to bacteria that are acclimatised to living in toxic areas and can more e?ciently carry out the required detoxi?cation. Other research has been aimed at detoxifying the byproducts of DDT, a troublesome and resistant pollutant. Bioremediation should prove to be an environmentally friendly and cost-e?ective alternative to waste incineration or chemically based processes for washing contaminated soils.... Medical Dictionary

BIOSPHERE

Herbal Medical

Literally, the part of the earth that supports life; more broadly, a large community of life-forms sharing a similar environment, such as a rain forest or prairie grassland.... Herbal Medical

BIXA ORELLANA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Bixaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America, often cultivated in Madhya Pradesh and South India.

English: Annatto.

Ayurvedic: Sinduri, Sinduriyaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Jabara, Manjitti.

Action: Plant—astringent, antibil- ious, antiemetic, blood purifier. Leaves—infusion is given in jaundice, also in dysentery. Externally, scar-preventive. Root bark— febrifuge, antiperiodic. Seed pulp— haemostatic, antidysenteric, diuretic, laxative. Fruit—antidysenteric.

An antimicrobial constituent, mas- linic acid, alongwith gallic acid and pyrogallol, has been isolated from the leaves. Alcoholic extract of the leaves completely inhibited Micrococcus pyo- genes, but was inactive against E. coli. The aqueous extract, however, showed partial inhibition against E. coli. The aqueous extract also showed potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose re- ductase, which plays an important role in the management of diabetic complications. The activity is attributed to a flavonoid, isoscutelarein.

Bixin, the main constituent of seed coat, shows cytostatic effect on the growth of human lymphoma cells. Bixin also has a hyperglycaemic effect and may disturb blood glucose control.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BLOOD PRESSURE

Medical Dictionary

Blood pressure is that pressure which must be applied to an artery in order to stop the pulse beyond the point of pressure. It may be roughly estimated by feeling the pulse at the wrist, or accurately measured using a SPHYGMOMANOMETER. It is dependent on the pumping force of the heart, together with the volume of blood, and on the elasticity of the blood vessels.

The blood pressure is biphasic, being greatest (systolic pressure) at each heartbeat and falling (diastolic pressure) between beats. The average systolic pressure is around 100 mm Hg in children and 120 mm Hg in young adults, generally rising with age as the arteries get thicker and harder. Diastolic pressure in a healthy young adult is about 80 mm Hg, and a rise in diastolic pressure is often a surer indicator of HYPERTENSION than is a rise in systolic pressure; the latter is more sensitive to changes of body position and emotional mood. Hypertension has various causes, the most important of which are kidney disease (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), genetic predisposition and, to some extent, mental stress. Systolic pressure may well be over 200 mm Hg. Abnormal hypertension is often accompanied by arterial disease (see ARTERIES, DISEASES OF) with an increased risk of STROKE, heart attack and heart failure (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Various ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS are available; these should be carefully evaluated, considering the patient’s full clinical history, before use.

HYPOTENSION may result from super?cial vasodilation (for example, after a bath, in fevers or as a side-e?ect of medication, particularly that prescribed for high blood pressure) and occur in weakening diseases or heart failure. The blood pressure generally falls on standing, leading to temporary postural hypotension – a particular danger in elderly people.... Medical Dictionary

BOARD AND CARE HOME

Community Health

See “adult care home”.... Community Health

BONESET TEA: A CURE-ALL

Beneficial Teas

Boneset tea has the reputation of a very effective “cure-all”. It is highly recommended to people looking to enhance their immunity in a natural way. Boneset Tea description Boneset is a daisy, commonly found in the eastern part of North America, on roadsides and in wet ground. It has a long, hairy stem with white flower toppings. The flowers normally bloom during July to September. The plant gained its name from its traditional use of treating dengue or breakbone fever, a viral infection causing muscle pain so intense that patients feel their bones are on the verge of breaking. The plant has therapeutic properties which can be intaken through teas, tinctures and capsules. Boneset tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Boneset Tea brewing To make Boneset tea:
  • place two to three teaspoons of dried boneset herbs (leaves, flowers or the stem) into a cup of boiling water
  • allow the mixture to steep for about 10 to 15 minutes
Boneset Tea has a very bitter taste. Honey or lemon can be added to the tea. Boneset Tea benefits Boneset tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat colds, coughs and ailments in the upper respiratory tract
  • help in the treatment of influenza, malaria and fever
  • help relieve migraine headache
  • relieve pain from arthritis and rheumatism
  • help in the treatment of jaundice
  • fight intestinal worms
Boneset Tea side effects Boneset tea is not recommended for long-term use because high doses of this plant may cause damage to the liver or to the kidney. It is recommended not to be taken for a longer period than two weeks. Overdose may be deadly. Pregnant women and children under 6 years should not consume Boneset tea. Boneset tea is a medicinal remedy that can treat ailments of the upper respiratory tract, influenza, migraines but not only.  ... Beneficial Teas

BORRELIA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A genus of spirochaetes causing Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and Relapsing fever (B. recurrentis; B. duttoni). These zoonotic infections are transmitted through the bites of argassid ticks (tampans).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

BORRERIA ARTICULARIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn. f.) F. N. Williams.

Synonym: B. hispada (L.) K. Sch. Spermacoce hispida Linn.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a weed in cultivated and sallow lands and pastures.

English: Shaggy Button Weed.

Ayurvedic: Madana-ghanti.

Siddha/Tamil: Nathaichoori.

Folk: Ghanti-chi-bhaaji (Maharashtra), Gatbhanjan, Satgathiyaa.

Action: Herb—used in the treatment of headache. Root—prescribed as a mouthwash in toothache. Leaf— juice is given as an astringent in haemorrhoids. Seeds—used as demulcent in diarrhoea and dysentery.

The weed contains beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid and D-mannitol. It is rich in calcium and phosphorus. Isorham- netin, a flavonoid, is reported in the seeds.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BREAD

A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: Moderate Fat: Low to moderate Saturated fat: Low to high Cholesterol: Low to high Carbohydrates: High Fiber: Moderate to high Sodium: Moderate to high Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins Major mineral contribution: Calcium, iron, potassium About the Nutrients in This Food All commercially made yeast breads are approximately equal in nutri- tional value. Enriched white bread contains virtually the same amounts of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates as whole wheat bread, although it may contain only half the dietary fiber (see flour). Bread is a high-carbohydrate food with lots of starch. The exact amount of fiber, fat, and cholesterol in the loaf varies with the recipe. Bread’s proteins, from grain, are low in the essential amino acid lysine. The most important carbohydrate in bread is starch; all breads contain some sugar. Depending on the recipe, the fats may be highly saturated (butter or hydrogenated vegetable fats) or primarily unsaturated (vegetable fat). All bread is a good source of B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin), and in 1998, the Food and Drug Administration ordered food manufactur- ers to add folates—which protect against birth defects of the spinal cord and against heart disease—to flour, rice, and other grain products. One year later, data from the Framingham Heart Study, which has followed heart health among residents of a Boston suburb for nearly half a cen- tury, showed a dramatic increase in blood levels of folic acid. Before the fortification of foods, 22 percent of the study participants had a folic acid deficiency; after, the number fell to 2 percent. Bread is a moderately good source of calcium, magnesium, and phos- phorus. (Breads made with milk contain more calcium than breads made without milk.) Although bread is made from grains and grains contain phytic acid, a natural antinutrient that binds calcium ions into insoluble, indigestible compounds, the phytic acid is inactivated by enzyme action during leavening. Bread does not bind calcium. All commercially made breads are moderately high in sodium; some contain more sugar than others. Grains are not usually considered a good source of iodine, but commer- cially made breads often pick up iodine from the iodophors and iodates used to clean the plants and machines in which they are made. Homemade breads share the basic nutritional characteristics of commercially made breads, but you can vary the recipe to suit your own taste, lowering the salt, sugar, or fat and raising the fiber content, as you prefer. The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food As sandwiches, with cheese, milk, eggs, meat, fish, or poultry. These foods supply the essen- tial amino acid lysine to “complete” the proteins in grains. With beans or peas. The proteins in grains are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and isoleucine and rich in the essential amino acids tryptophan, methionine, and cystine. The proteins in legumes (beans and peas) are exactly the opposite. Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Gluten-free diet (excludes breads made with wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat and barley flour) Lactose-free diet Low-fiber diet (excludes coarse whole-grain breads) Low-sodium diet Buying This Food Look for: Fresh bread. Check the date on closed packages of commercial bread. Storing This Food Store bread at room temperature, in a tightly closed plastic bag (the best protection) or in a breadbox. How long bread stays fresh depends to a great extent on how much fat it contains. Bread made with some butter or other fat will keep for about three days at room tempera- ture. Bread made without fat (Italian bread, French bread) will dry out in just a few hours; for longer storage, wrap it in foil, put it inside a plastic bag, and freeze it. When you are ready to serve the French or Italian bread, you can remove it from the plastic bag and put the foil- wrapped loaf directly into the oven. Throw away moldy bread. The molds that grow on bread may produce carcinogenic toxins. Do not store fresh bread in the refrigerator; bread stales most quickly at temperatures just above freezing. The one exception: In warm, humid weather, refrigerating bread slows the growth of molds. When You Are Ready to Serve This Food Use a serrated knife to cut bread easily. What Happens When You Cook This Food Toasting is a chemical process that caramelizes sugars and amino acids (proteins) on the surface of the bread, turning the bread a golden brown. This chemical reaction, known both as the browning reaction and the Maillard reaction (after the French chemist who first identified it), alters the structure of the surface sugars, starches, and amino acids. The sugars become indigestible food fiber; the amino acids break into smaller fragments that are no longer nutritionally useful. Thus toast has more fiber and less protein than plain bread. How- ever, the role of heat-generated fibers in the human diet is poorly understood. Some experts consider them inert and harmless; others believe they may be hazardous. How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Freezing. Frozen bread releases moisture that collects inside the paper, foil, or plastic bag in which it is wrapped. If you unwrap the bread before defrosting it, the moisture will be lost and the bread will be dry. Always defrost bread in its wrappings so that it can reabsorb the moisture that keeps it tasting fresh. Drying. Since molds require moisture, the less moisture a food contains, the less likely it is support mold growth. That is why bread crumbs and Melba toast, which are relatively mois- ture-free, keep better than fresh bread. Both can be ground fine and used as a toasty-flavored thickener in place of flour or cornstarch. Medical Uses and/or Benefits A lower risk of some kinds of cancer. In 1998, scientists at Wayne State University in Detroit conducted a meta-analysis of data from more than 30 well-designed animal studies mea- suring the anti-cancer effects of wheat bran, the part of grain with highest amount of the insoluble dietary fibers cellulose and lignin. They found a 32 percent reduction in the risk of colon cancer among animals fed wheat bran; now they plan to conduct a similar meta- analysis of human studies. Breads made with whole grain wheat are a good source of wheat bran. NOTE : The amount of fiber per serving listed on a food package label shows the total amount of fiber (insoluble and soluble). Early in 1999, however, new data from the long-running Nurses Health Study at Brigham Women’s Hospital/Harvard University School of Public Health showed that women who ate a high-fiber diet had a risk of colon cancer similar to that of women who ate a low fiber diet. Because this study contradicts literally hundreds of others conducted over the past 30 years, researchers are awaiting confirming evidence before changing dietary recommendations. Calming effect. Mood is affected by naturally occurring chemicals called neurotransmitters that facilitate transmission of impulses between brain cells. The amino acid tryptophan amino acid is the most important constituent of serotonin, a “calming” neurotransmitter. Foods such as bread, which are high in complex carbohydrates, help move tryptophan into your brain, increasing the availability of serotonin. Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Allergic reactions and/or gastric distress. Bread contains several ingredients that may trigger allergic reactions, aggravate digestive problems, or upset a specific diet, among them gluten (prohibited on gluten-free diets); milk (prohibited on a lactose- and galactose-free diet or for people who are sensitive to milk proteins); sugar (prohibited on a sucrose-free diet); salt (controlled on a sodium-restricted diet); and fats (restricted or prohibited on a controlled-fat, low-cholesterol diet).... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

BREADFRUIT

Medicinal Plants

Artocarpus incisa

Description: This tree may grow up to 9 meters tall. It has dark green, deeply divided leaves that are 75 centimeters long and 30 centimeters wide. Its fruits are large, green, ball-like structures up to 30 centimeters across when mature.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for this tree at the margins of forests and homesites in the humid tropics. It is native to the South Pacific region but has been widely planted in the West Indies and parts of Polynesia.

Edible Parts: The fruit pulp is edible raw. The fruit can be sliced, dried, and ground into flour for later use. The seeds are edible cooked.

Other Uses: The thick sap can serve as glue and caulking material. You can also use it as birdlime (to entrap small birds by smearing the sap on twigs where they usually perch).... Medicinal Plants

BREAST FEEDING

Medical Dictionary

This is the natural way to feed a baby from birth to WEANING. Human milk is an ideal food, containing a proper balance of nutrients as well as an essential supply of antibodies to protect the infant against infections. Breast feeding also strengthens the physical bond between mother and child. For the ?rst few weeks, feeding should be on demand. Di?culties over breast feeding, discouragement from health-care providers and the pressures of modern life, especially for working mothers, can make it hard to continue breast feeding for more than a few weeks, or even to breast feed at all. Sometimes infections occur, producing soreness and even an abscess. Mothers should seek advice from their health visitor about breast feeding, especially if problems arise.... Medical Dictionary

BREAST RECONSTRUCTION

Medical Dictionary

See MAMMOPLASTY.... Medical Dictionary

BREAST REDUCTION

Medical Dictionary

See MAMMOPLASTY.... Medical Dictionary

BREAST SCREENING

Medical Dictionary

A set of investigations aimed at the early detection of breast cancer. It includes self-screening by monthly examination of the breasts, and formal programmes of screening by palpation and mammography in special clinics. In the UK the NHS o?ers regular mammography examinations to all women between 50 and 64 years of age; in 1995–6, 1.1 million women were screened – 76 per cent of those invited. More than 5,500 cancers were detected – 5.3 per 1,000 women screened.... Medical Dictionary

BREASTBONE

Medical Dictionary

See STERNUM.... Medical Dictionary

BREASTS

Medical Dictionary

Breasts, or mammary glands, occur only in mammals and provide milk for feeding the young. These paired organs are usually fully developed only in adult females, but are present in rudimentary form in juveniles and males. In women, the two breasts over-lie the second to sixth ribs on the front of the chest. On the surface of each breast is a central pink disc called the areola, which surrounds the nipple. Inside, the breast consists of fat, supporting tissue and glandular tissue, which is the part that produces milk following childbirth. Each breast consists of 12–20 compartments arranged radially around the nipple: each compartment opens on to the tip of the nipple via its own duct through which the milk ?ows. The breast enlargement that occurs in pregnancy is due to development of the glandular part in preparation for lactation. In women beyond childbearing age, the glandular part of the breasts reduces (called involution) and the breasts become less ?rm and contain relatively more fat.

... Medical Dictionary

BREASTS, DISEASES OF

Medical Dictionary

The female breasts may be expected to undergo hormone-controlled enlargement at puberty, and later in pregnancy, and the glandular part of the breast undergoes evolution (shrinkage) after the menopause. The breast can also be a?ected by many di?erent diseases, with common symptoms being pain, nipple discharge or retraction, and the formation of a lump within the breast.

Benign disease is much more common than cancer, particularly in young women, and includes acute in?ammation of the breast (mastitis); abscess formation; and benign breast lumps, which may be ?broadenosis – di?use lumpiness also called chronic mastitis or ?brocystic disease – in which one or more ?uid-?lled sacs (cysts) develop.

Women who are breast feeding are particularly prone to mastitis, as infection may enter the breast via the nipple. The process may be arrested before a breast abscess forms by prompt treatment with antibiotics. Non-bacterial in?ammation may result from mammary duct ectasia (dilatation), in which abnormal or

blocked ducts may over?ow. Initial treatments should be with antibiotics, but if an abscess does form it should be surgically drained.

Duct ectasia, with or without local mastitis, is the usual benign cause of various nipple complaints, with common symptoms being nipple retraction, discharge and skin change.

Breast lumps form the chief potential danger and may be either solid or cystic. Simple examination may fail to distinguish the two types, but aspiration of a benign cyst usually results in its disappearance. If the ?uid is bloodstained, or if a lump still remains, malignancy is possible, and all solid lumps need histological (tissue examination) or cytological (cell examination) assessment. As well as having their medical and family history taken, any women with a breast lump should undergo triple assessment: a combination of clinical examination, imaging

– mammography for the over-35s and ultrasonagraphy for the under-35s – and ?ne-needle aspiration. The medical history should include details of any previous lumps, family history (up to 10 per cent of breast cancer in western countries is due to genetic disposition), pain, nipple discharge, change in size related to menstrual cycle and parous state, and any drugs being taken by the patient. Breasts should be inspected with the arms up and down, noting position, size, consistency, mobility, ?xity, and local lymphadenopathy (glandular swelling). Nipples should be examined for the presence of inversion or discharge. Skin involvement (peau d’orange) should be noted, and, in particular, how long changes have been present. Fine-needle aspiration and cytological examination of the ?uid are essential with ULTRASOUND, MAMMOGRAPHY and possible BIOPSY being considered, depending on the patient’s age and the extent of clinical suspicion that cancer may be present.

The commonest solid benign lump is a ?broadenoma, particularly in women of childbearing age, and is a painless, mobile lump. If small, it is usually safe to leave it alone, provided that the patient is warned to seek medical advice if its size or character changes or if the lump becomes painful. Fibroadenosis (di?use lumpiness often in the upper, outer quadrant) is a common (benign) lump. Others include periductal mastitis, fat NECROSIS, GALACTOCELE, ABSCESS, and non-breast-tissue lumps – for example, a LIPOMA (fatty tissue) or SEBACEOUS CYST. A woman with breast discharge should have a mammograph, ductograph, or total duct excision until the cause of any underlying duct ectasia is known. Appropriate treatment should then be given.

Malignant disease most commonly – but not exclusively – occurs in post-menopausal women, classically presenting as a slowly growing, painless, ?rm lump. A bloodstained nipple discharge or eczematous skin change may also be suggestive of cancer.

The most commonly used classi?cation of invasive cancers has split them into two types, ductal and lobular, but this is no longer suitable. There are also weaknesses in the tumour node metastases (TNM) system and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) classi?cation.

The TNM system – which classi?es the lump by size, ?xity and presence of a?ected axillary glands and wider metastatic spread – is best combined with a pathological classi?cation, when assessing the seriousness of a possibly cancerous lump. Risk factors for cancer include nulliparity (see NULLIPARA), ?rst pregnancy over the age of 30 years, early MENARCHE, late MENOPAUSE and positive family history. The danger should be considered in women who are not breast feeding or with previous breast cancer, and must be carefully excluded if the woman is taking any contraceptive steroids or is on hormone-replacement therapy (see under MENOPAUSE).

Screening programmes involving mammography are well established, the aim being to detect more tumours at an early and curable stage. Pick-up rate is ?ve per 1,000 healthy women over 50 years. Yearly two-view mammograms could reduce mortality by 40 per cent but may cause alarm because there are ten false positive mammograms for each true positive result. In premenopausal women, breasts are denser, making mammograms harder to interpret, and screening appears not to save lives. About a quarter of women with a palpable breast lump turn out to have cancer.

Treatment This remains controversial, and all options should be carefully discussed with the patient and, where appropriate, with her partner. Locally contained disease may be treated by local excision of the lump, but sampling of the glands of the armpit of the same side should be performed to check for additional spread of the disease, and hence the need for CHEMOTHERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY. Depending on the extent of spread, simple mastectomy or modi?ed radical mastectomy (which removes the lymph nodes draining the breast) may be required. Follow-up chemotherapy, for example, with TAMOXIFEN (an oestrogen antagonist), much improves survival (it saves 12 lives over 100 women treated), though it may occasionally cause endometrial carcinoma. Analysis in the mid-1990s of large-scale international studies of breast-cancer treatments showed wide variations in their e?ectiveness. As a result the NHS has encouraged hospitals to set up breast-treatment teams containing all the relevant health professional experts and to use those treatments shown to be most e?ective.

As well as the physical treatments provided, women with suspected or proven breast cancer should be o?ered psychological support because up to 30 per cent of a?ected women develop an anxiety state or depressive illness within a year of diagnosis. Problems over body image and sexual di?culties occur in and around one-quarter of patients. Breast conservation and reconstructive surgery can improve the physical e?ects of mastectomy, and women should be advised on the prostheses and specially designed brassieres that are available. Specialist nurses and self-help groups are invaluable in supporting a?ected women and their partners with the problems caused by breast cancer and its treatment. Breast Cancer Care, British Association of Cancer United Patients (BACUP), Cancerlink, and Cancer Relief Macmillan Fund are among voluntary organisations providing support.... Medical Dictionary

BREATH SOUNDS

Medical Dictionary

The transmitted sounds of breathing, heard when a stethoscope is applied to the chest. Normal breath sounds are described as vesicular. Abnormal sounds may be heard when there is increased ?uid in the lungs or ?brosis (crepitation or crackles), when there is bronchospasm (rhonchi or wheezes), or when the lung is airless (consolidated – bronchial breathing). Breath sounds are absent in people with pleural e?usion, pneumothorax, or after pneumonectomy.... Medical Dictionary

BREATH-HOLDING

Medical Dictionary

Breath-holding attacks are not uncommon in infants and toddlers. They are characterised by the child suddenly stopping breathing in the midst of a bout of crying evoked by pain, some emotional upset, or loss of temper. The breath may be held so long that the child goes blue in the face. The attack is never fatal and the condition disappears spontaneously after the age of 3–5 years, but once a child has acquired the habit it may recur quite often.

It is important for a paediatrician to determine that such events are not epileptic (see EPILEPSY). Generally they require no treatment other than reassurance, as recovery is spontaneous and rapid – although a small number of severely a?ected children have been helped by a PACEMAKER. Parents should avoid dramatising the attacks.... Medical Dictionary

BREATHING

Medical Dictionary

See RESPIRATION.... Medical Dictionary

BREATHLESSNESS

Medical Dictionary

Breathlessness, or dyspnoea, may be due to any condition which renders the blood de?cient in oxygen, and which therefore produces excessive involuntary e?orts to gain more air. Exercise is a natural cause, and acute anxiety may provoke breathlessness in otherwise healthy people. Deprivation of oxygen – for example, in a building ?re – will also cause the victim to raise his or her breathing rate. Disorders of the lung may diminish the area available for breathing – for example, ASTHMA, PNEUMONIA, TUBERCULOSIS, EMPHYSEMA, BRONCHITIS, collections of ?uid in the pleural cavities, and pressure caused by a TUMOUR or ANEURYSM.

Pleurisy causes short, rapid breathing to avoid the pain of deep inspiration.

Narrowing of the air passages may produce sudden and alarming attacks of di?cult breathing, especially among children – for example, in CROUP, asthma and DIPHTHERIA.

Most cardiac disorders (see HEART, DISEASES OF) cause breathlessness, especially when the person undergoes any special exertion.

Anaemia is a frequent cause.

Obesity is often associated with shortness of breath. Mountain climbing may cause breathlessness

because, as altitude increases, the amount of oxygen in the air falls (see ALTITUDE SICKNESS). (See also LUNGS and RESPIRATION.)... Medical Dictionary

BRECK

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) A freckled girl Brek, Brecken, Breckin, Breckan... Medical Dictionary

BREECH DELIVERY

Medical Dictionary

See BREECH PRESENTATION.... Medical Dictionary

BREECH PRESENTATION

Medical Dictionary

By the 32nd week of pregnancy most babies are in a head-down position in the womb. Up to 4 per cent of them, however, have their buttocks (breech) presenting at the neck of the womb. If the baby is still a breech presentation at the 34th to 35th week the obstetrician may, by external manipulation, try to turn it to the head-down position. If this is not successful, the fetus is left in the breech position. Breech deliveries are more di?cult for mother and baby because the buttocks are less e?cient than the head at dilating the cervix and vagina. An EPISIOTOMY is usually necessary to assist delivery, and obstetric FORCEPS may also have to be applied to the baby’s head. If the infant and/or the mother become unduly distressed, the obstetrician may decide to deliver the baby by CAESAREAN SECTION; some obstetricians prefer to deliver most breech-presentation babies using this method. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

BREENA

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) From the fairy palace Brina, Bryna, Breen, Brenee, Breene, Breina, Briena, Breyna... Medical Dictionary

BREEZY

Medical Dictionary

(English) An animated and light- hearted woman

Breezey, Breezi, Breezie, Breezee, Breezea, Breezeah... Medical Dictionary

BREGUS

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) A frail woman... Medical Dictionary

BRENCIS

Medical Dictionary

(Slavic) Crowned with laurel... Medical Dictionary

BRENDA

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) Feminine form of Brendan; a princess; wielding a sword Brynda, Brinda, Breandan, Brendalynn, Brendolyn, Brend, Brienda... Medical Dictionary

BRENNA

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) A ravenlike woman Brinna, Brenn, Bren, Brennah, Brina, Brena, Brenah... Medical Dictionary

BRENNAN

Medical Dictionary

(English) Resembling a little raven Brennea, Brennen, Brennon, Brennyn... Medical Dictionary

BRETT

Medical Dictionary

(English) Woman of Britain or Brittany Bret, Bretta, Breta, Brette, Brit, Brita, Britta, Brite... Medical Dictionary

BREYNIA RETUSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Dennst.) Alston.

Synonym: B. patens Benth.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The tropical Himalayas and Deccan peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Bahuprajaa, Kaamboji (doubtful synonym).

Folk: Kaali Kamboi (Gujarat).

Action: Used as a galactagogue (as a supporting drug in herbal compound formulations). Spasmogenic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BRIDELIA RETUSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Spreng.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to an altitude of 1,000 m, except in very dry regions.

Ayurvedic: Mahaaviraa, Asana (Asana is equated with Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., the Indian Kino tree.)

Siddha/Tamil: Mulluvengai.

Folk: Gondani, Gondui, Khaajaa.

Action: Bark—astringent, used in the form of a liniment in rheumatism. Paste of the stem bark is applied to wounds.

The bark contains 16-40% tannin. Presence of a triterpene ketone in the bark is reported. The bark exhibited hypotensive properties in pharmacological trials. The extract of the bark significantly increased the mean survival time of mice infected intracere- brally with vaccinia virus. Ripe fruit pulp contains beta-sitosterol and gallic and ellagic acids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BUPLEURUM TEA: A CURE FOR THE LIVER

Beneficial Teas

Bupleurum tea is largely known for its healing propertiesand its action against the growth and spreading of cancer cells. Bupleurum Tea description Bupleurum is a plant from the Apiaceae family, originating from Asia. The roots of Bupleurum are used in various healing mixtures throughout China and East Asia. Scientists have shown that this plant possesses anti-inflammatory constituents and may inhibit the growth of liver cancer cells. Both Japan and China medicinal industries use it in order to treat cancer and hepatitis. Bupleurum tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Bupleurum Tea brewing Bupleurum tea can be prepared by combining dried and chopped bupleurum roots with hot water. After steeping the mixture for about 10 minutes, drink it slowly. Bupleurum herb can also be consumed as extracts and capsules. Buplerum Tea benefits Bupleurum tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat liver problems like hepatitis, cirrhosis and cancer
  • treat infections with fever
  • relieve chest congestion
  • treat indigestion
  • treat hemorrhoids
  • treat uterine and anal prolapse
  • treat diarrhea
  • help in overall efforts to treat HIV
Bupleurum Tea side effects Bupleurum tea is not recommended to pregnant and breastfeeding women. Bupleurum tea is a healthy beverage used efficiently to treat liver-related diseases. It has been also proven that this type of tea can fight free radicals, responsible for cancer cells growth, due to its content of antioxidants.... Beneficial Teas

BURDOCK TEA: A HEALTH REMEDY

Beneficial Teas

Nowadays, burdock tea is largely consumed all over the world. It is successfully used to improve appetite and digestion, but not only. Burdock Tea description Burdock is a plant from the same family as the sunflower, which can grow up to five feet high. In the summer, the seeds are cropped and the roots are dug up. In traditional Chinese medicine, but not only, it is combined with other herbs to treat upper-respiratory tract infections. Burdock root is known to be a blood purifier, clearing several problems from the body’s systems. Burdock can be taken as infusion, decoction, extract, tincture and ointment. Burdock tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Burdock Tea brewing To prepare Burdock tea:
  • Pour boiling water over the desired amount of herbs.
  • Cover and let them steep 10 to 20 minutes.
  • Strain off the herbs using a tea strainer or coffee filter.
It is essential to use good quality water and it is recommended to drink it slowly. Burdock Tea benefits Burdock tea has been successfully used to:
  • soothe the skin and gastrointestinal tract
  • improve appetite and digestion
  • reduce liver damage
  • mildly lower blood sugar (hypoglycemic effect)
  • purify the blood
  • fight the effects of rheumatism
  • treat some kidney disorders
  • counter bronchial cough and other irritations of the pulmonary tract
Burdock Tea side effects Burdock tea is not advised to be consumed by pregnant or nursing women. Burdock tea is a medicinal remedy for a large array of diseases. Studies have revealed its efficiency in dealing with liver and kidney ailments, as well as its soothing effects for the skin.... Beneficial Teas

CADILLO TRES PIES

Medicinal Plants

Gingerbush (Pavonia spinifex).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The leaf and root are traditionally prepared as a tea by decoction and administered orally for disorders of the kidney, gallbladder or liver, blood in the urine, hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections, uterine fibroids, tumors, cysts and menopausal hot flashes.

Safety: Insufficient information identified.

Contraindications: Unknown; insufficient information identified in the available literature.

Drug Interactions: Unknown; insufficient information identified in the available literature.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: The chloroform extract of the plant has shown antibacterial activity in vitro.

* See entry for Cadillo de gato in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

CAESAREAN SECTION

Medical Dictionary

The operation used to deliver a baby through its mother’s abdominal wall. It is performed when the risks to mother or child of vaginal delivery are thought to outweigh the problems associated with operative delivery. One of the most common reasons for Caesarean section is ‘disproportion’ between the size of the fetal head and the maternal pelvis. The need for a Caesarean should be assessed anew in each pregnancy; a woman who has had a Caesarean section in the past will not automatically need to have one for subsequent deliveries. Caesarean-section rates vary dramatically from hospital to hospital, and especially between countries, emphasising that the criteria for operative delivery are not universally agreed. The current rate in the UK is about 23 per cent, and in the USA, about 28 per cent. The rate has shown a steady rise in all countries over the last decade. Fear of litigation by patients is one reason for this rise, as is the uncertainty that can arise from abnormalities seen on fetal monitoring during labour. Recent research suggesting that vaginal delivery is becoming more hazardous as the age of motherhood rises may increase the pressure from women to have a Caesarean section – as well as pressure from obstetricians.

The operation is usually performed through a low, horizontal ‘bikini line’ incision. A general anaesthetic in a heavily pregnant woman carries increased risks, so the operation is often performed under regional – epidural or spinal – ANAESTHESIA. This also allows the mother to see her baby as soon as it is born, and the baby is not exposed to agents used for general anaesthesia. If a general anaesthetic is needed (usually in an emergency), exposure to these agents may make the baby drowsy for some time afterwards.

Another problem with delivery by Caesarean section is, of course, that the mother must recover from the operation whilst coping with the demands of a small baby. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

CALIBRE

Medical Dictionary

A talking-book service which is available to all blind and handicapped people who can supply a doctor’s certi?cate con?rming that they are unable to read printed books in the normal way. Its catalogue contains more than 370 books for adults and more than 250 for children, and additions are being made at the rate of around three a week. Full details can be obtained from Calibre.

www.calibre.org.uk... Medical Dictionary

CAPILLARY RETURN

Medical Dictionary

A test for the adequacy of blood circulation by pressing on the skin and seeing how long it takes for the colour to return. (See PERFUSION.)... Medical Dictionary

CAPITAL DEPRECIATION

Community Health

The decline in value of capital assets (assets of a permanent or fixed nature, such as goods and plant) with use over time. The rate and amount of depreciation is calculated by a variety of different methods (e.g. straight line, sum of the digits, declining balance), which often give quite different results.... Community Health

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE

Community Health

Expenditure for the acquisition, replacement, modernization or expansion of facilities or equipment which, under generally accepted accounting principles, is not properly chargeable as an expense of operation and maintenance.... Community Health

CARDIAC ARREST

Medical Dictionary

Absence of a palpable pulse, and thus of circula tion of blood around the body by the heart contraction. The cause may be asystole or ventricular fibrillation.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC ARREST

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cardiac arrest occurs when the pumping action of the heart stops. This may be because the heart stops beating (see ASYSTOLE) or because the heart muscle starts contracting too fast to pump e?ectively (ventricular systole, the period when the heart contracts). Coronary thrombosis is the most frequent cause of arrest. Irreversible brain damage and death result without prompt treatment. Heart massage, de?brillation and arti?cial respiration are customary treatment. Other causes of cardiac arrest are respiratory arrest, anaphylactic shock and electrocution. Up to one-third of patients treated in hospital whose heart rhythm is restored recover to an extent that enables them to return home. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID – Cardiac/respiratory arrest.)... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARDIAC DEPRESSANT

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Slowing the action of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A combination of mouth to mouth resuscitation (E.A.R.) to oxygenate the blood, and external chest compression (E.C.C.) to compress the heart to help pump this artificially oxygenated blood around the body to maintain tissue oxygen concentration and prevent death.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)

Medical Dictionary

The use of life-saving measures of mouth-tomouth resuscitation and external cardiac compression massage in a person who has collapsed with CARDIAC ARREST. Speedy restoration of the circulation of oxygenated blood to the brain is essential to prevent damage to brain tissues from oxygen starvation. The brain is irreversibly damaged if it is starved of oxygen for more than 4–5 minutes. Someone whose heart has stopped will be very pale or blue-grey (in particular, round the lips) and unresponsive; he or she will not be breathing and will have no pulse. It is important to determine that the collapsed person has not simply fainted before starting CPR. The procedure is described under car-diac/respiratory arrest in APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID. In hospital, or when paramedical sta? are attending an emergency, CPR may include the use of a DEFIBRILLATOR to apply a controlled electric shock to the heart via the chest wall.... Medical Dictionary

CARE

Community Health

The application of knowledge to the benefit of a community or individual. There are various levels of care:... Community Health

CARE CHAIN / CHAIN OF CARE

Community Health

1 A well planned entity of inter- and intra-organizational care processes to solve the complexity of problems of an individual, and accompanied by systematic follow-up actions. Care chains are integrated to the extent that there are no gaps, barriers or breaks in the process leaving the older person without proper care. 2 A description of the different parts of care.... Community Health

CARE HOME

Community Health

A residential facility that provides accommodation and offers a range of care and support services. Care homes may provide a limited number of services to support low dependency or may provide a wide range of services to cater for the continuum from low to high dependency care. See “assisted living facility”; “high dependency care facility”.... Community Health

CARE IN COMMUNITY

Medical Dictionary

See COMMUNITY CARE.... Medical Dictionary

CARE MANAGEMENT

Community Health

See “case management”.... Community Health

CARE NEED

Community Health

Some state of deficiency decreasing quality of life and affecting a demand for certain goods and services. For the older population, lowered functional and mental abilities are decisive factors that lead to the need for external help.... Community Health

CARE PACKAGE

Community Health

A combination of services designed to meet a person’s assessed needs.... Community Health

CARE PATHWAY

Community Health

An agreed and explicit route an individual takes through health and social care services. Agreements between the various providers involved will typically cover the type of care and treatment, which professional will be involved and their level of skills, and where treatment or care will take place. See also “care plan”; “care programme”.... Community Health

CARE PLAN

Community Health

A dynamic document based on an assessment which outlines the types and frequency of care services that a client receives. It may include strategies, interventions, continued evaluation and actions intended to help an older person to achieve or maintain goals.... Community Health

CARE PROGRAMME

Community Health

A documented arrangement of integrated care, based on the analysed needs of a specific group of people, from intake to supply of care and services, as well as the intended outcomes, and including a description of the way the arrangement should be applied in order to match the needs of individual persons.... Community Health

CARE STANDARDS ACT

Medical Dictionary

Legislation (approved by the UK parliament in 2001) that sets up a new, independent regulatory body for social care and private and voluntary health-care services. The new body is called the National Care Standards Commission and covers England and Wales, but in the latter the National Assembly is the regulatory body. Independent councils register social-care workers, set social-care work standards and regulate the education and training of social workers in England and Wales. The Act also gives the Secretary of State for Health the authority to keep a list of individuals considered unsuitable to work with vulnerable adults. In addition, the legislation reforms the regulation of childminders and day-care provision for young children, responsibility for overseeing these services having been transferred from local authorities to the Chief Inspector of Schools. Services covered by the Act range from residential care homes and nursing homes, children’s homes, domiciliary-care agencies, fostering agencies and voluntary adoption agencies through to private and voluntary health-care services. This includes private hospitals and clinics and private primary-care premises. For the ?rst time, local authorities will have to meet the same standards as independent-sector providers.... Medical Dictionary

CARE SUPPLY

Community Health

The types and volumes of services available.... Community Health

CARE-DEPENDENT

Community Health

Persons with chronic illnesses and/or impairments which lead to long-lasting disabilities in functioning and reliance on care (personal care, domestic life, mobility, self direction).... Community Health

CAREGIVER

Community Health

A person who provides support and assistance, formal or informal, with various activities to persons with disabilities or long-term conditions, or persons who are elderly. This person may provide emotional or financial support, as well as hands-on help with different tasks. Caregiving may also be done from long distance. See also “formal assistance”; “informal assistance”.... Community Health

CAREGIVER BURDEN

Community Health

The emotional, physical and financial demands and responsibilities of an individual’s illness that are placed on family members, friends or other individuals involved with the individual outside the health care system.... Community Health

CAREGIVER BURNOUT

Community Health

A severe reaction to the caregiving burden, requiring intervention to enable care to continue.... Community Health

CARER

Community Health

See “caregiver”; “formal assistance”; “informal assistance”.... Community Health

CARESSE

Medical Dictionary

(French) A woman with a tender touch

Caress, Caressa, Carressa... Medical Dictionary

CAREW

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) One who rides a chariot Carewe, Crewe, Crew... Medical Dictionary

CAREYA ARBOREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Barringtoniaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, from Jammu eastwards to West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Kumbi, Slow-Match tree.

Ayurvedic: Katabhi, Kumbhi- ka, Kumbhi, Kumbi, Kaitrya, Kumudikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kumbi, Ayma.

Action: Bark—demulcent (in coughs and colds), antipyretic and antipruritic (in eruptive fevers), anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. An infusion of flowers is given after child birth.

Seeds contain triterpenoid sapo- genols, sterols; leaves contain a tri- terpene ester, beta-amyrin, hexaco- sanol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol, quer- cetin and taraxeryl acetate.

Careya herbacea Roxb., a related species, is known as Kumbhaadu-lataa in Bengal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CAROB TREE

Medicinal Plants

Ceratonia siliqua

Description: This large tree has a spreading crown. Its leaves are compound and alternate. Its seedpods, also known as Saint John’s bread, are up to 45 centimeters long and are filled with round, hard seeds and a thick pulp.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and parts of North Africa.

Edible Parts: The young tender pods are edible raw or boiled. You can pulverize the seeds in mature pods and cook as porridge.... Medicinal Plants

CARRELLE

Medical Dictionary

(American) A lively woman Carrell, Carrel, Carrele, Carrella, Carrela... Medical Dictionary

CASE CONFERENCE

Community Health

A meeting of all professionals (often including carers) interested in an individual’s care.... Community Health

CATCHMENT AREA

Community Health

A geographic area defined and served by a health programme or institution, such as a hospital or community health centre, which is delineated on the basis of such factors as population distribution, natural geographic boundaries, and transportation accessibility. By definition, all residents of the area needing the services of the programme are usually eligible for them, although eligibility may also depend on additional criteria.... Community Health

CATHRESHA

Medical Dictionary

(American) One who is pure Cathreshah, Cathreshia, Cathreshiah, Cathreshea, Cathresheah, Cathrisha, Cathrishah, Cathrysha, Cathryshah... Medical Dictionary

CAVERNOUS BREATHING

Medical Dictionary

A peculiar quality of the respiratory sounds heard on AUSCULTATION over a cavity in the lung.... Medical Dictionary

CEDRELA TOONA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: Toona ciliata M. Roem.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, Assam and throughout hilly regions of Central and South India.

English: Red Cedar, Toon, Indian Mahogany tree.

Ayurvedic: Tuunikaa, Nandi Vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Tunumaram, Santhana Vembu.

Folk: Toonaa.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, antiperiodic. Flow- ers—emmenagogue. Leaf— spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic, an- tiprotozoal.

Bark and heartwood yielded tetra- nortriterpenoids, including toonacilin. Heartwood also gave a coumarin, ger- anylgernalol and its fatty esters. Toona- cilin and its 6-hydroxy derivatives are antifeedant.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CENTAUREA BEHEN

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Iran. Imported into India.

English: White Rhapontic.

Unani: Behman Safed, Behman- abyaz.

Action: Root—nervine and anabolic tonic, strengthens central nervous system; also used in jaundice and affections of the kidney.

The roots contain taraxasterol, its acetate and myristate.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CENTAURY TEA - DIABETES TREATMENT

Beneficial Teas

Centaury Tea has been known for centuries as a great medicinal remedy. It is said that Centaury plant is a very powerful diaphoretic, digestive, emetic, febrifuge, hepatic, homeopathic, poultice, stomachic, tonic and liver stimulator. Centaury is a plant from the gentian family which grows mainly in regions like Europe, Northern Africa and Eastern Australia. Also known as centaurium erythraea, this plant can easily be recognized by its triangular pale green leaves, pink flowers and yellowish anthers bloom. The fruit has the shape of a small oval capsule and it can only be harvested in the fall. Centaury Tea Properties Centaury has a bitter taste, which makes it a great ingredient for vermouth. Centaury Tea, however, is used by the alternative medicine for its great curative properties. The active constituents of Centaury Tea are: secoiridoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, xanthone derivatives and triterpenes, which can only be released in the presence of hot water or other heating sources. Xanthone derivatives are also used by the alcohol producers in order to obtain a variety of liquors (especially the bitter ones). Centaury Tea Benefits Aside from its use as a vermouth ingredient, Centaury Tea has other health benefits, being prescribed by practitioners around the world since ancient times. Centaury Tea may be helpful in case you’re suffering from one of the following conditions: - Blood poisoning, by eliminating the toxins and increasing the blood flow. - A number of digestive ailments, such as constipation and gastritis. - Anemia, by nourishing the nervous system and increasing the coronary system function. - Diabetes and liver failure, by reconstructing the liver cells and lowering your blood sugar. - Kidney failure, by treating nephritis and other ailments of the urinary system. - Centaury Tea may also be used to induce appetite when taken before meals. How to make Centaury Tea Infusion Preparing Centaury Tea infusion is very easy. Use a teaspoon of freshly-picked or dried Centaury herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 10 minutes for the health benefits to be released. Strain the decoction and drink it hot or cold. However, don’t drink more than 2 or 3 cups per day in order to avoid other health complications. Centaury Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Centaury Tea has no effects for adults. However, high dosages may lad to a number of ailments, such as nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. If you’ve been taking Centaury Tea for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Centaury Tea Contraindications Don’t take Centaury Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, children and patients suffering from severe diseases that require blood thinners and anti-coagulants ingestion should avoid taking Centaury Tea at all costs! The same advice if you’re preparing for a major surgery (Centaury Tea may interfere with the anesthetic). In order to gather more information, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor. Once he gives you the green light, add Centaury Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... Beneficial Teas

CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE

Medical Dictionary

The pressure of blood within the right atrium of the HEART as measured by a catheter and manometer.... Medical Dictionary

CEREA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A thriving woman Cereah, Ceria, Ceriah... Medical Dictionary

CEREAL

Medical Dictionary

Any grass-like plant bearing an edible seed. The important cereals are wheat, oats, barley, maize, rice and millet. Along with these are usually included tapioca (derived from the cassava plant), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm) and arrowroot (derived from the root of a West Indian plant), all of which consist almost entirely of starch. Semolina, farola and macaroni are preparations of wheat.

per cent Water 10–12 Protein 10–12 Carbohydrate 65–75 Fat 0·5–8 Mineral matter 2

Composition of cereals

Cereals consist predominantly of carbohydrate. They are therefore an excellent source of energy. On the other hand, their de?ciency in protein and fat means that to provide a balanced diet, they should be supplemented by other foods rich in protein and fat.

per cent

Carbo-Cellu-

Water Protein Fat hydrate lose Ash Wheat 12·011·0 1·771·2 2·2 1·9 Oatmeal 7·2 14·2 7·365·9 3·5 1·9 Barley 12·310·1 1·969·5 3·8 2·4 Rye 11·010·2 2·372·3 2·1 2·1 Maize 12·59·7 5·468·9 2·0 1·5 Rice 12·46·9 0·479·4 0·4 0·5 (polished) Millet 12·310·4 3·968·3 2·9 2·2 Buck wheat 13·010·2 2·261·3 11·12·2

Composition of certain cereals... Medical Dictionary

CEREBELLAR ATAXIA

Medical Dictionary

Uncoordinated movements, including an unsteady gait, caused by damage to or disease of the cerebellum (see BRAIN). Brain tumours, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS) and stroke can result in ataxia – as can excessive consumption of alcohol, and degeneration of the cerebellum as a result of an inherited disease. A?ected victims may have slurred speech, hand tremors and nystagmus (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

CEREBRAL PALSY

Medical Dictionary

The term used to describe a group of conditions characterised by varying degrees of paralysis and originating in infancy or early childhood. In some 80 per cent of cases this takes the form of spastic paralysis (muscle sti?ness), hence the now obsolete lay description of su?erers as ‘spastics’. The incidence is believed to be around 2 or 2·5 per 1,000 of the childhood community. In the majority of cases the abnormality dates from well before birth: among the factors are some genetic malformation of the brain, a congenital defect of the brain, or some adverse e?ect on the fetal brain as by infection during pregnancy. Among the factors during birth that may be responsible is prolonged lack of oxygen such as can occur during a di?cult labour; this may be the cause in up to 15 per cent of cases. In some 10–15 per cent of cases the condition is acquired after birth, when it may be due to KERNICTERUS, infection of the brain, cerebral thrombosis or embolism, or trauma. Acute illness in infancy, such as meningitis, may result in cerebral palsy.

The disease manifests itself in many ways. It may not be ?nally diagnosed and characterised until the infant is two years old, but may be apparent much earlier – even soon after birth. The child may be spastic or ?accid, or the slow, writhing involuntary movements known as athetosis may be the predominant feature. These involuntary movements often disappear during sleep and may be controlled, or even abolished, in some cases by training the child to relax. The paralysis varies tremendously. It may involve the limbs on one side of the body (hemiplegia), both lower limbs (paraplegia), or all four limbs (DIPLEGIA and QUADRIPLEGIA). Learning disability (with an IQ under 70) is present in around 75 per cent of all children but children with diplegia or athetoid symptoms may have normal or even high intelligence. Associated problems may include hearing or visual disability, behavioural problems and epilepsy.

The outlook for life is good, only the more severely a?ected cases dying in infancy. Although there is no cure, much can be done to help these disabled children, particularly if the condition is detected at an early stage. Assistance is available from NHS developmental and assessment clinics, supervised by community paediatricians and involving a team approach from experts in education, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech training. In this way many of these handicapped children reach adulthood able to lead near-normal lives. Much help in dealing with these children can be obtained from SCOPE (formerly the Spastics Society), and Advice Service Capability Scotland (ASCS).... Medical Dictionary

CEREBROPATHY

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Any disorder of the brain... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

Medical Dictionary

The ?uid within the ventricles of the brain and bathing its surface and that of the spinal cord. Normally a clear, colourless ?uid, its pressure when an individual is lying on one side is 50 to 150 mm water. A LUMBAR PUNCTURE should not be done if the intracranial pressure is raised (see HYDROCEPHALUS).

The cerebrospinal ?uid (CSF) provides useful information in various conditions and is invaluable in the diagnosis of acute and chronic in?ammatory diseases of the nervous system. Bacterial MENINGITIS results in a large increase in the number of polymorphonuclear LEUCOCYTES, while a marked lymphocytosis is seen in viral meningitis and ENCEPHALITIS, tuberculous meningitis and neurosyphilis. The total protein content is raised in many neurological diseases, being particularly high with neuro?bromatosis (see VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE) and Guillan-Barré syndrome, while the immunoglobulin G fraction is raised in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS), neurosyphilis, and connective-tissue disorders. The glucose content is raised in diabetes (see DIABETES MELLITUS), but may be very low in bacterial meningitis, when appropriately stained smears or cultures often de?ne the infecting organism. The CSF can also be used to measure immune proteins produced in response to infection, helping diagnosis in cases where the organism is not grown in the laboratory culture.... Medical Dictionary

CERES

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Of the spring; in mythology, the goddess of agriculture and fertility Ceress, Ceresse, Cerela, Cerelia, Cerealia... Medical Dictionary

CEREUS CACTUS

Medicinal Plants

Cereus species

Description: These cacti are tall and narrow with angled stems and numerous spines.

Habitat and Distribution: They may be found in true deserts and other dry, open, sunny areas throughout the Caribbean region, Central America, and the western United States.

Edible Parts: The fruits are edible, but some may have a laxative effect.

Other Uses: The pulp of the cactus is a good source of water. Break open the stem and scoop out the pulp.... Medicinal Plants

CEREUS GRANDIFLORUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Mill.

Family: Cactaceae.

Habitat: Indian gardens.

English: Cereus, Night Blooming Cereus, Sweet Scented Cactus.

Folk: Nivadung Paanchkoni (Maharashtra).

Action: Fresh, young shoots—cardiac stimulant, anti-inflammatory.

The plant contains glucose, fructose, starch, amino acids and citric, fumar- ic, maleic, malonic and oxalic acids. Tyramine, a cardiotonic amine, can strengthen heart muscle action.

The flower, stem and young shoots of cereus can stimulate heart and dilate peripheral vessels, as well as stimulate spinal cord motor neurons. The reputed digitalis effect of cereus is claimed to be non-cumulative. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CHANCRE

Medical Dictionary

The primary lesion of SYPHILIS.... Medical Dictionary

CHANTERELLE

Medical Dictionary

(French) A prized singer Chanterell, Chanterel, Chanterele, Chanterella, Chanterela... Medical Dictionary

CHARTRES

Medical Dictionary

(French) One who plans Chartrys... Medical Dictionary

CHERRY TEA - INGREDIENTS AND HEALTH BENEFITS

Beneficial Teas

Cherry Tea is a dark red beverage with an intense fruity flavour whose colour resembles ripe cherries and it can be enjoyed hot or cold. The delightful cherry scent is often blended with other aromas which results in savory and exotic mixtures. Cherry Tea Brewing Regarding cherry tea, the brewing time can vary, but the standard procedure entails a five-minute steeping process. Consequently, you will rejoice in the lovely cherry aroma of your amazingly enticing and enjoyable beverage. Health Benefits of Cherry Tea Cherry Tea is a beneficial fruity beverage with numerous health benefits. Cherry fruits are renowned for their delightfully refreshing flavour and delicious sweet taste, but they are also packed with nutrients, vitamins and minerals that essentially contribute to our wellbeing. These fruits are rich in antioxidants which protect our body from free radicals and thus lower the risk of cancer and various neurological diseases, but they also delay the aging process. Cherries also contain melatonin, an antioxidant with calming effects on the brain, which helps releave irritability, insomnia and headaches, thus improving the quality of sleep. The countless health benefits of cherry tea also include anti-inflammatory properties and could potentially prove effective against pain caused by diseases or injuries. Cherry fruits are low in calories, but they contain vitamin C which unfortunately entices you to consume approximately 180 calories more a day. This could possibly result in the accumulation of some extra weight if consumed for large periods of time. Therefore, adjust your dietary plan accordingly. Side effects of Cherry Tea Cherry Tea contains extracts from the cherries which can induce an allergic reaction to people sensitive to these fruits, but it is generally side-effect-free. You can enjoy a savory cup of cherry tea at any given time of the day in order to boost your overall energy level and metabolism. The full flavour of succulent fresh cherries along with a delectable and lingering aftertaste will enchant you. Cherry tea is without doubt a delightful juicy drink with an exotic character.... Beneficial Teas

CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING

Medical Dictionary

A type of breathing which gets very faint for a short time, then gradually deepens until full inspirations are taken for a few seconds, and then gradually dies away to another quiet period, again increasing in depth after a few seconds and so on in cycles. It is seen in some serious neurological disorders, such as brain tumours and stroke, and also in the case of persons with advanced disease of the heart or kidneys. When well marked it is a sign that death is impending, though milder degrees of it do not carry such a serious implication in elderly patients.... Medical Dictionary

CHILDREN ACT

Medical Dictionary

The Children Act 1989 (Children Act) introduced major reforms of child-care law. It encourages negotiation and cooperation between parents, children and professionals to resolve problems a?ecting children. The aim is to enable children to stay within their own families with appropriate back-up from local-authority and professional resources. The emphasis is on empowering families rather than paternalistic control. The Act set up a court made up of three tiers – the High Court, county court and magistrates’ court – each with concurrent jurisdiction. The Act has been broadened, clari?ed and interpreted by subsidiary legislation, rules, case law and o?cial guidance. An equivalent act is in force in Scotland.... Medical Dictionary

CHIRETTA

Herbal Manual

Swertia chirata. N.O. Gentianaceae.

Synonym: Brown Chirata, Chirayta, Griseb. Habitat: Northern India.

Features ? Stem purplish-brown, cylindrical below, becoming quadrangular higher up, pithy, nearly quarter-inch thick. Leaves opposite, three to seven longitudinal ribs, entire. Fruit (capsule) one-celled, two valved. Extremely bitter taste.

Part used ? Whole plant. Action: Bitter tonic.

In all cases where a tonic is indicated. With suitable hepatics and laxatives, sometimes forms part of prescriptions for liver complaints, dyspepsia and constipation.

Dose, two to four tablespoonfuls of 1/2 ounce to 1 pint infusion.... Herbal Manual

CHOLERETIC

Medical Dictionary

The term applied to a drug that stimulates the ?ow of BILE.... Medical Dictionary

CHORE SERVICE

Community Health

Help with chores, such as home repairs, gardening and heavy house cleaning.... Community Health

CHOREA

Medical Dictionary

A neuromuscular condition, with twitching and spastic muscle control.... Medical Dictionary

CHOREA

Herbal Medical

Chorea, or St Vitus’s dance, is the occurrence of short, purposeless involuntary movements of the face, head, hands and feet. Movements are sudden, but the a?ected person may hold the new posture for several seconds. Chorea is often accompanied by ATHETOSIS, when it is termed choreoathetosis. Choreic symptoms are often due to disease of the basal ganglion in the brain. The withdrawal of phenothiazines may cause the symptoms, as can the drugs used to treat PARKINSONISM. Types of chorea include HUNTINGTON’S CHOREA, an inherited disease, and SYDENHAM’S CHOREA, which is autoimmune. There is also a degenerative form – senile chorea.... Herbal Medical

CHOREA, SYDENHAM’S

Herbal Medical

A disease or syndrome of children, usually following or companion to rheumatic fever, and having involuntary movements, anxiety and impaired memory. It usually clears up in two or three months.... Herbal Medical

CHRONIC CARE

Community Health

The ongoing provision of medical, functional, psychological, social, environmental and spiritual care services that enable people with serious and persistent health and/or mental conditions to optimize their functional independence and well-being, from the time of condition onset until problem resolution or death. Chronic care conditions are multidimensional, interdependent, complex and ongoing.... Community Health

CINDERELLA

Medical Dictionary

(French) Beautiful girl of the ashes

Cendrillon, Cenerentola, Cinderelle, Cinderela, Cinderele, Cinderell... Medical Dictionary

CIRCUMBOREAL

Herbal Medical

Plants that are found worldwide, encircling the lands around the north pole.... Herbal Medical

CIRRUS PORE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The opening through which the cirrus is protruded.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: The tropical and subtropical parts of India.

English: Velvet-Leaf Pareira, Pareira Brava.

Ayurvedic: Paathaa, Ambashthaa, Varatiktaaa, Vriki, Aviddhakarni, Piluphalaa, Shreyashi.Bigger var., Raaja Paathaa, is equated with Stephania hernandifolia Walp.)

Unani: Paathaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Paadakkizhangu, Appatta.

Action: Root astringent, an- tispasmodic (used for cramps, painful menstruation), analgesic, antipyretic, diuretic, antilithic and emmenagogue. Prescribed for diarrhoea, dysentery, piles, urogenital affections (cystitis, nephritis, menorrhagia) Root paste is applied topically on scabies and eruptions on the body. Also used for preventing miscarriage.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia attributed blood purifying properties to the root and indicated it in lactal disorders.

Hayatine (dl-beberine) is the principal alkaloid of the root. Its derivatives, methiodide and methochloride are reported to be potent neuromus- cular-blocking agents.

Not to be confused with Abuta grandiflora, a South American medicinal plant.

Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. I.) the plant hastens fracture-healing by reducing the total convalescent period by 33% in experimental rats and dogs; it aids in recovery of the strength of the bones up to 90% in 6 weeks.

Dosage: Stem—10-20 ml juice. (API Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CITARE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A musically talented woman Citarr, Citar, Citara, Ciatarra, Cita... Medical Dictionary

CLAIRE

Medical Dictionary

(French) Form of Clara, meaning “famously bright” Clare, Clair... Medical Dictionary

CLAVICEPS PURPUREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Fr.) Tul.

Family: Hypocreaceae.

Habitat: A fungous parasite on a number of grasses particularly in rye, cultivated in the Nilgiris and at Chakrohi farm in Jammu.

English: Ergot of Rye. Fungus of Rye.

Ayurvedic: Annamaya, Sraavikaa.

Unani: Argot.

Siddha/Tamil: Ergot.

Action: Uterine stimulant. Oxy- tocic, abortifacient, parturient, vasoconstrictor, haemostatic. Used in obstetrics (difficult childbirth, for exciting uterine contractions in the final stages of parturition). Also used after abortion for removal of the placenta. It is no more employed in internal haemorrhages, as it has been found to raise blood pressure in pulmonary and cerebral haemorrhage. Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.

The fungus gave indole alkaloids. The ergometrine or ergonovine group includes ergometrine and ergometri- nine. The ergotamine group includes ergotamine and ergotaminine. The er- gotoxine group includes ergocristine, ergocristinine, ergocryptine, ergo- cryptinine, ergocornine and ergo- corninine. The fungus also contains histamine, tyramine and other amines, sterols and acetylcholine.

The alkaloids of ergot are being used independently (not as a herbal medicine). Ergotamine is used to relieve migrainous headaches as it is a vasoconstrictor and has antisero- tonin activity. Ergometrine is used after childbirth in the third stage of labour and for post-partum haemorrhage, as it is a powerful uterine stimulant, particularly of the puerperal uterus. (Both the constituents are used under medical supervision). Er- gocornine significantly inhibited the development of induced mammary tumours in rats. The derivatives of ergot alkaloids are known to have suppressing effect on human breast cancer in initial stages. This activity is linked to prolactin inhibitory action.

The extract is toxic at 1.0-3.9 g, ergot alkaloids at 1 g in adults, 12 mg in infants. (Francis Brinker).

Dosage: Whole plant—10-30 ml infusion. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CLEAVERS TEA - BEST TONIC FOR THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AVAILABLE IN NATURE

Beneficial Teas

Cleavers tea has been used for centuries, even in ancient Greece. It is considered probably the best tonic for the lymphatic system available. Discover all of its benefits and learn how to make the most of this type of tea. Description of Cleavers tea Cleavers is an annual green plant that grows mostly in Britain, North America and Eurasia regions. The green to white flowers look like small balls and they are very sticky, similar to the leaves. Scientifically named gallium aparine, cleavers is also called bedstraw, barweed, catchweed, grip grass. The entire cleavers plant is used in herbal medicine and is harvested just before it blooms in early summer. The active constituents of cleavers tea are chlorophyll, citric acide, rubichloric acid, galiosin and tannins. To benefit the most from these constituents, you can consume cleavers, usually found in the form of tea, extracts, capsule, or fresh for many cooking recipes. The roasted seeds are used as a coffee substitute and the young leaves can be eaten like spinach. Cleavers tea has a slightly bitter taste and no odor. Cleavers tea brew For a tasty Cleavers tea, take 2 to 3 teaspoons of the dried above-ground parts of the plant and infuse them in a 250 mg cup of hot water for 10 or 15 minutes. You may add sugar or honey to improve its taste and drink up to three times per day. Cleavers tea  Benefits Cleavers tea is a strong detoxifying for the lymphatic system. It is diuretic, thus treating most of urinary tract infections. It cleans the blood, the liver and kidneys. The tea can be used together with Uva Ursi or Echinacea for best results. Applied topically, Cleavers tea helps in the treatment of many skin conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, itchy scalp, sunburns or even wounds. Cleavers tea can be used as a facial tonner because it helps clear the complexion. Cleavers tea Side effects Cleavers tea has no known side effects. Though it is widely safe, children, pregnant or nursing women should drink it with precaution. Cleavers tea can surely be included in a healthy lifestyle. As long as you don’t exaggerate with it, you can enjoy the benefits of this tea and even use the plant to prepare many tasty recipes and salads.... Beneficial Teas

CLINICAL CARE

Community Health

Professional specialized or therapeutic care that requires ongoing assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation by health care professionals.... Community Health

CLINICAL PERFORMANCE MEASURE

Community Health

An instrument that estimates the extent to which a health care provider delivers clinical services that are appropriate for each patient’s condition; provides them safely, competently and in an appropriate time-frame; and achieves desired outcomes in terms of those aspects of patient health and patient satisfaction that can be affected by clinical services.... Community Health

CLOREEN

Medical Dictionary

(American) Filled with happiness Cloreene, Clorien, Cloriene, Clorein, Cloreine, Clorean, Cloreane, Cloryn, Cloryne, Cloreena, Cloriena, Cloreina, Cloreana, Cloryna... Medical Dictionary

COBALT TREATMENT

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Radiation that uses gamma rays generated by cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope of the element cobalt.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

COLD SORES

Medical Dictionary

See HERPES SIMPLEX.... Medical Dictionary

COLLES’ FRACTURE

Medical Dictionary

Colles’ fracture is a fracture of the lower end of the radius close to the wrist, caused usually by a fall forwards on the palm of the hand, in which the lower fragment is displaced backwards. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF.)... Medical Dictionary

COMFREY

Herbal Manual

Symphytum officinale. N.O. Boraginaceae.

Synonym: Knitbone, Nipbone.

Habitat: Damp fields and waste places ; ditch and river sides.

Features ? The hairy stem is two to three feet high, freely branched, rough and angular. Egg-shaped to lance-shaped leaves, with wavy edges, hug the stem above, the lower ones having long stalks ; they are all large and hairy. The plant produces yellowish, bluish, or purplish-white flowers in May and June, all on the same side of the stem. The root is brownish-black, deeply wrinkled, greyish and horny internally. The taste is mucilaginous and sweetish, and the dried herb has an odour resembling that of tea.

Part used ? Root and leaves.

Action: The roots, and to some extent the leaves, are demulcent and astringent.

The action of Comfrey is similar to that of Marsh Mallow, and consequently it is a popular cough remedy. It is also used as a fomentation in strained and inflammatory conditions of the muscles, and will promote suppuration of boils and other skin eruptions. A decoction is made by boiling 1/2 to 1 ounce of the crushed root in 1 quart of water,

reducing to 1 1/2 pints, and is taken in wineglass doses.

Coffin tells us the root of the plant is also "a good tonic medicine, and acts friendly on the stomach; very useful in cases where, from maltreatment, the mouth, the throat and stomach have become sore."... Herbal Manual

COMFREY

Safety During Travel, Money...

COMFREY TEA

Beneficial Teas

Tea made from comfrey has many health benefits and it is accepted worldwide as a herbal medicine. About Comfrey Tea Native to Europe, Comfrey is a perennial herb, having a root system with broad hairy leaves and multicolor flowers, ranging from pink, light purple, white and cream. The scientific name of comfrey is Symphytum officinale and it is also used in herbal organic gardening and as a fertilizer. The constituents of comfrey tea are: tannins, rosmarinic acid, allantoin, steroidal saponins, mucilage, inulin, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, gum, carotene, glycosides, sugars, beta-sitosterol, triterpenoids, vitamin b-12, protein, zinc. Many healing effects of comfrey are attributed to allantoin, a compound shown to speed cell production both inside and outside the body. However, the pyrrolizidine alkaloids are still a subject of many debates because of their toxicity. How to brew Comfrey Tea The leaves and roots, dried or fresh, are mainly used in the comfrey tea recipe. If you use dry leaves, add 2 teaspoons of the plant and let is infuse for 5 minutes in a cup of water, or you can simply pour boiling water over it and wait for 10 minutes before drinking. You can also add a sweetener, honey or lemon juice, for a pleasent taste. You can use the plant afterwards as a fertilizer in your garden. Benefits of Comfrey Tea Take a glance of the medicinal uses of comfrey tea. It helps in the treatment of health disorders like sprains, arthritis, gastric ulcers, bronchitis, broken bones, asthma, athlete’s foot etc. Comfrey tea is very helpful in healing burns, bed sores, insect bites and rashes or in other associated skin conditions due to the allantoin contained, that stimulates the growth of new skin cells. The tannins contained in the comfrey tea are responsible for bleeding control. Comfrey tea may sooth the digestive tract, preventing abdominal discomfort and heartburn. Comfrey tea or comfrey juice provides a good remedy for hemorrhoids, diarrhea, stomach and intestinal disorders. Comfrey Tea may also be used as an organic fertilizer. Side effects of Comfrey Tea The side effects of comfrey tea are mostly associated with pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are considered to be hepatoxic. They may also contribute to hepatic veno-occlusive disease, a condition characterized by a narrowing of blood vessels in your liver - this condition can impair liver function. Comfrey tea is also not suggested to patients under dietary potassium restrictions. Comfrey tea should not be taken by infants or during pregnancy. Although there are side effects associated with the consumption of comfrey tea, you can use it with precaution and also, not for a long period of time.... Beneficial Teas

COMMINUTED FRACTURE

Medical Dictionary

See BONE, DISORDERS OF.... Medical Dictionary

COMMISSURE

Medical Dictionary

Commissure means a joining, and is a term applied to strands of nerve ?bres which join one side of the brain to the other; to the band joining one optic nerve to the other; to the junctions of the lips at the corners of the mouth, etc.... Medical Dictionary

COMMUNAL CARE

Community Health

Assistance provided free of charge or at reduced rates to members of a group or society. Other members of the group or society generally provide care on a voluntary basis.... Community Health

COMMUNITY CARE

Community Health

Services and support to help people with care needs to live as independently as possible in their communities.... Community Health

COMMUNITY CARE

Medical Dictionary

Community care is intended to enable people to lead independent lives at home or in local residential units for as long as they are able to do so. For many years there has been a trend in Britain for care of elderly people and those with mental or physical problems to be shifted from hospitals and into community settings. In 1988 Sir Roy Gri?ths’s report to the Secretaries of State for Social Services, Community Care: Agenda for Action, advised on the best use of public funds to provide e?ective community care. The White Paper Caring for People, published in 1989, outlined the government’s ideas for developing these proposals further. The plans were then enshrined in law with the National Health Service and Community Care Act of 1990.

Since April 1993, local social-services departments have been responsible for assessing what help people need from community-care services: these can include home helps, meals on wheels, sheltered housing, etc. Recipients of such services are means-tested and make variable contributions towards the costs. Policies on charging vary from one area to another and there are wide geographical variations in the range of services provided free and the charges levied for others.

People with complex needs may be assigned a case manager to coordinate the care package and ensure that appropriate responses are made to changing circumstances. The success of community care hinges on e?ective coordination of the services of an often large number of providers from the health and social-services sectors. Poor communication between sectors and inadequate coordination of services have been among the most common complaints about the community-care reforms.

Health care for people being cared for in the community remains largely free under the NHS arrangements, although there are regular debates about where the boundaries should be drawn between free health services and means-tested social care. A distinction has been made between necessary nursing care (funded by the state) and normal personal care (the responsibility of the patient), but the dividing line often proves hard to de?ne.

As care has shifted increasingly into the community, previous hospital facilities have become redundant. Vast numbers of beds in long-stay geriatric hospitals and in-patient psychiatric wards have been closed. There is now concern that too few beds remain to provide essential emergency and respite services. In some areas, patients ?t for discharge are kept in hospital because of delay in setting up community services for the elderly, or because of the inability of the local authority to fund appropriate care in a nursing home or at home with community-care support for other patients; the resulting BED-BLOCKING has an adverse e?ect on acutely ill patients needing hospital admission.

Community care, if correctly funded and coordinated, is an excellent way of caring for people with long-term needs, but considerable work is still needed in Britain to ensure that all patients have access to high-quality community care when they need it. Problems in providing such are are not con?ned to the UK.... Medical Dictionary

COMMUNITY HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Includes health services and integrates social care. It promotes self care, independence and family support networks.... Community Health

COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRE

Community Health

An ambulatory health care programme, usually serving a catchment area which has scarce or non-existent health services or a population with special health needs. These centres attempt to coordinate federal, state and local resources in a single organization capable of delivering both health and related social services to a defined population.... Community Health

COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTRE

Community Health

An entity which provides comprehensive mental health services (principally ambulatory), primarily to individuals residing or employed in a defined catchment area.... Community Health

COMMUNITY-BASED CARE / COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICES / PROGRAMMES

Community Health

The blend of health and social services provided to an individual or family in his/her place of residence for the purpose of promoting, maintaining or restoring health or minimizing the effects of illness and disability. These services are usually designed to help older people remain independent and in their own homes. They can include senior centres, transportation, delivered meals or congregate meals sites, visiting nurses or home health aides, adult day care and homemaker services.... Community Health

COMPREHENSIVE GERIATRIC ASSESSMENT (CGA)

Community Health

A process which includes a multidimensional assessment of a person with increasing dependency, including medical, physical, cognitive, social and spiritual components. Can also include the use of standardized assessment instruments and an interdisciplinary team to support the process.... Community Health

COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Provision of a complete range of health services, from diagnosis to rehabilitation.... Community Health

COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH SYSTEM

Community Health

A health system that includes all the elements required to meet all the health needs of the population.... Community Health

COMPRESS

Medical Dictionary

Compress is the name given to a pad of linen or ?annel wrung out of water and bound to the body. It is generally wrung out of cold water, and may be covered with a piece of waterproof material. It is used to subdue pain or in?ammation. A hot compress is generally called a FOMENTATION.... Medical Dictionary

COMPRESSED AIR ILLNESS

Medical Dictionary

Also known as caisson disease, this a?ects workers operating in compressed-air environments, such as underwater divers and workers in caissons (such as an ammunition wagon, a chest of explosive materials, or a strong case for keeping out the water while the foundations of a bridge are being built; derived from the French caisse, meaning case or chest). Its chief symptoms are pains in the joints and limbs (bends); pain in the stomach; headache and dizziness; and paralysis. Sudden death may occur. The condition is caused by the accumulation of bubbles of nitrogen in di?erent parts of the body, usually because of too-rapid decompression when the worker returns to normal atmospheric presure – a change that must be made gradually.... Medical Dictionary

COMPRESSION SYNDROME

Medical Dictionary

See MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF.... Medical Dictionary

COMPRESSION/IMMOBILISATION BANDAGE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A firmly-applied, broad, elastic bandage applied to a limb to prevent the spread of venom injected after certain bites or stings. The pressure is enough to compress veins and lymphatic vessels, but not to cut off arterial supply and so it can remain on indefinitely. The bandage is first applied directlyover the envenomated area, and then extended over the entire limb which is then immobilised in a splint.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

COMPUTER-GENERATED PRESCRIPTIONS

Medical Dictionary

The Royal College of General Practitioners has issued guidelines on the use of computer-generated prescriptions for drugs other than controlled drugs. The guidelines include rules on giving the patient’s name, address and date of birth with the responsible prescribing doctor’s name at the bottom, along with his or her surgery address and telephone number. The prescription has to be signed by the doctor. Several other requirements are included to minimise the risk of prescription-tampering, fraud or the inclusion of identi?able con?dential information. Full details of the guidelines appear in the British National Formulary, published every six months.... Medical Dictionary

CONCHOBARRE

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) Feminine form of Connor; a wolf-lover; one who is strong- willed

Conchobarra, Conchobara, Conchobare... Medical Dictionary

CONCURRENT NONRANDOMIZED CONTROL

Community Health

A control group that is observed by investigators at the same time as the treatment group but that was not established using random assignment of participants to control and treatment groups. Differences in the composition of the treatment and control groups may result.... Community Health

CONCURRENT REVIEW

Community Health

A review that occurs during the course of patient treatment. Concurrent review enables the medical practitioner or other health care provider to evaluate whether the course of treatment is consistent with expectations for the usual management of a clinical case. The review may also facilitate early identification of negative consequences of treatment (e.g. complications, failure to respond to therapy) that will affect the length of the care episode and outcomes.... Community Health

CONDITIONED REFLEX

Medical Dictionary

The development of a speci?c response by an individual to a speci?c stimulus. The best-known conditioned re?ex is the one described by Ivan Pavlov, in which dogs that became accustomed to being fed when a bell was sounded salivated on hearing the bell, even if no food was given. The conditioned re?ex is an important part of behavioural theory.... Medical Dictionary

CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA

Medical Dictionary

See ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME and GENETIC DISORDERS.... Medical Dictionary

CONGREGATE HOUSING

Community Health

Individual apartments in which residents may receive some services, such as a daily meal with other tenants. Buildings usually have some communal areas, such as a dining room and lounge, as well as additional safety measures such as an emergency call system.... Community Health

CONGREGATE MEALS PROGRAMME

Community Health

Delivery of meals and socialization activities to older adults in a designated location.... Community Health

CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT

Medical Dictionary

Medical treatment which involves the minimum of active interference by the practitioner. For example, a disc lesion in the back might be treated by bed rest in contrast to surgical intervention to remove the damaged disc.... Medical Dictionary

CONTINUING CARE

Community Health

The provision of one or more elements of care (nursing, medical, health-related services, protection or supervision, or assistance with personal daily living activities) to an older person for the rest of his or her life.... Community Health

CONTINUING CARE FACILITY

Community Health

A facility which provides continuing care.... Community Health

CONTINUING CARE RETIREMENT COMMUNITY

Community Health

A community which provides several levels of housing and services for older people, ranging from independent living units to nursing homes, on one site but generally in separate buildings.... Community Health

CONTINUITY OF CARE

Community Health

The provision of barrier-free access to the necessary range of health care services over any given period of time, with the level of care varying according to individual needs.... Community Health

CONTINUITY OF CARE

Medical Dictionary

A term describing a system of medical care in which individuals requiring advice on their health consult a named primary care physician (GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP)) or partnership of practitioners. The availability of an individual’s medical records, and the doctor’s knowledge of his or her medical, family and social history, should facilitate prompt, appropriate decisions about investigations, treatment or referral to specialists. What the doctor(s) know(s) about the patient can, for example, save time, alert hospitals to allergies, avoid the duplication of investigations and provide hospitals with practical domestic information when a patient is ready for discharge. The traditional 24-hours-aday, 365-days-a-year care by a personal physician is now a rarity: continuity of care has evolved and is now commonly based on a multi-disciplinary health team working from common premises. Changing social structures, population mobility and the complexity and cost of health care have driven this evolution. Some experts have argued that the changes are so great as to make continuity of care an unrealistic concept in the 21st century. Nevertheless, support inside and outside conventional medical practice for HOLISTIC medicine – a related concept for treating the whole person, body and mind – and the fact that many people still appreciate the facility to see their own doctors suggest that continuity of care is still a valid objective of value to the community.... Medical Dictionary

CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAYS PRESSURE

Medical Dictionary

A method for treating babies who su?er from alveolar collapse in the lung as a result of HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE (see also RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME).... Medical Dictionary

CONTINUUM OF CARE

Community Health

The entire spectrum of specialized health, rehabilitative and residential services available to the frail and chronically ill. The services focus on the social, residential, rehabilitative and supportive needs of individuals, as well as needs that are essentially medical in nature.... Community Health

CONTRACTURE

Medical Dictionary

The permanent shortening of a muscle or of ?brous tissue. Contraction is the name given to the temporary shortening of a muscle.... Medical Dictionary

CONTRE-COUP

Medical Dictionary

An injury in which a bone, generally the skull, is fractured – not at the spot where the violence is applied, but at the exactly opposite point.... Medical Dictionary

COORDINATED CARE

Community Health

A collaborative process that promotes quality care, continuity of care and cost-effective outcomes which enhance the physical, psychosocial and vocational health of individuals. It includes assessing, planning, implementing, coordinating, monitoring and evaluating health-related service options. It may also include advocating for the older person.... Community Health

CORE ACTIVITIES

Community Health

Activities which are essential for daily living, such as self care, mobility and communication.... Community Health

COREY

Medical Dictionary

(Irish) From the hollow; of the churning waters

Cory, Cori, Coriann, Corianne, Corie, Corri, Corrianna, Corrie, Corry, Corre, Coree, Corella, Coretta, Corilla, Corisa, Corissa, Corita, Corlene, Corrella, Correlle, Corrissa, Coryssa, Corentine, Corette, Corrianne, Corea, Coreah, Correa, Correah... Medical Dictionary

CORN SILK TEA REMEDY

Beneficial Teas

Have you ever thought that if you remove the corn silk from corn combs, you can use it as a remedy? While many people may not be familiar with this type of tea, in fact corn silk tea was used for a long time even by Native Americans as a remedy for heart problems, malaria or urinary tract infections. More about Corn silk tea Corn silk is in fact the thin, hair-like strands that cover the corn cob. These silky yellowish strands which form the stigma collect pollen to fertilize the corn, and they’re also used to make a healing tea. In corn silk there can be found many important components like flavonoids, allantoin, mucilage, saponins, vitamins C and K and potassium. Corn silk may also be combined with other herbs to increase its healing powers and range of medicinal uses. It’s also available in prepackaged teabags, or in a dried supplement form. Powdered corn silk is a common ingredient in face powders, due to its soothing qualities. Corn silk tea has a slightly sweet taste. If you decide to collect it in order to make a tea, make sure that the plants were not sprayed with pesticides. Brew corn silk tea In order to make a tasty healthy corn silk tea it is usually recommended to use fresh corn silk. If you don’t have it at your hand, the dried one works just fine. To prepare the infusion, use 2 teaspoons of fresh corn silk or 2.5 g of dried one and pour 1 cup of boiled water over it. Let it seep for 10 - 15 minutes and it is ready to serve. Corn silk tea benefits Corn silk tea has many health benefits for adults and for children. The most important benefit of this tea is for disorders in the urinary system : infections, cystitis, as well as bladder infections or gonorrhea. If you want your children to stop wetting their beds give them corn silk tea. Corn silk tea is also diuretic, demulcent, has anti-inflammatory properties and it fights kidney stones. Corn silk tea may help detoxify and flush out accumulated toxins in the body. Corn silk tea contains vitamin K, which has been shown to improve the body’s blood clotting process. Corn silk tea has also been shown to lower blood pressure, relieve arthritis pains, and help in the treatment of jaundice and prostate disorders. When applied topically, corn silk tea can help heal wounds and skin ulcers. Corn silk tea side effects In most cases, corn silk tea is suitable for daily consumption without special warnings. However, in rare cases, in you are allergic to corn, you may develop a skin rash. Corn silk tea can also decrease the level of potassium in your blood. So you should avoid it if you already have low potassium levels, problems with blood pressure, or diabetes. It is not recommended for children, during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Corn silk tea is safe to be included in your diet, but in order to enjoy its benefits, do not exceed 3 cups a day.... Beneficial Teas

CORNEAL REFLEX

Medical Dictionary

Instinctive closing of the eyelids when the surface of the cornea (see EYE) is lightly touched with a ?ne hair.... Medical Dictionary

CORONARY CARE UNIT (CCU)

Medical Dictionary

A specialised hospital unit equipped and sta?ed to provide intensive care (see INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU)) for patients who have had severe heart attacks or undergone surgery on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CORRELATION

Community Health

Most generally, the degree to which one phenomenon or random variable is associated with, or can be predicted from, another. In statistics, correlation usually refers to the degree to which a linear predictive relationship exists between random variables, as measured by a correlation coefficient (q.v.). Correlation may be positive (but never larger than 1), i.e. both variables increase or decrease together; negative or inverse (but never smaller than -1), i.e. one variable increases when the other decreases; or zero, i.e. a change in one variable does not affect the other.... Community Health

COST CENTRE

Community Health

An accounting device whereby all related costs attributable to some “financial centre” within an organization, such as a department, centre or programme, are segregated for accounting or reimbursement purposes.... Community Health

COTRENA

Medical Dictionary

(American) One who is pure; chaste

Cotrina, Cotriena, Cotreina, Cotryna, Cotreena, Cotreana, Contrenah, Cotrinah, Cotrienah, Cotreinah, Cotrynah, Cotreenah, Cotreanah... Medical Dictionary

COUGH, REFLEX

Herbal Medical

A cough induced by intestinal, gastric or uterine irritation, and not from respiratory causes.... Herbal Medical

COUNCIL FOR HEALTHCARE REGULATORY EXCELLENCE

Medical Dictionary

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary

CRATAEGUS CRENULATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Sutluj to Bhutan at altitudes of 8002,500 m.

Folk: Ghingaaru.

Action: See Cratageus oxyacantha.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CREAM

Medical Dictionary

The oily or fatty part of milk from which butter is prepared. Various medicinal preparations are known also as cream – for example, cold cream, which is a simple ointment containing rosewater, beeswax, borax, and almond oil scented with oil of rose.... Medical Dictionary

CREATINE

Medical Dictionary

A nitrogenous substance, methyl-guanidineacetic acid. The adult human body contains about 120 grams – 98 per cent of which is in the muscles. Much of the creatine in muscles is combined with phosphoric acid as phosphocreatine, which plays an important part in the chemistry of muscular contraction.... Medical Dictionary

CREATINE KINASE

Medical Dictionary

An ENZYME which is proving to be of value in the investigation and diagnosis of muscular dystrophy (see MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – Myopathy), in which it is found in the blood in greatly increased amounts.... Medical Dictionary

CREATININE

Medical Dictionary

It is the waste product of creatine, an enzyme found in large amounts throughout the tissues, and mainly excreted in the urine. The parent compound creatine enables the body to use the “blue flame” of anaerobic combustion (as opposed to the yellow flame of oxidation). Elevated creatinine in the blood may be an early symptom of kidney disease.... Medical Dictionary

CREATININE

Herbal Medical

Creatinine is the anhydride of CREATINE and is derived from it. It is a metabolic waste product.... Herbal Medical

CREATININE CLEARANCE

Medical Dictionary

A method of assessing the function of the kidney (see KIDNEYS) by comparing the amount of creatinine – a product of body metabolism which is normally excreted by the kidneys – in the blood with the amount appearing in the urine.... Medical Dictionary

CREATIVE PROCESS

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This is Our Creative Process

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MARKET RESEARCH
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BRAINSTORMING
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DESIGN & CODING
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TESTING & REVISING
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FINAL ADJUSTMENTS
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PROJECT COMPLETION
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CRECIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Form of Lucretia, meaning “a bringer of light; a successful woman” Crete, Crecea, Creciah, Creceah... Medical Dictionary

CREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English) A woman of faith Credah, Cryda, Creida, Creyda, Crieda, Creada, Creeda, Crydah, Creidah, Creydah, Criedah, Creadah, Creedah... Medical Dictionary

CREDENTIALING

Community Health

The recognition of professional or technical competence. The credentialing process may include registration, certification, licensure, professional association membership or the award of a degree in the field.... Community Health

CREE

Medical Dictionary

(Native American) A tribal name Crei, Crey, Crea, Creigh... Medical Dictionary

CREEPING ERUPTION

Medical Dictionary

Creeping eruption is a skin condition caused by the invasion of the skin by the larvae of various species of nematode worms. It owes its name to the fact that as the larva moves through and along the skin it leaves behind it a long creeping thin red line. (See STRONGYLOIDIASIS.)... Medical Dictionary

CREIDDYLAD

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) Daughter of the sea; in mythology, the daughter of Llyr... Medical Dictionary

CREIRWY

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) One who is lucky... Medical Dictionary

CREMATION

Medical Dictionary

See DEAD, DISPOSAL OF THE.... Medical Dictionary

CRENATION

Medical Dictionary

Abnormal microscopic appearance of blood cells in which their usually smooth margins appear irregular. It usually occurs after a blood specimen has been stored for a long time, but may occasionally indicate a blood disorder.... Medical Dictionary

CRENELATED

Herbal Medical

(or CRENATE) Leaves having rounded, scalloped teeth along the edges.... Herbal Medical

CREOLA

Medical Dictionary

(American) Daughter of American birth but European heritage Creole, Creolla, Criole, Criola, Criolla, Cryola, Cryolla... Medical Dictionary

CREOSOTE

Medical Dictionary

A clear, yellow liquid, of aromatic smell and burning taste, prepared by distillation from pine-wood or beech-wood. It mixes readily with alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerin, and oils.

Creosote is a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant; it is also an ingredient of some disinfectant ?uids.... Medical Dictionary

CREPITATIONS

Medical Dictionary

Certain sounds which occur along with the breath sounds, as heard by AUSCULTATION, in various diseases of the LUNGS. They are signs of the presence of moist exudations in the lungs or in the bronchial tubes, are classi?ed as ?ne, medium, and coarse crepitations, and resemble the sound made by bursting bubbles of various sizes.... Medical Dictionary

CREPITUS

Medical Dictionary

Crepitus means a grating sound. It is found in cases of fractured bones when the ends rub together; also, in cases of severe chronic arthritis, by the rubbing together of the dried internal surfaces of the joints.... Medical Dictionary

CRESCENT

Medical Dictionary

(French) One who creates; increasing; growing

Creissant, Crescence, Crescenta, Crescentia, Cressant, Cressent, Cressentia, Cressentya... Medical Dictionary

CRESOL

Medical Dictionary

An oily liquid obtained from coal tar. It is a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant.

Uses Cresol is used combined with soap to form a clear saponaceous ?uid known as lysol, which can be mixed with water in any proportions. For the disinfection of drains it is used at a dilution of one in 20; for heavily infected linen, one in 40; and for ?oors and walls, one in

100.... Medical Dictionary

CRESSA CRÉTICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Costal regions of India.

Ayurvedic: Rudanti, Rudantikaa, Rudravanti.

Siddha/Tamil: Uppu Sanaga. Folk: Khardi.

Action: Expectorant, stomachic, antibilious, alterative.

Air-dried, powdered whole plant gave «-octacosanol, scopoletin, um- belliferone, isopimpinellin, beta-sitos- terol and its -D(+)-glucoside and quer- cetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CRESSIDA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) The golden girl; in mythology, a woman of Troy Cressa, Criseyde, Cressyda, Crissyda... Medical Dictionary

CRESTON

Medical Dictionary

(American) One who is worthy Crestan, Cresten, Crestun, Crestin, Crest, Creste, Cresti, Crestie, Cresty, Crestey, Crestee, Crestea... Medical Dictionary

CRESUSA

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who is fickle Cresusah, Cresussa, Cresussah... Medical Dictionary

CRETINISM

Medical Dictionary

An out-of-date name for congenital HYPOTHYROIDISM, a disease caused by defective thyroid function in fetal life or early in infancy.... Medical Dictionary

CREUSA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, the wife of Aeneas... Medical Dictionary

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD)

Medical Dictionary

A rapidly progressive, fatal, degenerative disease in humans caused by an abnormal PRION protein. There are three aetiological forms of CJD: sporadic, IATROGENIC, and inherited. Sporadic CJD occurs randomly in all countries and has an annual incidence of one per million. Iatrogenic CJD is caused by accidental exposure to human prions through medical and surgical procedures (and cannibalism in the case of the human prion disease known as kuru that occurs in a tribe in New Guinea, where it is called the trembling disease). Inherited or familial CJD accounts for 15 per cent of human prion disease and is caused by a MUTATION in the prion protein gene. In recent years a new variant of CJD has been identi?ed that is caused by BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE), called variant CJD. The incubation period for the acquired varieties ranges from four years to 40 years, with an average of 10–15 years. The symptoms of CJD are dementia, seizures, focal signs in the central nervous system, MYOCLONUS, and visual disturbances.

Abnormal prion proteins accumulate in the brain and the spinal cord, damaging neurones (see NEURON(E)) and producing small cavities. Diagnosis can be made by tonsil (see TONSILS) biopsy, although work is under way to develop a diagnostic blood test. Abnormal prion proteins are unusually resistant to inactivation by chemicals, heat, X-RAYS or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS (UVR). They are resistant to cellular degradation and can convert normal prion proteins into abnormal forms. Human prion diseases, along with scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle, belong to a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion proteins can transfer from one animal species to another, and variant CJD has occurred as a result of consumption of meat from cattle infected with BSE.

From 1995 to 1999, a scienti?c study of tonsils and appendixes removed at operation suggested that the prevalence of prion carriage may be as high as 120 per million. It is not known what percentage of these might go on to develop disease.

One precaution is that, since 2003, all surgical instruments used in brain biopsies have had to be quarantined and disposable instruments are now used in tonsillectomy.

Measures have also been introduced to reduce the risk of transmission of CJD from transfusion of blood products.

In the past, CJD has also been acquired from intramuscular injections of human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone and corneal transplantation.

The most common form of CJD remains the sporadic variety, although the eventual incidence of variant CJD may not be known for many years.... Medical Dictionary

CRYOPRECIPITATE

Medical Dictionary

When frozen plasma is allowed to thaw slowly at 4 °C, a proportion of the plasma protein remains undissolved in the cold thawed plasma and stays in this state until the plasma is warmed. It is this cold, insoluble precipitate that is known as cryoprecipitate. It can be recovered quite easily by centrifuging. Its value is that it is a rich source of factor VIII, which is used in the treatment of HAEMOPHILIA.... Medical Dictionary

CRYOPRESERVATION

Medical Dictionary

Maintenance at very low temperatures of the viability of tissues or organs that have been excised from the body.... Medical Dictionary

CUIPO TREE

Medicinal Plants

Cavanillesia platanifolia

Description: This is a very dominant and easily detected tree because it extends above the other trees. Its height ranges from 45 to 60 meters. It has leaves only at the top and is bare 11 months out of the year. It has rings on its bark that extend to the top to make is easily recognizable. Its bark is reddish or gray in color. Its roots are light reddish-brown or yellowish-brown.

Habitat and Distribution: The cuipo tree is located primarily in Central American tropical rain forests in mountainous areas.

Edible Parts: To get water from this tree, cut a piece of the root and clean the dirt and bark off one end, keeping the root horizontal. Put the clean end to your mouth or canteen and raise the other. The water from this tree tastes like potato water.

Other Uses: Use young saplings and the branches’ inner bark to make rope.... Medicinal Plants

CULTURE

Community Health

The learned, shared and transmitted values, beliefs, norms and lifetime practices of a particular group that guides thinking, decisions and actions in patterned ways.... Community Health

CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Cupressaceae.

Habitat: Native to Asia Minor, Syria and North Persia. The tree is a variety only known in the cultivated state in North-West India. (Chopra RN.)

English: Mediterranean Cypress.

Ayurvedic: Suraahva.

Unani: Saro.

Siddha/Tamil: Suram, Churam.

Action: Tincture—vasoconstrictor, antiseptic, sedative, antispasmodic, diuretic. Used for cough, cold, bronchitis, varicose veins, piles, menopausal cramps, leg-cramps. Essential oil—used only externally. Used in aromatherapy for massage (10 drops in 2 teaspoonful of almond oil).

The essential oil from the plant gave 73 compounds; major compound was alpha-pinene (47.00-52.76%); among others—D-camphane, D-silvestren, p- cymene, L-cadinenes, cedrol, terpine- ol, acetyl-and isovalerianyl monoter- pene ester.

No longer taken internally as a diluted essential oil. Medicinal parts are cones, branches and oil.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CURATIVE CARE

Community Health

Medical treatment and care that cures a disease or relieves pain and promotes recovery.... Community Health

CURETTE

Medical Dictionary

A spoon-shaped instrument with a cutting edge, used for scooping out the contents of any body cavity – for example, the uterus – or for removing certain skin lesions, such as verrucae.... Medical Dictionary

CUSCUTA REFLEXA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: A parasitic climber common throughout India up to 3,000 m.

English: Doddar.

Ayurvedic: Amarvalli.

Unani: Kasoos.

Action: See C. epithymum.

The seeds contain amarbelin and kaempferol; stem gave cuscutin, cuscu- tatin, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, bergenin and kaempferol. The parasitic plant accumulates alkaloids from the host plant. The climber growing on Mangi- era indica has been found to contain mangiferin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CUSTODIAL CARE

Community Health

Board, room and other personal assistance services generally provided on a long-term basis. It excludes regular medical care.... Community Health

CYPRESS

Longevity, Healing, Comfort, Protection...

CYRENE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, a maiden- huntress loved by Apollo Cyrina, Cyrena, Cyrine, Cyreane, Cyreana, Cyreene, Cyreena... Medical Dictionary

DATABASE (OR REGISTER)

Community Health

Any of a wide variety of repositories (often computerized) for observations and related information about a group of individuals, a disease, an intervention or other events or characteristics, typically organized for easy search and retrieval.... Community Health

DAY CARE CENTRE

Community Health

A facility, operated by a local authority, voluntary organization, geriatric centre or acute hospital, providing activities for older people. These activities, usually during the day for a determined period, are intended to promote independence and enhance living skills, and can include the provision of personal care and preparation of meals.... Community Health

DAY SURGICAL CENTRE / CLINIC

Community Health

A free-standing ambulatory surgery centre, independent of a hospital.... Community Health

DAY THERAPY CENTRE

Community Health

See “day care centre”.... Community Health

DAYDREAMS

Medical Dictionary

Daydreams occur when an individual during waking hours imagines enjoyable or exciting events or images. Most people daydream at some stage during their lives, but it tends to occur when someone is stressed or unhappy. Children and teenagers in particular may sometimes daydream a lot. This should not usually worry their parents or teachers unless their work su?ers or it a?ects the individual’s personal relationships.

In those circumstances professional advice should be sought from a doctor or counsellor.... Medical Dictionary

DEBONNAIRE

Medical Dictionary

(French) One who is suave; nonchalant

Debonair, Debonaire, Debonnayre, Debonayre, Debonaere, Debonnaere... Medical Dictionary

DECHTERE

Medical Dictionary

(Celtic) In mythology, a virgin mother

Dechtire, Dechtyre... Medical Dictionary

DECOMPRESSION ILLNESS (DCI)

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

An illness suffered by divers when diving too deep, or too long and characterised bynitrogen bubbles forming in the tissues of the body. This may cause a multitude of symptoms although joint pains are those most-commonly encountered. Confusion may be caused in divers that have suffered an Irukandji sting as the symptoms have some similarities. See also, cerebral gas embolism.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

DEIDRE

Medical Dictionary

(Gaelic) A brokenhearted or raging woman

Deadra, Dede, Dedra, Deedra, Deedre, Deidra, Deirdre, Deidrie, Deirdra, Derdre, Didi, Diedra, Diedre, Diedrey, Dierdre, Deardriu, Dierdra... Medical Dictionary

DEIONDRE

Medical Dictionary

(American) From the lush valley Deiondra, Deiondria, Deiondrea, Deiondriya... Medical Dictionary

DELAWARE

Medical Dictionary

(English) From the state of Delaware

Delawair, Delaweir, Delwayr, Delawayre, Delawaire, Delawaer, Delawaere... Medical Dictionary

DELIRIUM TREMENS

Herbal Medical

(DTs) A distinct neurologic disorder suffered by late-in­the-game alcoholics, characterized by sensory confusion (is it red or sour, hot or loud, smelly or wet, am I thinking or screaming); part of the problem is the result of diminished myelination of nerves and decreased brain antioxidant insulation (cholesterol), with nerve impulses “shorting out” across temporary synapses. It sounds ugly.... Herbal Medical

DELIVERED MEALS

Community Health

See “meals on wheels”.... Community Health

DELONIX REGIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Rafin.

Synonym: Poinciana regai Bojer ex Hook.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae. Habitat: Native to Madagascar; grown in gardens and avenues for ornamental purposes and for shade.

English: Flamboyant Flame tree, Gold Mohur.

Ayurvedic: Gulmohar (var.) White Gold Mohur is equated with Delonix elata Gamble, synonym Poinciana elata Linn.

Siddha: Vadanarayana, Pe- rungondrai, Mayarum. White Gulmohar. (Tamil)

Action: Bark—antiperiodic, febrifuge. Plant—antirheumatic, spasmogenic. Flowers (aqueous and alcoholic extract)—active against roundworm.

White Gulmohar trunk-bark yielded asparagine and aspartic acid. Flowers gave iso-quercetin.

Delonix regia bark gave leucocyani- din; bark and leaves contain tannin, lu- peol and beta-sitosterol, and free OH- proline as major amino acid. Flower anthers are a rich source of zeaxanthin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DENTURE

Medical Dictionary

A plate or frame bearing false teeth. It may be complete (replacing all the teeth in one jaw) or partial.... Medical Dictionary

DEPRESSION

Medical Dictionary

Depression is a word that is regularly misused. Most people experience days or weeks when they feel low and fed up (feelings that may recur), but generally they get over it without needing to seek medical help. This is not clinical depression, best de?ned as a collection of psychological symptoms including sadness; unhappy thoughts characterised by worry, poor self-image, self-blame, guilt and low self-con?dence; downbeat views on the future; and a feeling of hopelessness. Su?erers may consider suicide, and in severe depression may soon develop HALLUCINATIONS and DELUSIONS.

Doctors make the diagnosis of depression when they believe a patient to be ill with the latter condition, which may a?ect physical health and in some instances be life-threatening. This form of depression is common, with up to 15 per cent of the population su?ering from it at any one time, while about 20 per cent of adults have ‘medical’ depression at some time during their lives – such that it is one of the most commonly presenting disorders in general practice. Women seem more liable to develop depression than men, with one in six of the former and one in nine of the latter seeking medical help.

Manic depression is a serious form of the disorder that recurs throughout life and is manifested by bouts of abnormal elation – the manic stage. Both the manic and depressive phases are commonly accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and a loss of sense of reality. This combination is sometimes termed a manic-depressive psychosis or bipolar a?ective disorder because of the illness’s division into two parts. Another psychiatric description is the catch-all term ‘a?ective disorder’.

Symptoms These vary with the illness’s severity. Anxiety and variable moods are the main symptoms in mild depression. The su?erer may cry without any reason or be unresponsive to relatives and friends. In its more severe form, depression presents with a loss of appetite, sleeping problems, lack of interest in and enjoyment of social activities, tiredness for no obvious reason, an indi?erence to sexual activity and a lack of concentration. The individual’s physical and mental activities slow down and he or she may contemplate suicide. Symptoms may vary during the 24 hours, being less troublesome during the latter part of the day and worse at night. Some people get depressed during the winter months, probably a consequence of the long hours of darkness: this disorder – SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER SYNDROME, or SADS – is thought to be more common in populations living in areas with long winters and limited daylight. Untreated, a person with depressive symptoms may steadily worsen, even withdrawing to bed for much of the time, and allowing his or her personal appearance, hygiene and environment to deteriorate. Children and adolescents may also su?er from depression and the disorder is not always recognised.

Causes A real depressive illness rarely has a single obvious cause, although sometimes the death of a close relative, loss of employment or a broken personal relationship may trigger a bout. Depression probably has a genetic background; for instance, manic depression seems to run in some families. Viral infections sometimes cause depression, and hormonal disorders – for example, HYPOTHYROIDISM or postnatal hormonal disturbances (postnatal depression) – will cause it. Di?cult family or social relations can contribute to the development of the disorder. Depression is believed to occur because of chemical changes in the transmission of signals in the nervous system, with a reduction in the neurochemicals that facilitate the passage of messages throughout the system.

Treatment This depends on the type and severity of the depression. These are three main forms. PSYCHOTHERAPY either on a one-to-one basis or as part of a group: this is valuable for those whose depression is the result of lifestyle or personality problems. Various types of psychotherapy are available. DRUG TREATMENT is the most common method and is particularly helpful for those with physical symptoms. ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS are divided into three main groups: TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS (amitriptyline, imipramine and dothiepin are examples); MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIS) (phenelzine, isocarboxazid and tranylcypromine are examples); and SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS) (?uoxetine – well known as Prozac®, ?uvoxamine and paroxetine are examples). For manic depression, lithium carbonate is the main preventive drug and it is also used for persistent depression that fails to respond to other treatments. Long-term lithium treatment reduces the likelihood of relapse in about 80 per cent of manic depressives, but the margin between control and toxic side-e?ects is narrow, so the drug must be carefully supervised. Indeed, all drug treatment for depression needs regular monitoring as the substances have powerful chemical properties with consequential side-e?ects in some people. Furthermore, the nature of the illness means that some su?erers forget or do not want to take the medication. ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) If drug treatments fail, severely depressed patients may be considered for ECT. This treatment has been used for many years but is now only rarely recommended. Given under general anaesthetic, in appropriate circumstances, ECT is safe and e?ective and may even be life-saving, though temporary impairment of memory may occur. Because the treatment was often misused in the past, it still carries a reputation that worries patients and relatives; hence careful assessment and counselling are essential before use is recommended.

Some patients with depression – particularly those with manic depression or who are a danger to themselves or to the public, or who are suicidal – may need admission to hospital, or in severe cases to a secure unit, in order to initiate treatment. But as far as possible patients are treated in the community (see MENTAL ILLNESS).... Medical Dictionary

DEPRESSOR

Medical Dictionary

(1) A muscle that lowers or ?attens a part of the body.

(2) The name given to a nerve by whose stimulation motion, secretion, or some other function is restrained or prevented: for example, the depressor nerve of the heart slows the beating of this organ.... Medical Dictionary

DEPRIVATION SCORE

Medical Dictionary

A measure of an individual’s or group’s lack of normal social amenities such as proper housing, diet and warmth. It was devised in the 1980s to help assess the medical services needed by a socially deprived population.... Medical Dictionary

DESIREE

Medical Dictionary

(French) One who is desired Desaree, Desirae, Desarae, Desire, Desyre, Dezirae, Deziree, Desirat, Desideria, Desirata, Des, Desi, Dezi, Dezie, Dezy, Dezey, Dezee, Dezea, Desirai, Dezirai... Medical Dictionary

DETACHED RETINA

Medical Dictionary

Separation of the retina from the choroid in the EYE. It may be due to trauma or be secondary to tumour or in?ammation of the choroid, and causes blindness in the a?ected part of the retina. It can be treated surgically using PHOTOCOAGULATION.... Medical Dictionary

DEVERELL

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) Woman from the riverbank

Deverelle, Deverele, Deverel, Deverella, Deverela... Medical Dictionary

DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUP

Community Health

A system used for payment under prospective payment systems. It classifies treatments by diagnosis, measuring the relative complexity of a hospital procedure and accounting for the resources used in the procedure. The system accounts for principal diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, surgical procedures, age, sex and presence of complications.... Community Health

DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUP (DRG)

Community Health

1 Represents classes of hospital patients with similar clinical characteristics. DRGs form a clinical grouping system which describes hospital discharges according to medical condition. 2 A system used for payment under prospective payment systems. It classifies treatments by diagnosis, measuring the relative complexity of a hospital procedure and accounting for the resources used in the procedure. The system accounts for principal diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, surgical procedures, age, sex and presence of complications.... Community Health

DIAPHORESIS

Medical Dictionary

Sweating... Medical Dictionary

DIAPHORESIS

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Another name for sweating (see PERSPIRATION).... Medicinal Plants Glossary

DIAPHORETIC

Herbal Medical

A drug which induces perspiration... Herbal Medical

DIAPHORETIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

A substance that increases perspiration, either by (1) dilating the peripheral blood vessels (Capsicum), (2) directly stimulating by drug action the nerves that affect the sweat glands (Asclepias tuberosa), or by (3) introducing a volatile oil into the bloodstream that performs both tasks (Asarum canadensis).... Medicinal Plants Glossary

DIASTOLIC PRESSURE

Medical Dictionary

The pressure exerted by the blood against the arterial wall during DIASTOLE. This is the lowest blood pressure in the cardiac cycle. A normal reading of diastolic pressure in a healthy adult at rest is 70 mm Hg. (See HEART.)... Medical Dictionary

DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

W. & A.

Synonym: Cailliea cinerea Macb.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Northwestern and Central India, Maharashtra, from North Karnataka southwards.

Ayurvedic: Virataru, Vellantaru, Viravrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Vidathalai.

Folk: Varatuli, Khairi.

Action: Root—astringent and diuretic; used in renal affections, urinary calculi, also in rheumatism. Tender shoots—applied externally for ophthalmia.

The plant foliage contain tannin— 2.40, 5.60 and 4.40 mg/100 g during February, June and November respectively. Roots afforded n-octacosanol, beta-amyrin, friedelan-3-one, friede- lan-3-beta-olandbeta-sitosterol. Flowers contain cyanidin and quercetin.

Dosage: Root, bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

Medical Dictionary

A list of the possible diagnoses that might explain a patient’s symptoms and signs, and from which the correct DIAGNOSIS will be extracted after further investigations.... Medical Dictionary

DIFFERENTIATION

Medical Dictionary

The process of natural change in a cell from simple to complex and performing a particular function.... Medical Dictionary

DIFFERENTIATION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The gradual diversi?cation of the STEM CELLS of the early EMBRYO into the specialised cells, tissues and organs that go to make up the fully developed organism.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

DIGITALIS PURPUREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Europe. Cultivated in Tangmarg and Kishtawar in Kashmir, Darjeeling and the Nilgiris.

English: Digitalis, Foxglove.

Ayurvedic: Hritpatri, Tilapushpi (non-classical). (Purple var.)

Action: Main source of digoxin for the pharmaceutical industry. Digitalis glycosides increase the force of contraction of heart without increasing the oxygen consumption and slow the heart rate when auricular fibrillation is present. To be used only under strict medical supervision.

Not used as a herbal drug.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DILATATION AND CURETTAGE

Medical Dictionary

Commonly referred to as D and C, a gynaecological operation to scrape away the lining of the UTERUS (ENDOMETRIUM). The procedure may be used to diagnose and treat heavy bleeding from the womb (ENDOMETRIOSIS) as well as other uterine disorders. It can be used to terminate a pregnancy or to clean out the uterus after a partial miscarriage. D and C is increasingly being replaced with a LASER technique using a hysteroscope – a type of ENDOSCOPE.... Medical Dictionary

DIOPTRE

Medical Dictionary

A term used in the measurement of the refractive or focusing power of lenses; one dioptre is the power of a lens with a focal distance of one metre and is the unit of refractive power. As a stronger lens has a greater refractive power, this means that the focal distance will be shorter. The strength in dioptres therefore is the reciprocal of the focal length expressed in metres.... Medical Dictionary

DIOSCOREA ALATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: D. atropurpurea Roxb. D. globosa Roxb. D. purpurea Roxb.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Native to East Asia; cultivated in Assam, Vadodara, Tamil Nadu, Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

English: Wild Yam, Greater Yam, Asiatic Yam.

Ayurvedic: Kaashthaaluka. Aaluka (var.). Aalukas (yams) of Ayurvedic texts, belong to Dioscorea spp.

Siddha/Tamil: Perumvalli kizhangu.

Folk: Kathaalu.

Action: Even the best among the cultivated yams causes irritation in the throat or a feeling of discomfort when eaten raw. Wild yams—cholagogue, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, diuretic. Also used for painful periods, cramps and muscle tension.

Key application: Dioscorea villosa L., Wild Yam—as spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The edible tubers of Dioscorea alata are purple-coloured and contain an- thocyanins, cyanidin and peonidin- 3-gentiobioside acylated with sinapic acid. The tubers contain surcose, while leaves contain large quantities of D- fructose, D-glucose and the polyols, 2-deoxyribitol, 6-deoxysorbitol and glycerol.

Mouldy yams are reported to contain a compound ipomeanol which is being tested against human lung cancer. (J. Am Med Assoc, 1994,15, 23.)

Diosgenin obtained from Dioscorea species was used in the first commercial production of oral contraceptives, topical hormones, systemic corticos- teroids, androgens, estrogens, pro- gestogens and other sex hormones.

The chemical transformation of di- osgenin to estrogen, progesterone or any other steroidal compound does not occur in human body. Topically applied Wild Yam does not appear to cause changes in serum FSH, estradi- ol or progesterone. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Diosgenin, combined with the drug clofibrate, caused a greater decrease in LDL than either substance alone in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA ANGUINA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: D. puber Blume.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Wet regions of the Himalayas from Central Nepal, eastwards to northern Bengal, Assam and Chittagong.

Ayurvedic: Kaasaalu, Kasaalu.

Folk: Koshakanda (Bengal).

Action: See D. alata.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: D. sativa Thumb auct. non L.D. versicolor Buch.-Ham ex Wall.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Throughout tropical India, at 1,500-2,100 m.

English: Patoto Yam, Bulb-bearing Yam, Air Potato, Dog Yam.

Ayurvedic: Vaaraahi, Vaaraahikan- da, Grshti, Banaaalu, Suraalu, Raktaalu. Substitute for Vriddhi.

Unani: Baraahikand.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodi-kilangu, Pannu-kilangu.

Action: Dried and pounded tubers are used as an application for swellings, boils and ulcers; roasted tubers are used in dysentery, piles, venereal sores. Leaf—febrifuge.

The raw tubers are bitter due to the presence of furanoid norditerpenes (they lose their bitterness on roasting and are then eaten). The wild tubers contain nearly 83% starch and possess hunger-suppressing property. They contain certain poisonous alkaloids.

The rhizomes afforded D-sorbitol, furanoid norditerpenes—diosbulbins A-D, 2,4,6,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-dihy- drophenanthrene and 2,4,5,6,-tetra- hydroxyphenanthrene, diosgenin, lucein, neoxanthine, violaxanthin, zeax- anthin, auroxanthin and cyrptoxan- thin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA DAEMONA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Ayurvedic: Hastyaaluka.

Siddha/Tamil: Peiperendai.

Folk: Karukandu, Kolo (Bihar).

Action: Tubers—used for ulcer, to kill worms in wounds. Plant parts— used in whitlow, sores, boils.

The tubers contain 81.45-81.8 carbohydrates, 7.20-9.12% albuminoids. The toxic principle is dioscorine which is distributed throughout the plant.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wall ex Griseb.

Synonym: D. nepalensis Sweet ex Bernardi.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: The Himalaya from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh and in Assam at 450-3,100 m.

Ayurvedic: Vaaraahikanda (var.), Grishti.

Folk: Gun, Kris (Punjab).

Action: Tuber—antipthiriac. Leaf— febrifuge. The rhizomes are a rich source of diogenin and its glycoside. Steroidal saponins have also been isolated. Diogenin is used in the preparation of various steroidal drugs.

Synonym: D. hispada Dennst. D. hirsuta Dennst.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Sikkim, the Himalayas, Khasi Hills.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA ESCULENTA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Burkill.

Synonym: D. aculeata Linn. D. faciculata Roxb. D. spinosa Roxb ex Wall.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Bengal, Assam and the Andamans.

English: Lesser Yam, Karen Potato.

Ayurvedic: Madhvaaluka.

Siddha/Tamil: Musilam, Valli kilangu, Siruvalli Kilangu.

Folk: Suthani.

Action: Tubers are starchy and free from dioscorine, contain 71.29% carbohydrates, 10.82% albuminoids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA GLABRA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Ayurvedic: Shankhaaluka.

Action: Tubers contain 77.7978.23% carbohydrates, 9.73-10.13% albuninoids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA HAMILTONII

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: The Western Ghats, Sikkim, Assam, Orissa and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Vaaraahi (var.).

Folk: Naagar-kanda (Bihar).

Action: Tubers contain 85.50% carbohydrates, 8.30% albuminoids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA OPPOSITIFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: South India; throughout the hills of Deccan.

Ayurvedic: Amlikaakanda (controversial synonym).

Siddha: Kavala-kodi, Venilai Valli.

Folk: Aambaalio Kanda (Gujarat).

Action: Used externally for reducing swellings.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA PENTAPHYLLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: D. triphylla var. doemona Prain & Burkill.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Asia; distributed throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Vaaraahikanda (var., dry pieces are sold as Vidaarikanda).

Folk: Kaantaalu.

Action: Tubers contain 71.0780.77% carbohydrates, 8.68-15.93% albuminoids. Tubers are used to disperse swellings.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIOSCOREA PRAZERI

Indian Medicinal Plants

Prain & Burkill.

Synonym: D. Clarkei Prain & Burkill D. deltoidea Wall. var. sikkimensis Prain

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: The Himalaya from Nepal to Bhutan, up to 1,500 m, also in Naga Hills.

Ayurvedic: Neelaalu.

Action: Tuber—antiphthiriac.

The rhizomes are used as a hair wash for killing lice. They contain diogenin (on dry basis) 2.5%. Also obtained are steroidal sapogenins, sito- sterol glucoside, prazerigenin-A gluco- side, prazerigenin-A bioside and 9,10- dihydrophenanthrenes.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIRECT COST

Community Health

See “cost”.... Community Health

DIRECT INSULT

Medical Dictionary

Viral, bacterial and fungal PNEUMONIA

Lung trauma or contusion

Inhalation of toxic gases or smoke

ASPIRATION of gastric contents

Near-drowning... Medical Dictionary

DIRECT PATIENT CARE

Community Health

Any activities by a health professional involving direct interaction, treatment, administration of medications or other therapy or involvement with a patient.... Community Health

DISCOVER MORE ABOUT EARL GREY TEA

Beneficial Teas

If you’re a fan of black tea, you must have heard of the Earl Grey tea. If not, this is your chance to find out all you need to know about this richly-flavored black tea. Read about its health benefits and side effects, as well. About Earl Grey tea Earl Grey tea is one of the most popular types of black tea, drunk by people all around the world. It has a refreshing, citrusy flavor thanks to the bergamot orange oil added in its composition. The bergamot orange is the fruit of a citrus tree which blooms during winter; it is commercially cultivated in Italy. The bergamot oil, which is responsible for the tea’s citrusy flavor, is extracted from the skin of the fruit. In America, it is sometimes misspelled as “Earl Gray”. However, this is not the generally accepted spelling of the tea’s name. The Earl Grey tea is often drank during breakfast or brunch. It makes a good team with different sweets and pastries.  It is also used to add flavor to various types of cakes. History of Earl Grey tea The Earl Grey tea is named after Charles Grey, 2nd Earl of Britain, who was Prime Minister during the 1830s. As to why it was named after him, one legend says that a Chinese merchant gave this tea to Lord Grey to show his gratefulness, as one of the lord’s men had saved his son from drowning. However, there are doubts related to the authenticity of this story, as Lord Grey had never been to China, and the Chinese hadn’t yet discovered about the use of bergamot oil as a tea ingredient. It is possible that, seeing as Earl Grey tea was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, it was simply named after a politician who was quite well-known at that time. According to the Grey family, Lady Grey served Earl Grey tea to various guests. As it became more and more popular, she was asked if the Earl Grey tea could be sold. This is how it became a brand of the Twinings tea company. Varieties of Earl Grey tea Considering how popular the Earl Grey tea is, it isn’t surprising that there are currently quite a few varieties of this tea. One of the well-known varieties of Earl Grey tea is Lady Grey, named after Mary Elizabeth Grey, the wife of Lord Grey. Other flavors are added to the usual Earl Grey tea. Some varieties of Lady Grey include adding blue cornflower blossoms, lavender or Seville oranges. Another type of the Earl Grey tea is the Russian Earl Grey. To the usual ingredients, it adds citrus peels, vodka, and lemon grass. Other types of Earl Grey tea include flowers among its ingredients. One of them is the French Earl Grey, which uses rose petals. There are some types of Earl Grey tea where the usual black tea leaves are replaced with something else. One example is Earl Grey Green, where the bergamot oil is combined with green leaves instead of the black ones. Another example is Rooibos Earl Grey, possibly originating from Malaysia. In this case, the black leaves are replaced with Rooibos, a South-African herbal plant. Also, in various coffee shops and tea shops, you can find a drink called London Fog. It is a “tea latte” and its ingredients are Earl Grey tea, steamed milk and vanilla syrup. How to prepare Earl Grey Tea For a cup of Earl Grey tea, use one teaspoon of tea leaves, or one regular-sized teabag. Boil the water before pouring it into the cup, and then let it steep for about 5 minutes. Then, remove the tea leaves or teabag. Based on your preferences, you can add sugar, lemon or milk to your cup of Earl Grey tea. Benefits of Earl Grey Tea The Earl Grey tea comes with many health benefits, both thanks to the black tea leaves and the bergamot oil. First, the antioxidants in its composition strengthen your immune system. They help keep your body young and healthy, protecting it from various viruses. This is why people who have caught a cold or the flu, or simply have a fever, drink Earl Grey tea. The Earl Grey tea has a calming effect thanks to the bergamot oil in its composition. It helps improve your mood by fighting against anxiety, depression, stress, and mood swings. The bergamot oil in the Earl Grey tea also helps you with digestion. It’s useful when suffering from indigestion, nausea and colic. It is also recommended in the case of urinary tract infections and intestinal problems. Earl Grey tea also helps you maintain a good oral hygiene. It fights against tooth decay and oral infections, and keeps the cavities away. Side effects of Earl Grey tea Despite its many health benefits, consumption of Earl Grey tea can have a few side effects, as well. The caffeine found in the composition of Earl Grey tea can affect you negatively, especially if caffeine isn’t good for your body.  To some people it may induce anxiety and heart palpitations. It can also increase blood pressure, making it bad for people who already have a high blood pressure. Also, if you drink a large amount of Earl Grey tea for a long time and suddenly, you stop, you might experience caffeine withdrawal symptoms. They include headaches that can last for up to a week, difficulty in concentrating, nausea, depression and anxiety. Drinking a large amount of Earl Grey tea can lead to side effects, as well. You might end up suffering from headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Therefore, make sure you don’t drink more than six cups of any tea, including Earl Grey tea.   Stay healthy by drinking this rich and citrusy-flavored black tea, the Earl Grey tea. Keep an eye on the side effects, but don’t let them scare you, as there are many more health benefits. So relax and enjoy your cup of Earl Grey tea with some cookies!... Beneficial Teas

DISCOVER MORE ABOUT HORSETAIL TEA

Beneficial Teas

Horsetail tea is made from the horsetail herb also named Equisetum arvense. Horsetail was used by ancient Romans and Greeks in medicine as an herbal remedy to stop bleeding, heal wounds and treat tuberculosis or kidney problems. This plant is actually a non-flowering weed that is found in some parts of Europe, Asia, the Middle East and North America. How to brew Horsetail Tea To brew a cup of horsetail tea, place 1-2 teaspoons of dried horsetail in a cup of boiled water. Then cover it and let it steep for about 10-15 minutes. When the time is up, strain thehorsetail tea into another cup and, depending on your taste preferences, sweeten it with some honey or sugar. Horsetail Tea benefits Horsetail tea has a lot of health benefits due to its high silica content that may help straighten bones, hair and nails, relieve bloating and fight fungal infections.  Also, horsetail tea:
  • It is most commonly used as a diuretic since washes away the toxins, having a cleansing effect to the kidneys.
  • Strengthens your lungs thanks to its main component - silica acid helps strengthen the walls of the air sacs in the lungs.
  • Promotes healthy hair. You can add 4 oz. of cooled horsetail tea into your shampoo or you can use the tea as a hair rinse.
  • Reduces swellings and gets rid of water retention.
  • Treats urinary infections.
  • Helps healing and treating burns and wounds thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties.
Horsetail Tea side effects Even though this tea has a lot of benefits, over consumption may lead to certain side effects. Try not to drink more than 2 cups of horsetail tea a day.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women are advised not to drink horsetail tea.
  • If you have kidney stones, try to stay away from this tea.
  • You can experience nausea, muscle weakness, fever or certain skin problems if you drink too much horsetail tea.
  • Before you start drinking horsetail tea, make sure you don’t have theamine deficiency or weak heart. In case you do, do not drink this tea.
Horsetail tea makes an excellent choice of drink since it has a lot of medical properties and therefore many benefits. Avoid over consumption and enjoy a healthy cup of tea!... Beneficial Teas

DISCOVER OREGON GRAPE ROOT TEA

Beneficial Teas

If you want to try a special type of herbal tea, there’s Oregon grape root tea! It has a slightly bitter taste, but that shouldn’t discourage you. It also has plenty of health benefits which are bound to keep you healthy. Read to find out more about Oregon grape root tea! About Oregon Grape Root Tea Oregon grape root tea is made from the root of the Oregon grape. The plant is an evergreen shrub which grows along the North American west coast. The plant can grow up to 5m tall. The leaves are similar to those of holly, and the stems and twigs are thick and corky. The flowers are yellow-colored and bloom in late spring. The fruits are small, purplish-black, with a dusty appearance, and they contain large seeds. The Oregon grape is in no way related to normal grapes. The name of the tree comes from the similarity of its berries to the grapes’ berries. Constituents of Oregon Grape Root Tea It is not surprising that the root is used to make Oregon grape root tea. The root is actually the part of the tea which contains the most active constituents. A cup of Oregon grape root tea contains many alkaloids (berberine) and phytochemicals, as well as tannins. How to prepare Oregon Grape Root Tea It isn’t difficult to make a cup of Oregon grape root tea. Place one teaspoon of dried root in a cup filled with boiling water. Let it steep for about 10-15 minutes. Once the steeping time ends, remove the dried herbs from the cup. If Oregon grape root tea is too bitter for your taste, you can add honey or sugar to sweeten it. Oregon Grape Root Tea Benefits Thanks to its important constituents, Oregon grape root tea brings you many health benefits. First of all, Oregon grape root tea is used in the treatment for dyspepsia (indigestion) and diarrhea, and it helps you fight intestinal parasites. It also increases the speed to the flow of bile, which makes it useful in the treatment for gallbladder pain, gallstones, hepatitis, and jaundice. The alkaloids found in Oregon grape root tea help treat typhoid, tuberculosis in its early stage, and various digestive disorders. It can even help with small problems, such as stomach cramps and abdominal pains. It also works as a potential anti-carcinogenic, speeding up the recovery from chemotherapy and radiation therapies. Oregon grape root teacan work as a lymphatic and liver stimulating blood cleanser. It is good for your liver as it helps release stacked away iron from the liver into the blood stream. It might also help you fight tumors in the bladder and colon. Oregon grape root tea can help you even when it’s applied topically. It is useful when treating psoriasis, eczema, athlete’s foot, acne, and other fungal infections. It also helps in easing inflammation, irritation, and itching of the skin. Oregon Grape Root Tea Side Effects First, it’s not recommended that you drink Oregon grape root tea if you are pregnant. If you do, it might cause uterine contractions. It is also best that you not consume Oregon grape root tea if you’ve gotchronic gastrointestinal irritation or inflammation. It will only worsen the symptoms. Be careful with how much Oregon grape root tea you drink. Don’t have more than six cups of tea a day, and don’t drink for more than 7 consecutive days. If you drink too much Oregon grape root tea, you’ll get the following symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Even if it has a slightly bitter taste, Oregon grape root tea shouldn’t be forgotten. Its many health benefits can help you, if needed.... Beneficial Teas

DISCOVER THE SPECTACLE OF DRAGON WELL GREEN TEA

Beneficial Teas

One of the most popular drinks in China, Dragon Well tea is part of the green teas family, having an inviting and a toasty flavor. A truly enjoyable and spectacular cup of tea.

Description of Dragon Well tea

Dragon Well tea is a type of pan-fried green tea, most commonly named Longjing tea from Hangzhou, Zheijang province in China, where is produced mainly by hand. During the production process, the Dragon Well is dried under a wood-fired Chinese pan called “wok”. This process removes the green, grassy taste and also inhibits enzyme activity. Due to the widespread opinion in China that the Dragon Well tea has a cooling effect, its popularity significantly increases especially during the spring and summer seasons. Often called the national tea of China, Dragon Well tea is often served to head of states and foreign delegations during their visits in China. Presented as a tribute to many generations, it was given even to Richard Nixon during his memorable encounter with Mao Zedong. This tea is very popular because of its unique properties:  jade color, vegetative aroma, mellow chestnut flavor and singular shape. It has a buttery, nutty, rich texture and an enjoyable dry finish. Commonly, Dragon Well tea is graded using a scale of six levels from superior quality to low quality so it is advisable to chose wisely when you decide to buy it. When the flavor can barely be sensed, it is clear that you deal with a poor quality.

How to store the Dragon Well tea

If the tea is sealed, keep it in a freezer. Cover with a box to insulate from temperature change. In order to get warm, leave it to room temperature before opening. This prevents condensation. After opening the package of Dragon Well tea, it is best to keep it away from light, moisture, smell and heat in an airtight container.

Ingredients of Dragon Well tea

Like most green teas, the Dragon Well tea contains amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, proteins, calcium, iron, fluorine, theine and has one of the highest concentrations of catechins among teas, second only to white teas.

How to brew Dragon Well tea

When it comes to brewing Dragon Well tea, the best choice is a clear glass teacup, so that you can see the beauty of the leaves as they dance and unfurl in the water. It is really spectacular. Quality of tea is related directly to the beauty of the buds. Glass is most suitable also because it disperses heat quickly and prevents over-steeping. If you see that the buds have reached the bottom, this means that the tea is ready to drink. You should infuse a small amount of leaves in high temperature water for as long as it takes. Pour hot water at approximately 80 - 90 degrees Celsius. Immerse until most of the tea buds has sink to the bottom of the glass and the tea liquor turns yellow. This will take 5 to 10 minutes for the first infusion. During soaking, the tea brings out a soft, pure aroma, a yellow-green color and a rich flavor. Decant and leave a small quantity as you may use it as the seed for the next infusion. Infuse for another 2 to 4 times with progressively shorter steeping time.

Health Benefits of Dragon Well tea

All tea comes from the same plant named Camellia sinensis. The method of production creates the different types of tea. Dragon Well tea contains the highest content of antioxidant compounds. Antioxidants are proven to fight against certain cancers, lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure, reduce the likely-hood of getting the flu and other infections, boosting the immune function of our body and help reduce the signs of aging. It is also a fat burning accelerator so let’s not forget its important benefits for diets. There’s also enough fluoride found in green tea to aid against plaque and other oral bacteria.

Side effects of Dragon Well tea

Like any other green tea, Dragon Well tea may have few side effects like restlessness, palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, increased heart rate, and elevated blood pressure due to the caffeine content. It may also cause pain in the stomach area or reduce the body’s absorption of iron by 25% so it is contraindicated to people with anemia, faintness, gastritis with hyperacidity, stomach and duodenal ulcer. In spite of few side effects, it is worth trying it and get to know its flavor. The spectacle of drinking this type of tea is truly unique and the flavor really satisfying.... Beneficial Teas

DISCOVER THE TEAS FOR BREASTFEEDING WOMEN

Beneficial Teas

It is well-known that tea should be avoided both during and after pregnancy. After you give birth, the tea you drink can affect the baby through breastfeeding. This is why you should be careful with the types of tea you drink if you are breastfeeding. Check teas for breastfeeding women Herbal teas are mostly considered safe for women who are breastfeeding. Still, there are some things you need to be careful with and check, before you start drinking an herbal tea while nursing. Make sure the herbal tea you drink does not contain caffeine. While it might not affect you, the caffeine found in tea can affect the baby. Also check if the herbal tea contains plants you are allergic to. It is not the baby you have to worry about in this case, but your own health, as it could prove to be harmful for you. It is best to speak with your doctor as well, before you drink a type of tea, even herbal ones. Check to see if the tea you have chosen is safe to take when you are breastfeeding, or if it does not decrease the breast milk supply. Make sure you choose the proper tea for breastfeeding. Teas for breastfeeding women There are many herbal teas which are recommended for breastfeeding women. Most of them help increase the breast milk supply. Organic mother’s milk tea is known to be useful, because of its ingredients (fennel, aniseed, and coriander help with the milk supply). Other herbal teas include raspberry leaf tea, nettle tea, or alfalfa tea. Also, you can drink blessed thistle tea and fennel tea in small amounts. Chamomile tea can also be consumed if you are breastfeeding. It will help you relax and have a peaceful sleep. Motherwort tea also helps you relax, as well as reduces the risk of getting post partum depression. Ginger tea can help with an upset stomach, as well as increase blood circulation. Teas you should avoid while breastfeeding During nursing periods, you should not drink teas that contain caffeine. This means you should avoid teas made from the Camellia Sinensis plant: white tea, black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. There are several types of tea which can reduce your breast milk supply. These include oregano tea, sage tea, spearmint tea, peppermint tea, borage tea, comfrey tea, yarrow tea, chickweed tea, parsley tea or thyme tea. Make sure you do not consume any of these teas while breastfeeding. Topically applied teas for breastfeeding Teas can be used topically, as well. There are some which help during breastfeeding periods when they are applied on the skin. Partridge tea can help in this way. When applied topically, it relieves the soreness you might get from breastfeeding. The tea you drink can affect both you and the baby even during nursing. Because of this, make sure you check to see if what you are drinking is safe. Choose one of these teas for breastfeeding and you will not have to worry about any side effects!... Beneficial Teas

DISCRETE DATA

Community Health

See “data”.... Community Health

DISEASE PREVENTION

Community Health

See “prevention”.... Community Health

DITTANY OF CRETE

Manifestations, Astral Projection...

DIURESIS

Medical Dictionary

An increase in the production of urine. This may result from increased ?uid intake, decreased levels of antidiuretic hormone, renal disease, or the use of drugs (see DIURETICS).... Medical Dictionary

DIURETIC

Herbal Medical

Promoting the flow of urine... Herbal Medical

DIURETIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

A substance that increases the flow of urine, either by increasing permeability of the kidneys’ nephrons, increasing blood supply into the nephrons, or increasing the blood into each kidney by renal artery vasodilation.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

DIURETICS

Medical Dictionary

Substances which increase urine and solute production by the KIDNEYS. They are used in the treatment of heart failure, HYPERTENSION, and sometimes for ASCITES secondary to liver failure. They may work by extra-renal or renal mechanisms.

The potential side-e?ects of diuretics are HYPOKALAEMIA, DEHYDRATION, and GOUT (in susceptible individuals).

Extra-renal mechanisms (a) Inhibiting release of antidiuretic hormone (e.g. water, alcohol); (b) increased renal blood ?ow (e.g. dopamine in renal doses).

Renal mechanisms (a) Osmotic diuretics act by ‘holding’ water in the renal tubules and preventing its reabsorption (e.g. mannitol); (b) loop diuretics prevent sodium, and therefore water, reabsorption (e.g. FRUSEMIDE); (c) drugs acting on the cortical segment of the Loop of Henle prevent sodium reabsorption, but are ‘weaker’ than loop diuretics (e.g. THIAZIDES); (d) drugs acting on the distal tubule prevent sodium reabsorption by retaining potassium

(e.g. spironalactone).... Medical Dictionary

DO NOT RESUSCITATE ORDER

Community Health

An advance directive based on the premise that a person may prefer to die than live when the quality of life available after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is likely to be worse than before. In such circumstances, a patient has the right not to be resuscitated and to be allowed to die.... Community Health

DOLORES

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) Woman of sorrow; refers to the Virgin Mary

Dalores, Delora, Delores, Deloria, Deloris, Dolorcita, Dolorcitas, Dolorita, Doloritas, Deloras, Delora, Deloros... Medical Dictionary

DOMICILIARY CARE

Community Health

Care provided in an individual’s own home.... Community Health

DOREEN

Medical Dictionary

(French / Gaelic) The golden one / a brooding woman

Dorene, Doreyn, Dorine, Dorreen, Doryne, Doreena, Dore, Doirean, Doireann, Doireanne, Doireana, Doireanna... Medical Dictionary

DOREMA AMMONIACUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

D. Don.

Habitat: Persia, South-West Asia, Southern Siberia.

English: Ammoniacum, Gum ammoniac.

Ayurvedic: Uushaka, Ushaka.

Unani: Ushaq, Ushah, Kandal.

Action: Gum-resin—antispas- modic, expectorant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, used in cough, asthma, bronchitis and catarrh, especially when the secretion is tough and viscid. Also used in enlargement of liver and spleen.

Gum-resin from the flowering and fruiting stems contain resin (60-70%), consisting mainly of amino-resinol; gum; volatile oil, about 0.5%, containing ferulene as major component; free salicylic acid; coumarins (umbellifer- one is absent).

Ammoniacum is similar to asafoeti- da in medicinal properties.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DREA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) Form of Andrea, meaning “courageous and strong / womanly” Dria, Dreah, Driah, Driya, Driyah... Medical Dictionary

DREAMA

Medical Dictionary

(English) A beautiful dream; one who produces joyous music Dreema, Driema, Dreima, Dryma... Medical Dictionary

DREAMS

Medical Dictionary

See SLEEP.... Medical Dictionary

DREGEA VOLUBILIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn. f.) Benth. ex Hook. f.

Synonym: Wattakaka volubilis (Linn. f.) Stapf.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Konkan and Maharashtra, also in Bengal and Assam.

Ayurvedic: Suparnikaa, Madhu- maalati. Muurvaa (substitute). Nak-chhikkini.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodippalai.

Action: Root and tender stalks— emetic and expectorant, cause sneezing, used in colds, sinusitis, and biliousness. Leaves—used as an application to boils and abscesses.

The stems and leaves contain a pigment taraxerol, a triterpenoid, kaem- pferol, a glucoside of kaempferol and saponins. Seeds contain a number of pregnane glycosides which do not exhibit digitalis-like action. Root contains a glucoside which lowered carotid blood pressure in mice and dogs when administered intravenously.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DREPANOCYTOSIS

Medical Dictionary

Another term for sickle-cell anaemia (see ANAEMIA), which is characterised by the presence in the blood of red blood corpuscles that are sickle-like in shape. The anaemia is a severe one and a?icts black people and to a lesser extent people of Mediterranean background.... Medical Dictionary

DRESSINGS

Medical Dictionary

See WOUNDS.... Medical Dictionary

DREW

Medical Dictionary

(English) Feminine form of Andrew; brave and womanly Dru, Drue, Droo... Medical Dictionary

DRINK MORE OAT STRAW TEA!

Beneficial Teas

If you haven’t heard much about oat straw tea, it’s time to find out! It has a delicious, slightly sweet taste, as well as many benefits which will help you stay healthy. Read this article to find out more about this tea! About Oat Straw Tea Oat straw tea is made from oat straw, which is the part of the oat plant, found above the ground, and which remains after the grain has been harvested. While at first it was used only to stuff mattresses, now it is much more appreciated thanks to its health benefits, which you can get by drinking oat straw tea, as well. Oat is cultivated in temperate areas on almost all continents, even in a few places in Africa. It is used, for example, to make oat flour, oat bread; in Britain, it is also used to brew beer. It can also be fed to horses or cattle. Constituents of Oat Straw Tea Oat is considered an important “health food” and quite a nutritious one too. Oat straw has important, benefic constituents which are also included in oat straw tea. The main constituents, also found in oat straw tea, are carbohydrates and silicic acid. It is also rich in calcium, potassium, and magnesium, and has a reasonable amount of proteins. As for vitamins, it includes A, B complex, C and E. How to prepare Oat Straw Tea A classic way to prepare a cup of oat straw tea is to add a teaspoon of dried oat straw to a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes before you strain to remove the oat straw plant. You can add milk or honey to sweeten the taste. If you can and want to prepare oat straw tea from scratch, you can do that too. Pick up the necessary amount (or even more, which you can keep for later uses), wash and cut off any dirty parts. For two cups of oat straw tea, you can use a single stalk, which you cut into small pieces and add in each cup. Then, pour the boiling water and let it steep for 4 hours, or even overnight. When it’s done, strain it and drink it, either cold or reheated. The same steps apply if you want to use dry oat straws for a few cups of oat straw tea. Oat Straw Tea Benefits Oat straw tea is especially good for strengthening and nourishing your bones, thanks to the amount of calcium it contains. This way, it helps you fight against osteoporosis. It is good to drink oat straw tea in order to stabilize the sugar in your blood, as it reduces cholesterol levels and improve blood circulation. Oat straw tea is also good at improving your immune system, and it is good at alleviating pains. Drinking it can reduce headaches and menstrual cramps. Drinking oat straw tea can also help you relax your nervous system. It has a calming effect, and helps you fight against stress, tension, anxiety and even depression. Also, a cup of oat straw tea before bed will help you sleep better. You don’t need to consider oat straw tea only as a beverage in order to make use of its health benefits. It can also be applied externally, on the skin, in order to treat skin irritations, such as eczema or rashes. Also, a bath in oat straw tea is helpful for children with chicken pox. Oat straw Side Effects First of all, it is recommended that you not drink more than three cups of oat straw tea a day. If you do, it might become harmful. Some of the symptoms you might experience are headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Make sure you reduce the amount of oat straw tea you drink if you get any of these symptoms. If you’re allergic to oat flour, you should also stay away from oat straw tea. It might lead to an allergic reaction. In this case, the symptoms you might get are difficulty in breathing, rashes, itching, or swelling of the throat or mouth. Also, if you’re suffering from celiac diseases, you should avoid drinking oat straw tea.Oat straw contains gluten, which can be harmful in this case. Oat straw tea has plenty of health benefits which should convince you to give it a try and maybe even include it in your daily diet. It can be easily prepared from scratch, and also sweetened to fit with your taste. Just be careful with its side effects, and enjoy your cup of oat straw tea!... Beneficial Teas

DRINK MORE PLANTAIN TEA

Beneficial Teas

If you haven’t heard much about plantain tea, it’s time to find out! As an herbal tea, it has a pretty pleasant, earthy taste, as well as many health benefits. About Plantain Tea Plantain tea is made from plantain. It is a perennial plant that grows all around the world, in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The plantain has a tough rhizome with several large, dark green leaves. The flowers of the plant are brown, with four stamens and purple-colored anthers and the fruit is a two-celled capsule with seeds inside it. Many consider this plant to be a weed. However, the leaves are edible, and are often used in salads, or cooked as greens. Plantain Tea constituents Plantain, as an herbal plant, has many important active constituents. They include beta carotene, calcium, linoleic acid, oleanolic acid, sorbitol, tannin, and vitamin C. They are all transferred to plantain tea, as well. How to prepare Plantain Tea For a cup of plantain tea, you can use the leaves, roots and/or seeds of the plant. Just add one tablespoon of the dried plants to a cup of freshly boiled water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes, then strain. You can drink it both hot and cold. Plantain Tea Benefits Plantain tea is often used in the treatment of various respiratory problems, as it acts as a mild expectorant. These include asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, sore throats, and coughs. Plantain tea can also be used to lower blood pressure and control sugar blood levels. Drinking plantain tea can help you if you’ve got diarrhea or dysentery. It is also used to treat irritated or bleeding hemorrhoids, kidney and bladder problems, bleeding caused by cystitis, and urinary tract infections. Plantain tea can be used topically, as well. It works as an antivenin, and it also promotes the healing of various wounds, skin inflammations, scars, cuts, rashes, and swellings. It can also be applied to the eye, in case your eyes are irritated. Plantain Tea Side Effects If you’re pregnant, it’s best to avoid drinking plantain tea. It can affect the uterus, which might lead to unwanted miscarriages. It is not known how safe it is to drink plantain tea if you’re breast feeding, but it is recommended to avoid it, just in case it might affect the baby. Don’t drink plantain tea if you’re allergic to any plants part of the plantain family. Also, you might get an allergic reaction from drinking the tea if you’re allergic to melon. Drinking too much plantain tea may lead to some side effects, as well. Generally, it is recommended that you not drink more than 5-6 cups of tea, no matter the type of tea. If you’re drinking too much tea, you might get some of the following symptoms: diarrhea, low blood pressure, headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Plantain tea helps you stay healthy! It is considered safe for both children and adults. Just be careful with the few side effects and you’re free to enjoy plantain tea!... Beneficial Teas

DRINK MORE PSYLLIUM TEA

Beneficial Teas

You’ll definitely enjoy a cup of psyllium tea! It is a fiber-full drink which will bring you many health benefits. Find out more about psyllium tea. About Psyllium Tea Psyllium tea is made from the seeds of the psyllium plant. The plant, also known as Isphangula, grows in many European countries, as well as in India. Psyllium is an herbal plant with a short stem. Its leaves are arranged alternatively, while the flowers are white, erect and ovoid; they can also have cylindrical spikes, giving them a stranger shape. The plant has an ovate fruit, with a thin husk, either white-colored or semi-transparent; the seeds, used to make psylliumtea, are found inside it. How to prepare Psyllium Tea The seeds are mostly used to prepare psyllium tea, but the husks can be used, as well. Add 1-2 teaspoons to a cup of freshly boiled water, cover and let it steep for 5-7 minutes. Strain to remove the herbs and your cup of tea is ready! You can also drink it cold. You can either let the psyllium tea cool down, or you can add the seeds and husks to a glass of cold water. Psyllium Tea Benefits Psyllium tea gets many active constituents from the seeds and husks of the plant. The most important one is fiber. It also contains a large amount of hemicellulose. Psyllium tea works as a great natural laxative. Because of this, it can be used in the treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel syndrome, and other similar health problems. They also help your digestive system by preventing disorders such as chronic constipation, mild diarrhea, or hemorrhoids. Drinking this tea will help reduce the bad LDL cholesterol levels in your blood, which helps you lose weight. This reduces the risks of having cardiovascular problems, for example heart diseases or strokes. It also lowers blood sugar levels and insulin levels, which helps you if you’ve got diabetes. Other health benefits include preventing colon cancer, as well treating urethritis, hypertension, high blood pressure, and minor infections (intestinal infections, or those of the urinary system). Psyllium Tea Side Effects You might get an allergic reaction after drinking psyllium tea. Symptoms include difficulty in breathing, as well as swelling of lips, tongue and mouth. Make sure you stop drinking psyllium tea and contact your doctor if you get any of these symptoms. If you drink too much tea, you might feel nauseous, or as if you’ve got a bloating stomach. An overdose can lead to obstruction in the colon and severe constipation. Also, in the case of people who have diabetes, if too much is drunk before, after or during a meal, it can cause hypoglycemia. Psyllium tea, just like many other herbal teas, has plenty of important health benefits. It helps you stay healthy, especially thanks to the large contents of fibers. Just be careful with the few side effects.... Beneficial Teas

DRINK MORE RHODIOLA TEA!

Beneficial Teas

Rhodiola tea is a delicious, mellow herbal tea. With its plant growing in cold, mountainous regions, this tea has various important health benefits. Find out more about rhodiola tea! About Rhodiola Tea Rhodiola tea is made from the rhodiola rosea plant. It grows in cold, mountainous areas, such as the Arctic, the mountains of Central Asia, the Rocky Mountains, and European mountains (Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathian Mountains). It is also known by the names golden root, rose root, Aaron’s rod, arctic root, king’s crown, lignum rhodium, and orpin rose. Rhodiola is a perennial plant with spikes of green leaves. The shoots can grow up to 35cm, and each bear a single yellow flower, which blooms during the Arctic summer. How to prepare Rhodiola Tea It takes awhile to prepare rhodiola tea, but it should be worth it. To enjoy a cup, you have to follow a few steps. For one cup, you need about 5 g of rhodiola root. Put that into a cup of freshly boiled water and let it brew for about 4 hours. Once the time is up, filter the liquid and your tea. Add honey or fruit juice if you want to sweeten the flavor. Rhodiola Tea Constituents Rhodiola rosea has lots of active constituents. Some of the important ones include rosavin, rosin, rosarin, rhodioloside, tyrosol, and salidroside. In its composition, we can also find phenolic antioxidants: proanthocyanidins, quercetin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol. As rhodiola tea is made from the rhodiola rosea plant, these constituents are transferred to the tea, as well. Rhodiola Tea Benefits The most important health benefits of rhodiola tea are related to your mental state. It helps if you’re feeling depressed; it improves your mood and fills you with energy. It also reduces fatigue and stress, and it’s bound to make you feel more relaxed. Generally, it helps enhance your mental functions, including your memory. By reducing stress levels, rhodiola tea also reduces the amount of stress hormones which can cause heart problems. Rhodiola tea regulates your heartbeats and fights against heart arrhythmias. Men can drink rhodiola tea if they’ve got erectile dysfunction; this tea is often included in the treatment. It’s useful for women too, as it helps lose weight and can therefore be drunk when on a diet. At the same time, it can also help with anaemia. You should drink rhodiola tea to help you with muscle recovery after exhaustive exercising. This tea increases the level of enzymes, RNA, and proteins needed.Rhodiola tea can help if you’ve got a cold or the flu. Interestingly, it will also help you if you’ve got altitude sickness. Rhodiola Tea Side Effects Even if rhodiola tea has so many health benefits, there are a few side effects you should be careful with, too. It is best not to be consumed by pregnant women, or those who are breastfeeding. In both cases, rhodiola tea can affect the baby. Even if rhodiola tea is used to treat depression, it is not good when it comes to bipolar disorder. Make sure you talk with your doctor first if you’re not sure whether you should drink rhodiola tea or not. Also, as rhodiola tea is used to enhance your energy, you should not drink it in the evening or even worse, before going to bed. It might lead to insomnia. Rhodiola tea should be on your list of ‘teas to drink’. You don’t have to worry when on a diet, as it will also help you lose weight. Just make sure you won’t get any side effects and you’re safe to drink it!... Beneficial Teas

DRINK MORE SAFFLOWER TEA!

Beneficial Teas

Safflower tea has a strong, but pleasant taste. As an herbal tea, it comes with many health benefits which are bound to help you stay healthy. Find out more about safflower tea! About Safflower Tea Safflower tea is made from the petals of safflower. The plant is an herbaceous, annual herb, which is cultivated in over sixty countries worldwide. It is a highly branched plant, with heights between 30cm and 150cm. Each branch has from one to five globular flower heads, with yellow, orange, or red flowers. The flower heads also contain 15-20 small seeds. The plant grows in open, arid environments; it is harvested during summertime. The plant was initially cultivated for its seeds, which are used to flavor and color food, as well as to make red and yellow dyes. Lately, the seeds are also used to make vegetable oil. How to prepare Safflower Tea You can easily prepare a cup of safflower tea. Just add a teaspoon of dried safflower petals to a cup of freshly boiled water. Let it steep for about 5 minutes, before you strain it to remove the petals. Your cup of safflower tea is ready! If the taste isn’t to your liking, you can sweeten the tea with honey or fruit juice. Safflower Tea Benefits A cup of safflower tea can help soothe your nerves, as well as relax you. Also, it can treat fevers, coughs and bronchial spasms. Generally, it is good at strengthening your immunity. Drinking safflower tea will also lower your bad cholesterol levels; this leads to preventing various heart diseases. It helps in the case of intestinal disorders, and it also facilitates bowel movement. Safflower tea can improve the conditions of cancer patients. This is why it is often included in the treatment for various types of cancer. Also, it can prevent osteoporosis, especially in the case of postmenopausal women. Safflower tea can be applied topically, as well. It is used to treat various bruises, open wounds, or rashes, as well as other skin disorders. Safflower Tea Side Effects Safflower tea doesn’t have many side effects. An important one is related to pregnant and breastfeeding women, who shouldn’t consume this tea. During pregnancy, it can even lead to miscarriages. It’s best not to drink thistea if you have bleeding problems. Safflower tea can slow down the blood clotting process, which might affect you if you’ve got hemorrhagic diseases, stomach or intestinal ulcers, or clotting disorders. Also, stop drinking it two weeks before a surgery, as it might cause bleeding during and after the surgery. Some people might be allergic to plants from the Asteraceae or Compositae family. Beside safflower, these include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, and daisies. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include swelling of the nose, lips and tongue, rashes and difficulty in breathing. If you get any of these, stop drinking safflower tea and contact your doctor.   Safflower tea is a good choice for an everyday tea. With this herbal tea, you get to enjoy both its taste and its many health benefits.... Beneficial Teas

DRINKING TEA FOR PREGNANCY

Beneficial Teas

Women need to be careful both with what they eat and drink during pregnancy. Even if tea is generally recommended as an everyday beverage, most teas shouldn’t be drunk during pregnancy. Find out which teas you should and shouldn’t drink when you’re pregnant. Careful with teas for pregnancy There are various reasons why pregnant women should be careful with the type of tea they drink. Many are related to the caffeine content some tea varieties might have. Drinking tea with caffeine content might lead to birth defects or even unwanted miscarriages. Also, other tea varieties can lead to uterine contractions, or have properties that involve regulating menstruation. These can also lead to miscarriages. That doesn’t mean that, during pregnancy, women should completely stay away from teas. They just have to know what type of tea they can drink. Teas you can drink for pregnancy Rooibos tea is often recommended to pregnant women, as it doesn’t contain caffeine at all. It contains antioxidants, as well as a low level of tannins. Thanks to this, they are less likely to interfere with iron absorption and, therefore, cause anemia during and after pregnancy. It also helps with indigestion and may relieve nausea. Pregnant women can drink ginger tea or mint tea, which help with morning sickness, or chamomile tea to prevent insomnia. Also, nettle tea can be drunk during the second and third trimester of the pregnancy (not the first) only if it’s made from nettle leaves and not from the root. Raspberry leaf tea has many benefits related to pregnancy. First of all, if a woman wants to get pregnant, this tea will increase fertility, as well as strengthen the uterine wall and relax the muscle in the uterus. During pregnancy, it helps with leg cramps, morning sickness and diarrhea. Also, drinking this tea may lead to less artificial ruptures in the membranes, which lowers the chances of needing a caesarean delivery, as well as needing forceps or vacuum birth. Teas you shouldn’t drink for pregnancy Even if teas are usually considered to be good for our health, this isn’t the case. Women should be careful not to drink various types of tea for pregnancy. It is considered best for pregnant women not to drink teas that contain caffeine. Teas made from the Camellia sinensis plant (green tea, black tea, white tea, oolong tea) contain caffeine, so it is best to avoid them. Small amounts may be acceptable, however it can still be risky, as they might still lead to birth defects or miscarriages. Pregnant women should also be careful with herbal teas. The varieties they shouldn’t drink include devil’s claw, ephedra, fenugreek, gentian, ginseng, hawthorne, motherwort, red raspberry leaf, senna, shepherd’s purse, St. John’s wort, or yarrow. Teas for labor Partridge tea is recommended for pregnant women who are due to give birth. It is recommended to be drunk during the last 2-3 weeks of pregnancy. Partridge tea helps with relieving congestions of the uterus and ovaries. It can also be used as an antiseptic to treat vaginal infections. Plus, when it is combined with raspberry leaves, it can help even more during the last two weeks of pregnancy. Pregnant women should be careful even when it comes to the type of tea they drink. Some might be harmful, while others may help them a lot both during and after pregnancy. If you want to get pregnant, make sure you remember the accepted teas for pregnancy.... Beneficial Teas

DRUG UTILIZATION REVIEW (DUR)

Community Health

A formal programme for assessing drug prescription and use patterns. DURs typically examine patterns of drug misuse, monitor current therapies, and intervene when prescription or utilization patterns fall outside pre-established standards. DUR is usually retrospective, but can also be performed before drugs are dispensed.... Community Health

DRUGS IN PREGNANCY

Medical Dictionary

Unnecessary drugs during pregnancy should be avoided because of the adverse e?ect of some drugs on the fetus which have no harmful e?ect on the mother. Drugs may pass through the PLACENTA and damage the fetus because their pharmacological e?ects are enhanced as the enzyme systems responsible for their degradation are undeveloped in the fetus. Thus, if the drug can pass through the placenta, the pharmacological e?ect on the fetus may be great whilst that on the mother is minimal. WARFARIN may thus induce fetal and placental haemorrhage and the administration of THIAZIDES may produce THROMBOCYTOPENIA in the newborn. Many progestogens have androgenic side-e?ects and their administration to a mother for the purpose of preventing recurrent abortion may produce VIRILISATION of the female fetus. Tetracycline administered during the last trimester commonly stains the deciduous teeth of the child yellow.

The other dangers of administering drugs in pregnancy are the teratogenic e?ects (see TERATOGENESIS). It is understandable that a drug may interfere with a mechanism essential for growth and result in arrested or distorted development of the fetus and yet cause no disturbance in the adult, in whom these di?erentiation and organisation processes have ceased to be relevant. Thus the e?ect of a drug upon a fetus may di?er qualitatively as well as quantitatively from its e?ect on the mother. The susceptibility of the embryo will depend on the stage of development it has reached when the drug is given. The stage of early di?erentiation – that is, from the beginning of the third week to the end of the tenth week of pregnancy – is the time of greatest susceptibility. After this time the risk of congenital malformation from drug treatment is less, although the death of the fetus can occur at any time.... Medical Dictionary

DUCTUS DEFERENS

Medical Dictionary

Ductus deferens, or VAS DEFERENS, is the tube which carries spermatozoa from the epidydimis to the seminal vesicles. (See TESTICLE.)... Medical Dictionary

DUPUYTREN’S CONTRACTURE

Medical Dictionary

A condition of unknown aetiology in which there is progressive thickening and contracture of the FASCIA in the palm of the hand with adherence of the overlying skin. A clawing deformity of the ?ngers, particularly the little and ring ?ngers, develops. It is associated with liver disease, diabetes, epilepsy, and gout. Treatment is surgical to excise the a?ected fascia. Recurrence is not uncommon.... Medical Dictionary

DUTY OF CARE

Community Health

A legal requirement that a person act towards others and the public with the watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person would use in the circumstance. If a person’s actions do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence.... Community Health

DYRE

Medical Dictionary

(Scandinavian) One who is dear to the heart... Medical Dictionary

DYSPAREUNIA

Medical Dictionary

Dyspareunia means painful or di?cult COITUS. In women the cause may be physical – for example, due to local in?ammation or infection in the vagina – or psychological; say, a fear of intercourse. In men the cause is usually physical, such as prostatitis (see PROSTATE, DISEASES OF) or a tight foreskin (see PREPUCE).... Medical Dictionary

EATHELLREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English) A noble young woman

Eathelreda, Eathellredia, Eathellredea, Eathelredia, Eathelredea, Ethelreda, Ethellreda... Medical Dictionary

EBERE

Medical Dictionary

(African) One who shows mercy Eberre, Ebera, Eberia, Eberea, Eberria, Eberrea, Ebiere, Ebierre... Medical Dictionary

EBREL

Medical Dictionary

(Cornish) Born during the month of April

Ebrell, Ebrele, Ebrelle, Ebriel, Ebriell, Ebriele, Ebrielle... Medical Dictionary

ECOLOGICAL AREA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A well defined geographical area, for example a tropical rain forest, characterised by certain assemblages of plants and animals (including insects).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

ECONOMY OF CARE

Community Health

Costs are the measure of the economic function of care. Total costs and unit costs are the basic indicators.... Community Health

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

Medical Dictionary

An ectopic pregnancy most commonly develops in one of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. Occasionally it may occur in one of the OVARIES, and rarely in the uterine cervix or the abdominal cavity. Around one in 200 pregnant women have an ectopic gestation. As pregnancy proceeds, surrounding tissues may be damaged and, if serious bleeding happens, the woman may present as an ‘abdominal emergency’. A life-threatening condition, this needs urgent surgery. Most women recover satisfactorily and can have further pregnancies despite the removal of one Fallopian tube as a result of the ectopic gestation. Death is unusual. This disorder of pregnancy may occur because infection or a previous abdominal injury or operation may have damaged the normal descent of an ovum from the ovary to the womb. The ?rst symptoms usually appear during the ?rst two months of pregnancy, perhaps before the woman realises she is pregnant. Severe lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding are common presenting symptoms. Ultrasound can be used to diagnose the condition and laparoscopy can be used to remove the products of conception. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

EDREANNA

Medical Dictionary

(American) A joyful woman Edreana, Edreann, Edreanne, Edreane, Edrean... Medical Dictionary

EDREI

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) A woman of great strength... Medical Dictionary

EFAVIRENZ

Medical Dictionary

A drug known as a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in the treatment of HIV infection in combination with other antiretroviral drugs (see VIRUSES; AIDS/HIV). It should not be used in patients with severe kidney impairment or liver damage. Pregnant women and older people should not take efavirenz. The drug has a wide range of side-e?ects.... Medical Dictionary

EFFERENT

Medical Dictionary

The term applied to vessels which convey away blood or a secretion from a body part, or to nerves which carry nerve impulses outwards from the nerve-centres. (Opposite: AFFERENT.)... Medical Dictionary

EHRETIA BUXIFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don.

Family: Ehrethiaceae.

Habitat: Common in dry scrub forests of the Deccan Peninsula.

Siddha/Tamil: Kuruvingi, Kattuvet- tilai.

Folk: Pala.

Action: Root—alterative in cachexia and syphilis; an antidote to vegetable poisoning. Dried leaves—pectic and stomachic.

The plant contains microphyllone. EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts showed low anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular activities.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EHRETIA LAEVIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb. var. aspera (Willd.) C.B. Clarke.

Synonym: E. aspera Willd. E. obtusifolia Hochst. ex DC.

Family: Ehretiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also grown along roadsides.

Ayurvedic: Charmi-vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Addula.

Folk: Chamror (Punjab). Kuptaa, Datarangi (Maharashtra.)

Action: Root—used in venereal diseases. A decoction of bark is used internally and as gargle in throat infections.

The plant contains tannins, saponins and allantoin, and monomethyl ethers of cyclitols. Leaves yielded a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, creatinine. arsenic effectively. It can be used in purification of silver-containing waste water, also for the treatment of low- level liquid radioactive wastes and mercurial waste water. The plant has a strong capacity for removing phenol. Biomass of non-living dried water Hyacinth roots showed high absorption of copper from aqueous solutions.

The plant exhibits antifungal activity against Candida albicans.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EIRENE

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) Form of Irene, meaning “a peaceful woman”

Eireen, Eireene, Eiren, Eir, Eireine, Eirein, Eirien, Eiriene, Eirean, Eireane, Eiryn, Eiryne... Medical Dictionary

EIRES

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A peaceful woman Eiress, Eiris, Eiriss, Eirys, Eiryss... Medical Dictionary

ELDER CARE

Community Health

See “aged care”.... Community Health

ELDREDA

Medical Dictionary

(English) Feminine form of Eldred; one who provides wise counsel Eldredah, Eldrida, Eldridah, Eldryda, Eldrydah, Eldride, Eldrede, Eldreada, Eldreadah... Medical Dictionary

ELECTROPHORESIS

Medical Dictionary

The migration of charged particles between electrodes. A simple method of electrophoresis, known as paper electrophoresis, has been introduced to analyse PROTEIN in body ?uids. This method consists in applying the protein-containing solution as a spot or a streak to a strip of ?lter paper which has been soaked in bu?er solution and across the ends of which a potential di?erence is then applied for some hours. Comparison is made between ?lter strips of normal ?uids and that of the patient under investigation. Identi?cation and quanti?cation of proteins in the blood are possible using this method.... Medical Dictionary

ELECTRORETINOGRAM

Medical Dictionary

An electroretinogram is the record of an electrical response of visual receptors in the retina (see EYE), which can be measured with corneal electrodes.... Medical Dictionary

ELYTRARIA CRENATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Vahl.

Synonym: E. acaulis Lindau. Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: The Deccan Peninsula, extending northwards to eastern Himalayas.

Folk: Patharchattaa, Dasmori. (Also known as Shat-muuli.)

Action: Leaves—decoction prescribed in fever, also in venereal diseases. Root—used in mammary tumours and abscesseses, pneumonia and infantile diarrhoea. Plant infusion is used as a cough remedy for infants.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EMBRYO RESEARCH

Medical Dictionary

When a woman is treated for infertility it is necessary to nurture human embryos for a few days (until the ?rst cell divisions of the fertilised egg have occurred) in a specialised laboratory. More eggs are fertilised than are usually needed because not all fertilisations are successful. Surplus embryos may be frozen for use in later attempts to implant an embryo in the womb. Research has been done on very early embryos but the practice is controversial and some countries have either forbidden it or imposed tight restrictions. In the UK such research is controlled by the government Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (see ASSISTED CONCEPTION).... Medical Dictionary

EN-HAKKORE

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) From the fountain of the crier... Medical Dictionary

END-OF-LIFE CARE

Community Health

Care of older persons who are dying.... Community Health

ENDARTERECTOMY

Medical Dictionary

Surgical reopening of an artery obstructed by ATHEROMA. If a blood clot is present, the re-boring process is called thromboendarterectomy. Restored patency allows arterial blood supply to restart. The carotid arteries and arteries to the legs are those most commonly operated on.... Medical Dictionary

ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY (ERCP)

Medical Dictionary

This is a procedure in which a catheter (see CATHETERS) is passed via an ENDOSCOPE into the AMPULLA OF VATER of the common BILE DUCT. The duct is then injected with a radio-opaque material to show up the ducts radiologically. The technique is used to diagnose pancreatic disease as well as obstructive jaundice.... Medical Dictionary

ENDOTRACHEAL CATHETERS ARE USED TO PASS

Medical Dictionary

down the TRACHEA into the lungs, usually in the course of administering anaesthetics (see under ANAESTHESIA).

Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.

Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.

Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.

Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.

Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)

Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.

It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... Medical Dictionary

ENGLISH BREAKFAST TEA

Beneficial Teas

English Breakfast Tea is a mixture of black teas originating from Assam, Ceylon and Kenya and was invented in Scotland in the 19th century. This blend is an established breakfast custom in England, having an invigorating and energizing aroma which is the perfect way to start the day. English Breakfast Tea - when and how to drink it As the name suggests, the tea is associated with a particular moment of the day, but it is generally consumed on any occasion. It can be served with milk or other additives in order to suit your personal preference. Do not pour the milk first; this could result in an unpleasant aroma. How to brew English Breakfast Tea Before pouring boiling water into your cup to make the infusion, the pot should ideally be already warmed with hot water. Allow your English Breakfast Tea brewing three to five minutes in order to attain the desired results, according to the preferred taste. Do not steep it for too long, because it will turn slightly bitter. If you want a stronger aroma, add more tea leaves. Health benefits of English Breakfast Tea English breakfast Tea contains high amounts of beneficial nutrients which can prevent cardiovascular diseases, improve oral health by reducing dental caries and lower the risk of cancer. It can be used as a replacement for coffee because it contains a sufficient amount of caffeine to provide the daily necessary dose. Furthermore, it contains no calories and it can be extremely effective in the weight loss process if you are on a diet because the beverage reduces the cholesterol levels. English Breakfast Tea side effects The only reported side effects of English Breakfast Tea consumption are those associated with caffeine consumption, such as anxiety. For people who find it hard to tolerate the caffeine, there are a number of decaffeinated alternatives. The strong and smooth taste of English Breakfast Tea, sweetened or not, will complement your meal at any moment throughout the day! The refreshing aroma of this extremely popular black tea is guaranteed to turn it into a personal favourite for any tea lover.... Beneficial Teas

ENJOY A CUP OF REISHI TEA!

Beneficial Teas

If you haven’t tried reishi tea until now, you should get some. Made from a “cure-all” herb, reishi tea has plenty of health benefits and helps you stay healthy with every gulp. About Reishi Tea Reishi tea is made form reishi, which is considered the best and most superior of all Chinese herbs. Reishi is a polypore mushroom which can be found growing in dark forests, on deciduous trees and logs. It is soft, corky, and flat, and has a conspicuous red-varnished cap, kidney-shaped, and with pores underneath it. It is classified based on its color and shape, and each variety protects and nourishes a different body organ. The classification is the following: white (lungs and skin), purple (joints), red (heart), green (liver), black (brain and kidney), and yellow (spleen). How to prepare Reishi Tea For a cup of reishi tea, you need about 5 grams of dried reishi mushroom herbs. Add them to the necessary amount of water for one cup and boil for about 10 minutes. Then, let the mixture steep for 2-3 hours, before you strain it to remove the herbs. If you don’t like the taste too much or you think it’s too bitter, you can add honey or fruit juice to sweeten it. Reishi Tea Constituents Reishi tea gets many of its health benefits thanks to the active constituents found in the reishi mushroom - the tea’s main ingredient. Some of them include triterpenes (ganoderic acids), polysaccharides, alkaloids, lactones, mannitol and coumarin. Also, reishi tea has various vitamins, proteins, and minerals. Reishi Tea Benefits Reishi tea is an important element in the fight against cancer. It helps by enhancing the human ability to fight abnormal cells and, consequently, it can improve the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid. It also protects the cells against further damage, and it helps alleviate the pain and discomfort caused by chemotherapy. Drinking reishi tea will keep the heart diseases away, as it lowers bad cholesterol levels and blood pressure. It helps strengthen the immune system, and it will also slow down the aging process by nurturing the cells in your body. Not only is reishi tea good for your immune system, but it also helps your nervous system. This tea is bound to help you relax, by soothing the mind and sedating the nerves. It will also help you sleep properly during the night. You can drink reishi tea if you’ve got problems with coughing or asthma. It protects your liver, therefore it is recommended to persons who suffer from acute and chronic hepatitis. Besides this, it also helps with diabetes, skin allergy, and duodenal ulcers. Reishi Tea Side Effects You might have an allergic reaction to reishi tea. If you end up with an upset stomach, or you feel your mouth, nose and/or throat dry, you might have an allergic reaction. Stop drinking reishi tea and contact your doctor, just in case. Other side effects you might get when drinking reishi tea include dizziness, nosebleeds, sore bones, gastrointestinal distress, or irritated skin. It is best not to drink reishi tea if you’re taking blood thinning medication (aspirin, warfarin). The tea might intensify the effects of the medicine. It is also considered that this tea may interfere with immunosuppressive drugs or even organ transplants.   According to the Chinese, the reishi mushroom is a plant which can bring “the dying back to life”. Reishi tea has quite similar properties too, as it comes with many health benefits. This should encourage you to drink reishi tea every day!... Beneficial Teas

ENORE

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who is careful... Medical Dictionary

ENTIRE

Herbal Medical

A leaf with a straight, untoothed margin.... Herbal Medical

ENURESIS

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Involuntary voiding of urine... Medicinal Plants Glossary

ENURESIS

Medical Dictionary

Bed-wetting, or the involuntary passage of urine at night. It can occur at all ages but is a particular problem with children and the elderly. In general, paediatricians prefer not to treat enuresis much before the age of six, as it may be a normal phenomenon and usually stops as the child grows older. However, when the condition persists, the child (and parents) need advice. Treatment is by positive reinforcement of bladder control, alarm systems such as the ‘pad and bell’, or ocasionally by drugs such as Desmopressin, which reduces night-time urinary output. Some children have an ‘irritable bladder’ and can be helped by drugs which relieve this. Enuresis is often a result of psychological disturbance, particularly where family relationships are disrupted. In this circumstance medication is unlikely to be e?ective.

Constipation is a common cause of urinary incontinence – and hence bed-wetting – in the elderly and should be treated. Enuresis in the elderly may also be due to organic disease or to mental deterioration and confusion. Appropriate investigation, treatment and nursing should be arranged. (See NOCTURNAL ENURESIS.)

Advice is available from the Enuresis Resource and Information Centre (ERIC) whose weekday helpline is 0117 960 3060. Also www.eric.org.uk... Medical Dictionary

EPICUREAN

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) Follower of Epicurus Epicureana, Epicureane... Medical Dictionary

EPISODE OF CARE

Community Health

The description and measurement of the various health care services and encounters rendered in connection with an identified injury or period of illness.... Community Health

EQUITY OF CARE

Community Health

Fair treatment of needs, regarding both the distribution of services and allocation of resources.... Community Health

ERECTION

Medical Dictionary

The rigid state of the PENIS when it responds to sexual stimulus. An erection is necessary for e?ective penetration of the VAGINA. As a result of sexual arousal, the three cylinders of erectile tissue in the penis become engorged with blood, lengthening, raising and hardening the penis. Muscles surrounding the blood vessels contract and retain the blood in the penis. Erections also occur during sleep and in young boys. Inability to have or maintain an erection is one cause of IMPOTENCE (see also SILDENAFIL CITRATE).... Medical Dictionary

ERELAH

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) A heavenly messenger; an angel

Erela, Erelia, Erelea, Ereliah, Ereleah... Medical Dictionary

ERENDIRA

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) Daughter born into royalty

Erendirah, Erendiria, Erendirea, Erendyra, Erendyria, Erendyrea, Erendeera, Erendiera, Erendeira, Erendeara... Medical Dictionary

ERES

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) An admirable woman... Medical Dictionary

ETHICS (OF CARE)

Community Health

The basic evaluative principles which (should) guide “good” care. Principles typically refer to respect for, and the dignity of, human beings. Basic dimensions are “autonomy” (respect for self determination), “well-being” (respect for happiness, health and mental integrity) and “social justice” (justifiable distribution of scarce goods and services). More specifically, ethics of care refer to ethical standards developed for the care professions which are designed to implement ethical principles in the practice of care provision.... Community Health

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

Community Health

The collection of extensive narrative data on many variables over an extended period of time in a naturalistic setting in order to gain insights not possible using other types of research. For this type of research, observations are undertaken at particular points of time. Data would include observations, recordings and interpretations of what is seen.... Community Health

ETHYLOESTRENOL

Medical Dictionary

See ANABOLIC STEROIDS.... Medical Dictionary

EUPHORBIA RESINIFERA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Berg.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Morocco.

English: Euphorbium.

Unani: Farfiyuun, Afarbiyuun.

Action: A drastic purgative, irritant, vesicant and toxic, proinflammatory. Internal use of the drug has been abandoned.

Dried latex gave diterpene esters; derivatives of 12-deoxyphorbol, which are pro-inflammatory, tumour promoting and cause platelet aggregation; exhibit co-carcinogenic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EVIDENCE-BASED CARE

Community Health

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individuals. This approach must balance the best external evidence with the desires of the individual and the clinical expertise of health care providers.... Community Health

EXCRETA

Medical Dictionary

Waste material, especially FAECES.... Medical Dictionary

EXCRETION

Medical Dictionary

The process by which the residue of undigested food in the gastrointestinal tract (faeces) and the waste products of the body’s metabolism – mainly as urine via the kidneys, but also as sweat from the skin, and water and carbon dioxide from the lungs – are eliminated.... Medical Dictionary

EXCRETORY PORE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

An opening of the excretory system, normally situated on the ventral side at the anterior part of the body (e.g. in trematode miracidia).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

EXOPTHTHALMIC GOITRE

Medical Dictionary

Sometimes called Graves’ disease, this is a disorder in which there is overactivity of the thyroid gland, protrusion of the eyes, and other symptoms. (See HYPERTHYROIDISM.)... Medical Dictionary

EXPIRED AIR RESUSCITATION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The use of expired (used) air blown from a rescuer into the airway and lungs of an unconscious victim who is not breathing, sufficient to sustain his life.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

EXPOSURE

Medical Dictionary

(1) A term used in BEHAVIOUR THERAPY to describe a method of treating fears and phobias (see PHOBIA). The subject is confronted by the circumstances that he or she fears, either gradually or suddenly, with the aim of defusing the fear or phobia.

(2) The term is also a colloquialism for public exposure by a man of his genitals to achieve sexual grati?cation.... Medical Dictionary

EXTENDED CARE FACILITY (ECF)

Community Health

A facility that offers sub-acute care, providing treatment services for people requiring inpatient care who do not currently require continuous acute care services, and admitting people who require convalescent or restorative services or rehabilitative services or people with terminal disease requiring maximal nursing care.... Community Health

EXTERNAL CARDIAC COMPRESSION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Compression of the outside of the sternum and ribs, effectively emptying and filling the heart to push blood through arteries to supply oxygen to the body - particularly to the brain.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

EXTRA CARE SHELTERED HOUSING

Community Health

Housing where there is additional support (such as the provision of meals and extra communal facilities) to that usually found in sheltered housing. Sometimes called ‘very sheltered housing’.... Community Health

EXTRAUTERINE PREGNANCY

Medical Dictionary

See ECTOPIC PREGNANCY.... Medical Dictionary

FAGONIA CRETICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: F. arabica Linn. (Correct name for Indian sp. is Fagonia schweifurthii Hadidi. F. bruguieri DC. is not a synonym of F. cretica, according to CDRI.)

Family: Zygophyllaceae.

Habitat: Western India, upper Gangetic plains and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Dhanvayaasa, Dhan- vayavaasa, Dhanvayaasaka, Duraal- abhaa, Samudraantaa. Gaandhaari, Kachhuraa, Anantaa, Duhsparshaa. (Alhagi pseudalhagi is used as a substitute for F. cretica.)

Unani: Dhamaasaa.

Action: Astringent, antiseptic, blood-purifier and febrifuge. Applied to abscesses, scrofulous glands and wounds; also given as a prophylactic against smallpox. Bark—used for dermatosis Extract of aerial parts—antiviral, antiamphetaminic, spasmogenic. Plant ash—given to children suffering from anaemia.

The aerial parts contain several tri- terpenoid saponins which gave sa- pogenin, nahagenin, oleanolic acid. Aerial parts also gave diterpenes, fa- gonone and its derivatives, besides flavonoids.

The flavonoids, quercetin and kaem- pferol, isolated from the leaves and flowers, showed antimicrobial activity.

The fruits are rich in ascorbic acid.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FARREN

Medical Dictionary

(English) One who is adventurous; an explorer

Faren, Farin, Faryn, Farran, Farrin, Farron, Farryn, Ferran, Ferryn, Faran, Faron, Farina, Farinna, Farena, Farana... Medical Dictionary

FENUGREEK

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Fabaceae

San: Methika, Methi, Kalanusari;

Hin: Meti, Mutti; Ben, Mar: Methi;

Mal: Uluva;

Tam: Ventayam;

Kan: Mentya, Menlesoppu;

Tel: Mentulu, Mentikura; Arab: Hulabaha

Importance: Fenugreek or Greek Hayes is cultivated as a leafy vegetable, condiment and as medicinal plant. The leaves are refrigerant and aperient and are given internally for vitiated conditions of pitta. A poultice of the leaves is applied for swellings and burns. Seeds are used for fever, vomiting, anorexia, cough, bronchitis and colonitis. In the famous Malayalam treatises like ‘Padhyam’ ‘Kairali’ and ‘Arunodhayam’, uluva is recommended for use as kalanusari in Dhanvantaram formulations of ‘Astaghradayam’. An infusion of the seeds is a good cool drink for small pox patients. Powdered seeds find application in veterinary medicine. An aqueous extract of the seeds possesses antibacterial property (Kumar et al, 1997; Warrier et al, 1995).

Distribution: Fenugreek is a native of South Eastern Europe and West Asia. In India fenugreek is grown in about 0.30 lakh ha producing annually about 30,000 tonnes of seeds. The major states growing fenugreek are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Karnataka. It is grown wild in Kashmir and Punjab.

Botany: Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. belongs to family, Fabaceae. It is an annual herb, 30-60cm in height, leaves are light green, pinnately trifoliate, leaflets toothed, flowers are white or yellowish white, papilionaceous and axillary. Fruits are legumes, 5-7.5cm long, narrow, curved, tapering with a slender point and containing 10-20 deeply furrowed seeds per pod. There are two species of the genus Trigonella which are of economic importance viz. T. foenum graecum, the common methi and T. corniculata, the Kasuri methi. These two differ in their growth habit and yield. The latter one is a slow growing type and remains in rosette condition during most of the vegetative growth period (Kumar et al, 1997; Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Fenugreek has a wide adaptability and is successfully cultivated both in the tropics as well as temperate regions. It is tolerant to frost and freezing weather. It does well in places receiving moderate or low rainfall areas but not in heavy rainfall area. It can be grown on a wide variety of soils but clayey loam is relatively better. The optimum soil pH should be 6-7 for its better growth and development. Some of the improved cultivars available for cultivation are CO1 (TNAU), Rajendra Kanti (RAU), RMt-1(RAU) and Lam Selection-1 (APAU). Land is prepared by ploughing thrice and beds of uniform size are prepared. Broadcasting the seed on the bed and raking the surface to cover the seeds is normally followed. But to facilitate intercultural operations, line sowing is also advocated in rows at 20-25cm apart. Sowing in the plains is generally in September-November while in the hills it is from March. The seed rate is 20-25kg/ha and the seeds germinate within 6-8 days. Besides 15t of FYM, a fertiliser dose of 25:25:50kg NPK/ha is recommended. Entire P,K and half N are to be applied basally and the remaining half N 30 days after sowing. First irrigation is to be given immediately after sowing and subsequent irrigations at 7-10 days interval. Hoeing and weeding are to be done during the early stages of plant growth and thinning at 25-30 days to have a spacing of 10-15cm between plants and to retain 1-2 plants per hill. Root rot (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) is a serious disease and can be controlled by drenching carbendazim 0.05% first at the onset of the disease and another after one monthof first application. In about 25-30 days, young shoots are nipped off 5cm above ground level and subsequent cuttings of leaves may be taken after 15 days. It is advisable to take 1-2 cuttings before the crop is allowed for flowering and fruiting when pods are dried, the plants are pulled out, dried in the sun and seeds are threshed by beating with stick or by rubbing with hands. Seeds are winnowed, cleaned and dried in the sun. They may be stored in gunny bags lined with paper. An yield of 1200-1500kg of seeds and about 800-1000kg of leaves may be obtained per hectare in crops grown for both the purposes (Kumar et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Seeds contain sapogenins-diosgenin, its 25-epimer(yamogenin), tigogenin, gitogenin, yuccagenin, 25-2-spirosta-3-5-diene and its -epimer. Seeds also contain a C27-steroidal sapogenin-peptide ester-fenugreekine. Seeds, in addition, contain 4-hydroxyleucine and saponins-fenugrins A-E:two furostanol glycoxides-trigonelloxide C and (255)-22-O-methyl-52-firostan-3 ,22,26,triol-3-O- -rhamnopyrans syl(1-2) C- -D-glucopyranosyl (1-3)- -D- glucopyranoxide-26-O- -D-glucopyranoxide.

Other chemical constituents are sterols- -sitosterol and cholesterol, flavone C- glycosides-vitexin, iso-vitexin, vitexin-2”-O-P-coumarate and vicenin-2. Flavonoids- quercetin and luteolin, flavonoid glycoside-vicenin-I. Invitro seedling callus culture gave flavonoids-luteolin and vitexin-1-glycoside. An essential oil is also reported from seeds. Leaves gave saponins-gracecunins A-G, flavonoids- kaempferol and quercetin; sterols- - sitosterol, sapogenins-diosgenin, gitogenin coumarin-scopoletin is also reported from the plant.

Seeds are bitter, mucilaginous, aromatic, carminative, tonic, diuretic, thermogenic, galactagogue, astringent, emollient, amophrodisiac, antirheumatic, CNS depressant and antiimplantation. Fenugreekine is hypoglycaemic, diuretic, hypotensive, cardiotonic, antiphlogistic. It showed 80% inhibition of vaccina virus....

FENUGREEK

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Money... Tropical Medicinal Plants

FENUGREEK TEA

Beneficial Teas

Fenugreek tea has been used for centuries in alternative medicine and has many purported uses. Read more about its benefits and side effects. About Fenugreek tea Trigonella foenum-graecumor fenugreek is an annual aromatic plant with small round leaves, cultivated worldwide and is a common ingredient in dishes from India and Pakistan. Fenugreek contains several nutrients like protein, vitamin C, alkaloids, potassium, niacin, diosgenin, iodine, chromium, magnesium, selenium, phosphorus, molybdenum, silicon, zinc, sodium, sulfur, iron and manganese among others. It tastes similar to maple syrup or licorice. Fenugreek tea is mild and flavorful and has a variety of medicinal purposes. How to make Fenugreek tea To prepare a tasty fenugreek tea you need one teaspoon of seeds. Put them into a cup and pour boiled water over. Let them steep for around 20 minutes and filter it. Fenugreek tea can be consumed hot or cold. Sweetening is not necessary because the tea is naturally very sweet. Benefits of Fenugreek tea With so many nutrients infused in one, fenugreek tea benefits for health are very diverse. Fenugreek tea helps in combating kidney problems and also regulate sugar absorption, making it suitable for diabetics. Studies have shown that this tealower cholesterol levels and ease a variety of digestive problems. This tea also increases milk secretion in nursing mothers and alsobalances female hormones, making it a natural remedy for an assortment of problems. Fenugreek tea is also widely used in treating cold symptoms, particularly, expelling excess mucus from the throat and the respiratory tract. Side effects of Fenugreek tea Although fenugreek tea is mostly safe, it can occasionally produce some unwanted side effects. Applied topically it can produce skin irritation or allergic reaction. It also can cause nausea, diarrhea, upset stomach or migraines. It may interphere with some medications  so be sure to consult your physician first. Don’t forget that it is not recommended for children. You can include fenugreek tea in your lifestyle and as long as you do not drink too much of it and take the precautions into consideration, you can enjoy its benefits.... Beneficial Teas

FIBRE, DIETARY

Medical Dictionary

See ROUGHAGE.... Medical Dictionary

FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY

Medical Dictionary

A visualising technique enabling the operator to examine the internal organs with the minimum of disturbance or damage to the tissues. The procedure has transformed the management of, for example, gastrointestinal disease. In chest disease, ?breoptic bronchoscopy has now replaced the rigid wide-bore metal tube which was previously used for examination of the tracheo-bronchial tree.

The principle of ?breoptics in medicine is that a light from a cold light source passes down a bundle of quartz ?bres in the endoscope to illuminate the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract or the bronchi. The re?ected light is returned to the observer’s eye via the image bundle which may contain up to 20,000 ?bres. The tip of the instrument can be angulated in both directions, and ?ngertip controls are provided for suction, air insu?ation and for water injection to clear the lens or the mucosa. The oesophagus, stomach and duodenum can be visualised; furthermore, visualisation of the pancreatic duct and direct endoscopic cannulation is now possible, as is visualisation of the bile duct. Fibreoptic colonoscopy can visualise the entire length of the colon and it is now possible to biopsy polyps or suspected carcinomas and to perform polypectomy.

The ?exible smaller ?breoptic bronchoscope has many advantages over the rigid tube, extending the range of view to all segmental bronchi and enabling biopsy of pulmonary parenchyma. Biopsy forceps can be directed well beyond the tip of the bronchoscope itself, and the more ?exible ?breoptic instrument causes less discomfort to the patient.

Fibreoptic laparoscopy is a valuable technique that allows the direct vizualisation of the abdominal contents: for example, the female pelvic organs, in order to detect the presence of suspected lesions (and, in certain cases, e?ect their subsequent removal); check on the development and position of the fetus; and test the patency of the Fallopian tubes.

(See also ENDOSCOPE; BRONCHOSCOPE; LARYNGOSCOPE; LAPAROSCOPE; COLONOSCOPE.)... Medical Dictionary

FICUS RELIGIOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts, West Bengal, Central and South India; planted throughout India as an avenue tree.

English: Peepal, Bot-tree.

Ayurvedic: Ashvattha, Bodhidru, Bodhivrkisha, Sebya, Chalapa- tra, Gajabhaksha, Kshiradruma, Peeppal.

Unani: Peepal.

Siddha/Tamil: Arasu, Ashvatham.

Action: Bark—astringent, antiseptic, alterative, laxative, haemostatic, vaginal disinfectant (used in diabetes, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders; also in skin diseases.) Applied externally on unhealthy ulcers and wounds. Leaves and twigs— laxative.

The bark contains beta-sitosteryl-D- glucoside. Vitamin K, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmas- terol, lupen-3-one are reported from the stem bark.

A hypoglycaemic response is reported for beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside obtained from the bark.

Aerial roots are given to women, also used in prescriptions, for inducing conception. The dried fruits are used as a uterine tonic.

The fruits contain 4.9% protein having the essential amino acids, isoleu- cine and phenylalanine. The chloroform extract of fruits exhibited anti- tumour and antibacterial activities in bioassays.

Various plant parts are included in formulations used for menorrha- gia, metrorrhagia, blood dysentery, bleeding piles, haematuria and haemorrhages.

Dosage: Bark, fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FIEVRE BOUTONNEUSE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Wide-spread spotted fever. Tick-borne and caused by Rickettsia conori.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

FIND OUT MORE ABOUT TEAS FOR BABIES

Beneficial Teas

A newborn baby needs to be taken care of properly. Parents have to be careful with what they give their baby to drink, as well, among other things. There are a few restrictions even when it comes to tea. Find out which are the proper types of tea for babies. When to give tea to babies Although herbal teas bring adults (and even children) many health benefits, this doesn’t apply to babies, as well. Even if mothers often prepare teas for babies, doctors recommend that this should happen only after the baby is 6 months old. The only thing babies should have until they are over 6 months old is the mother’s milk. The mother’s milk contains everything a newborn baby needs. Forbidden teas for babies While babies who are older than 6 motnhs can drink tea, there are still many types of tea which are forbidden to them. Babies shouldn’t be given teas that contain caffeine. This can lead to harmful side effects, which include an upset stomach or sleeping problems; it might also make the baby easily irritable. Besides caffeine, make sure the tea you give to your baby doesn’t contain polyphenols (it hinders the body’s absorption of iron, which can later cause learning problems), or star anise (Chinese star anise is sometimes contaminated with the Japanese one, which can be poisonous). Don’t give your baby sweetened tea, either. Check for “hidden” sugars, which are used to sweeten a usually bitter tea. Such teas can harm your baby’s developing teeth, and it might also make him refuse breast milk. Teas for babies Herbal teas which are considered safe to be given to children older than 6 months include chamomile, caraway, lemonbalm, fennel, catnip, and dill. All these teas for babies come with health benefits. Fennel, dill, caraway, and catnip tea helps your baby when he’s got stomach aches, trapped wind and colic. You can give lemonbalm and chamomile tea to calm your baby and help him relax. Also, babies don’t need to drink a full cup of tea. Either add a bit to your baby’s sipping cup, or offer your baby a few spoons of tea. Also, the herbs should be added to almost-boiling water, and steeping time shouldn’t last more than 5 minutes. If you choose the right type, tea can be a healthy beverage for your baby. Make sure it doesn’t contain any forbidden substances and only give it to your baby when he’s at least 6 months old.... Beneficial Teas

FIND OUT MORE ABOUT TEAS FOR DOGS

Beneficial Teas

The healthiest beverage you could give a dog to drink could be water. However, tea comes with its own health benefits. You just have to be careful with the type of tea you give to your dog, as well as the quantity, and it’ll surely help keep your dog healthy. Recommended teas for dogs There are companies which produce tea blends especially for dogs. They come with many health-related benefits and in various flavors. Still, this doesn’t mean your dog can’t consume a few of the same types of tea you drink. Herbal teas are considered to be good for dogs; these include chamomile and essiac tea. Also, green tea is good for dogs, but only if it is caffeine-free. Benefits of teas for dogs Essiac tea is one tea variety that won’t be harmful for your dog. One important health benefit is that it strengthens your dog’s immunity, muscles, organs, bones, and tissues. It also works to remove toxin (including from the blood and bowel), and fights against cancer by helping the body destroy tumors. Chamomile tea is bound to improve your dog’s digestion, as well as its sleep. It is often recommended if your dog is a restless sleeper. This tea can also be used to clean various cuts, and also to wash the dog’s eyes if your pet has runny eyes. Lastly, green tea also works to strengthen the dog’s immunity, and fight against cancer. It might also make the dog’s fur healthier and shinier than before. How much tea to give your dog Despite the health benefits, you shouldn’t give your dog too much tea to drink. It is best to add a few teaspoons to his bowl of water, or sprinkle its food with the tea. It doesn’t have to be strong either, so don’t let it steep for the whole amount of time it usually requires. Side effects of teas for dogs Be careful with the green tea you give to your dog. Make sure it is caffeine-free, as caffeine can be harmful to dogs. Also, you shouldn’t give essiac tea to your dog if you know it has kidney problems, bowel obstructions, diarrhea, ulcers, colitis, or a brain tumor. If you pick the proper tea, dogs can enjoy its health benefits just as much as humans. Don’t hesitate to share your cup of tea with your pet!... Beneficial Teas

FIRE

Medical Dictionary

(American) A feisty and passionate woman

Fyre, Firey, Firy, Firi, Firie, Firee, Firea... Medical Dictionary

FIRE CORAL

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The colloquial name for Millepora.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

FIRE JELLY

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

See Morbakka.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

FIRE WEED

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The colloquial term for Lytocarpus philippinus.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

FIREWEED

Medicinal Plants

Epilobium angustifolium

Description: This plant grows up to 1.8 meters tall. It has large, showy, pink flowers and lance-shaped leaves. Its relative, the dwarf fireweed (Epilobium latifolium), grows 30 to 60 centimeters tall.

Habitat and Distribution: Tall fireweed is found in open woods, on hillsides, on stream banks, and near seashores in arctic regions. It is especially abundant in burned-over areas. Dwarf fireweed is found along streams, sandbars, and lakeshores and on alpine and arctic slopes.

Edible Parts: The leaves, stems, and flowers are edible in the spring but become tough in summer. You can split open the stems of old plants and eat the pith raw.... Medicinal Plants

FISSURE

Medical Dictionary

A term applied both to clefts of normal anatomical structure and also to small narrow ulcers occurring in skin and mucous membrane. The latter type of ?ssure occurs especially at the corners of the mouth and at the anus. (See LIPS; RECTUM, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

FLEXURE

Medical Dictionary

A bend in an organ or body part. The term is used, for example, to describe the skin on the inner aspect of the elbow or knee, as in the ‘hepatic ?exure’ of the COLON.... Medical Dictionary

FLORENCE

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) A flourishing woman; a blooming flower

Florencia, Florentina, Florenza, Florentine, Florentyna, Florenteena, Florenteene, Florentyne, Florenteane, Florenteana... Medical Dictionary

FLUORESCEIN

Medical Dictionary

A dye which has the special property of absorbing blue-light energy and emitting this energy as green light. This property is made use of in examining the cornea for scratches or ulceration; it is also used to detect abnormally permeable (or leaking) blood vessels in the retina and iris – especially in diabetic retinopathy and diseases of the macula (see EYE; EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

FOENICULUM VULGARE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Mill.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated mainly in Punjab, Assam, Maharashtra and Vadodara (Gujarat).

English: Fennel. (Poison hemlock has been misidentified as fennel.)

Ayurvedic: Mishreyaa, Mishi, Mad- hurikaa, Madhuraa, Shatapushpaa, Shataahvaa. (Shatpushpaa is equated with Saunf and Shataahvaa with Soyaa. Some authors treat these as vice-versa.)

Unani: Baadiyaan, Saunf.

Siddha/Tamil: Sombu.

Action: Carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, anti-inflammatory, diuretic. Relieves bloating, nausea, settles stomach and stimulates appetite. Also used in amenorrhoea and enuresis.

Key application: In dyspepsias such as mild, spastic, gastrointestinal afflictions, fullness, flatulence. Fennel syrup or honey can be used for the catarrh of the upper respiratory tract in children. Fennel oil preparations not recommended during pregnancy. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.)

German Commission E reported that fennel seed promotes gastrointestinal motility and in higher concentrations acts as antispasmodic. In experiments anethole and fenchone have been shown to have a secre- tolytic action in respiratory tract. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia report its carminative and spasmolytic property.

Fennel seed contain about 8% volatile oil (about 50-60% anethole, among others 10-15% fenchone and methyl- chavicol), flavonoids, coumarins (including bergapten) and sterols.

The extract of seeds inhibits the growth of micro-organism, especially Streptococcus mutans, that are responsible for dental caries and periodontal diseases.

The essential oil from the seed is reported to be antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, emmenagogue, oxytocic and abortifacient.

The fatty acid, petroselenic acid, obtained from the oil, exhibited antimicrobial activity.

Anethole, a major constituent of fennel seed/oil has been found to be an active estrogenic agent with minimal hepatotoxicity and no teratogenic effect.

The oil also exhibits anticarcino- genic activity and can be used as a che- moprotective agent.

It possesses antioxidant activity close to BHT.

Anethole and limonene are used in pharmaceutical compositions for decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy and increasing the immune function.

Limonene showed the capacity to inhibit mammary tumours in rats.

The boiling water extract of leaves shows hypotensive effect in rats.

The methanolic extract of seed showed antispasmodic activity, while aqueous extract accelerated the spontaneous movement of rabbit stomach.

Dosage: Dried fruit—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FORCED DIURESIS

Medical Dictionary

A means of encouraging EXCRETION via the KIDNEYS of a compound by altering the pH and increasing the volume of the urine. Forced diuresis is occasionally used after drug overdoses, but is potentially dangerous and so only suitable where proper intensive monitoring of the patient is possible. Excretion of acid compounds, such as salicylates, can be encouraged by raising the pH of the urine to 7·5–8·5 by the administration of an alkali such as bicarbonate (forced alkali diuresis) and that of bases, such as AMPHETAMINES, by lowering the pH of the urine to 5·5–6·5 by giving an acid such as ammonium chloride (forced acid diuresis).... Medical Dictionary

FORENSIC MEDICINE

Medical Dictionary

That branch of medicine concerned with matters of law and the solving of crimes, for example, by determining the cause of a death in suspicious circumstances or identifying a criminal by examining tissue found at the scene of a crime. The use of DNA identi?cation to establish who was present at the ‘scene of the crime’ is now a widely used procedure in forensic medicine.... Medical Dictionary

FORESKIN

Medical Dictionary

See PREPUCE.... Medical Dictionary

FOREST

Medical Dictionary

(English) A woodland dweller Forrest... Medical Dictionary

FOREVER

Medical Dictionary

(American) Everlasting... Medical Dictionary

FORMAL CARE

Community Health

See “formal assistance”.... Community Health

FOSTER CARE

Community Health

A form of assisted housing, usually provided in private homes owned and occupied by individuals or families, offering a place of residence, meals, housekeeping services, minimum supervision, and personal care for a fee to non-family members who do not require supervision by skilled medical personnel.... Community Health

FRACTURES

Medical Dictionary

See BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.... Medical Dictionary

FREA

Medical Dictionary

(Scandinavian) A noble woman... Medical Dictionary

FRECKLES

Medical Dictionary

Also known as ephelides, these are small, brown, ?at spots on the skin. They occur mostly in blonde or red-haired subjects in exposed areas, and darken on exposure to the sun. Melanocytes (see MELANOCYTE) are not increased in the basal layer of the EPIDERMIS.... Medical Dictionary

FREDELLA

Medical Dictionary

(American) Feminine form of Frederick; a peaceful ruler Fredela, Fredelle, Fredell, Fredele, Fredel... Medical Dictionary

FREDERICA

Medical Dictionary

(German) Feminine form of Frederick; a peaceful ruler Frederika, Fredrika, Fredrica, Fredericka, Fredricka, Frederyca, Federikke, Freda, Frida, Fryda, Fredda, Fridda, Freddi, Freddie, Frieda, Freida, Frici, Frideborg, Friede, Friedegard, Friedegarde, Friederika, Friederike, Frikka, Fritzi, Fritzie... Medical Dictionary

FREE ASSOCIATION

Medical Dictionary

A psychoanalytic technique in which the therapist encourages the patient to follow up a speci?c line of thought and ideas as they enter his or her consciousness.... Medical Dictionary

FREEDOM

Medical Dictionary

(American) An independent woman Free... Medical Dictionary

FREESIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Resembling the flower Freesiah, Freasia, Freasiah, Freesea, Freeseah, Freasea, Freaseah, Freezia, Freazia, Freeziah, Freaziah... Medical Dictionary

FREEZE DRYING

Medical Dictionary

A technique for ?xating specimens of tissue, involving a minimum of chemical and physical alteration. The histological specimen is immersed in a chemical, isopentane, which has been cooled in liquid air to a temperature just below 200 °C. This preserves the tissue instantly without large ice crystals forming – these would result in structural damage. The specimen is then dehydrated in a vacuum for three days, after which it can be examined using a MICROSCOPE.... Medical Dictionary

FREIRA

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) A sister Freirah, Freyira, Freyirah... Medical Dictionary

FREMITUS

Medical Dictionary

Tremors or vibrations in an area of the body, detected by palpating (feeling) with the ?ngers or the hand or by auscultation (listening). The procedure is most commonly used when examining the chest and assessing what happens when the patient breathes, coughs or speaks. This helps the doctor to diagnose whether disorders such as ?uid in the pleural cavity or solidi?cation of a section of the lung have occurred.

Friction fremitus is a grating feeling communicated to the hand by the movements of lungs or heart when the membrane covering them is roughened, as in PLEURISY or PERICARDITIS. Vocal fremitus means the sensation felt by the hand when a person speaks; it is increased when the lung is more solid than usual. The ‘thrills’ felt over a heart a?ected by valvular disease are also varieties of fremitus.... Medical Dictionary

FRENUM

Medical Dictionary

Also known as the fraenum or frenulum, this comprises the folds of mucous membrane that anchor the bottom of the tongue to the ?oor of the mouth.... Medical Dictionary

FRENZY

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Violent temporary mental derangement... Medicinal Plants Glossary

FREQUENCY

Community Health

See “occurrence”.... Community Health

FREQUENCY

Medical Dictionary

(1) The number of regular recurrences of an event during a given period of time. Examples in medicine are the heartbeat, and sound vibrations in the EAR or vocal cords.

(2) The word is also used to describe frequent passage of urine, a symptom that is usually caused by disorders in the urinary tract – for example, an infection; or any systemic disease which increases the daily output of urine – for example, DIABETES MELLITUS and DIABETES INSIPIDUS or disorders of the kidney.... Medical Dictionary

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

Community Health

A complete summary of the frequencies of the values or categories of a variable. Often displayed in a two-column table: the left column lists the individual values or categories, the right column indicates the number of observations in each category.... Community Health

FREUDIAN THEORY

Medical Dictionary

A theory that emotional and allied diseases are due to a psychic injury or trauma, generally of a sexual nature, which did not produce an adequate reaction when it was received and therefore remains as a subconscious or ‘a?ect’ memory to trouble the patient’s mind. As an extension of this theory, Freudian treatment consists of encouraging the patient to tell everything that happens to be associated with trains of thought which lead up to this memory, thus securing a ‘purging’ of the mind from the original ‘a?ect memory’ which is the cause of the symptoms. This form of treatment is also called psychocatharsis or abreaction.

The general term, psychoanalysis, is applied, in the ?rst place, to the method of helping the patient to recover buried memories by free association of thoughts. In the second place, the term is applied to the body of psychological knowledge and theory accumulated and devised by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and his followers. The term ‘psychoanalyst’ has traditionally been applied to those who have undergone Freudian training, but Freud’s ideas are being increasingly questioned by some modern psychiatrists.... Medical Dictionary

FREYA

Medical Dictionary

(Norse) A lady; in mythology, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility Freyah, Freyja, Freja... Medical Dictionary

FREYDIS

Medical Dictionary

(Norse) Woman born into the nobility

Freydiss, Freydisse, Freydys, Fredyss, Fraidis, Fradis, Fraydis, Fraedis, Fraidys, Fradys, Fraedys... Medical Dictionary

FRIEDREICH’S ATAXIA

Medical Dictionary

A hereditary disease resembling LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA, and due to degenerative changes in nerve tracts and nerve cells of the spinal cord and the brain. It occurs usually in children, or at any rate before the 20th year of life, and a?ects often several brothers and sisters. Its chief symptoms are unsteadiness of gait, with loss of the knee jerks, followed later by di?culties of speech, tremors of the hands, head and eyes, deformity of the feet, and curvature of the spine. There is often associated heart disease. The su?erer gets gradually worse, but may live, with increasing disability, for 20–30 years.... Medical Dictionary

FRINGE-TREE

Herbal Manual

Chionanthus virginica. N.O. Oleaceae.

Synonym: Old Man's Beard, Snowdrop Tree.

Habitat: U.S.A

Features ? A small tree with snow-white flowers which hang down like fringe—hence the common name and synonyms. Root about one-eighth inch thick, dull brown with irregular concave scars on outer surface, inside smooth, yellowish-brown. Fracture short, inner layer shows projecting bundles of stone cells. Very bitter taste.

Part used ? Root bark.

Action: Alterative, hepatic, diuretic, tonic.

In stomach and liver disorders, and poor digestive functioning generally. Also finds a place in gall-stone prescriptions and those for certain female disorders, in which latter Pulsatilla is another frequent constituent. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken internally in 1-4 tablespoonful doses, and is applied as lotion and injection.... Herbal Manual

FUNCTIONS THE CHIEF USES OF THE TONGUE ARE:

Medical Dictionary

to push the food between the teeth for mastication, and then mould it into a bolus preparatory to swallowing;

as the organ of the sense of taste, and as an organ provided with a delicate sense of touch; and

to play a part in the production of speech. (See VOICE AND SPEECH.) It is usual to classify any taste as: sweet, bitter,

salt and acid, since ?ner distinctions are largely dependent upon the sense of smell. The loss of keenness in taste brought about by a cold in the head, or even by holding the nose while swallowing, is well known. Sweet tastes seem to be best appreciated by the tip of the tongue, acids on its edges, and bitters at the back. There are probably di?erent nerve-?bres and end-organs for the di?erent varieties of taste. Many tastes depend upon the ordinary sensations of the tongue.

Like other sensations, taste can be very highly educated for a time, as in tea-tasters and wine-tasters, but this special adaptation is lost after some years.... Medical Dictionary

FUTILE MEDICAL TREATMENT

Community Health

Treatment that is usually considered unable to produce the desired benefit either because it cannot achieve its physiological aim or because the burdens of the treatment are considered to outweigh the benefits for the particular individual. There are necessary value judgements involved in coming to an assessment of futility. These judgements must consider the individual’s, or proxy’s, assessment of worthwhile outcome. They should also take into account the medical practitioner or other provider’s perception of intent in treatment. They may also take into account community and institutional standards, which in turn may have used physiological or functional outcome measures.... Community Health

GAG REFLEX

Medical Dictionary

Assessment of victims of major trauma must include maintenance of their airways and breathing. Any false teeth, vomitus and foreign bodies should be removed, and the response to digital stimulation of the posterior pharyngeal wall – the ‘gag re?ex’ – assessed. Even with a normal gag re?ex, the airway may be seriously threatened if vomiting occurs. During the initial stages of resuscitation, careful and constant supervision of the airway is essential, with a high-volume sucker immediately available. If the gag re?ex is absent or impaired, an endotracheal tube should be inserted (see ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION).... Medical Dictionary

GANGRENE

Medical Dictionary

Necrosis and putrefaction of tissue due to lack of blood supply... Medical Dictionary

GANGRENE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

The death and decay of body tissues caused by a de?ciency or cessation of the blood supply. There are two types: dry and moist. The former is a process of mummi?cation, with the blood supply of the a?ected area of tissue stopping and the tissue withering up. Moist gangrene is characterised by putrefactive tissue decay caused by bacterial infection. The dead part, when formed of soft tissues, is called a slough and, when part of a bone, is called a sequestrum.

Causes These include injury – especially that sustained in war – disease, FROSTBITE, severe burns, ATHEROMA in large blood vessels, and diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS and RAYNAUD’S DISEASE. Gas gangrene is a form that occurs when injuries are infected with soil contaminated with gas-producing bacilli such as Clostridium welchii, which are found in well-cultivated ground.

Treatment Dry gangrene must be kept dry, and AMPUTATION of the dead tissue performed when a clear demarcation line with healthy tissue has formed. Wet gangrene requires urgent surgery and prompt use of appropriate antibiotics.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

GARCINIA MORELLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Gaertn) Desv.

Synonym: G. pictoria Roxb.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout southern India, also in Assam and West Bengal, up to 1,000 m

English: Indian Gamboge.

Ayurvedic: Kankushtha, Tamaal, Taapichha, Ushaare-revand.

Siddha/Tamil: Iravakhinni.

Action: Gum-resin—hydragogue, cathartic, anthelmintic. Used in dropy and amenorrhoea. Causes nausea, vomiting and griping in large doses.

The gum contains morellin, neo- morellin, beta-guttiferin and alpha- guttiferin and their derivatives. The heartwood gave morelloflavone. Seed coat gave morellin, isomorellin and their neo derivatives which exhibited antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity.

Dosage: Gum-resin—50-125 mg. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GARDENIA RESINIFERA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roth.

Synonym: G. lucida Roxb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Central India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Naadihingu (related species), Jantuka.

Unani: Dikaamaali.

Siddha/Tamil: Kambil, Kumbai, Dikkamalli.

Action: Gum—antimicrobial, anthelmintic; used in skin diseases. Gum gave flavonoids—gardenins, wagonin derivatives, de-Me- tangeretin, nevadensin, hexacosyl- p-coumarate. See G. gummifera.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GARDNERELLA

Herbal Medical

Formerly H¾mophilus, this is an anaerobic bacteria that is a main contributor to bacterial vaginosis. It is sometimes sexually transmitted, but can stick around for years as a passive part of the vaginal flora, only to flare up. It seems to occur in up to a quarter of relatively monogamous women and in half of women with multiple male partners. As bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella is one of the three main causes of vaginal discharges, along with Trichomonas and Candida albicans. Antibiotic therapy for male partners seems of only marginal value, and the distinguishing characteristic of the infection is nearly no Lactobacillus vaginal presence, the main part of the flora that retains the lactic acid and peroxide balance so important in a healthy vagina. Live culture yogurt, as both food and douches help the problem.... Herbal Medical

GAS GANGRENE

Medical Dictionary

See GANGRENE.... Medical Dictionary

GASTRECTOMY

Medical Dictionary

A major operation to remove the whole or part of the STOMACH. Total gastrectomy is a rare operation, usually performed when a person has cancer of the stomach; the OESPHAGUS is then connected to the DUODENUM. Sometimes cancer of the stomach can be treated by doing a partial gastrectomy: the use of partial gastrectomy to treat PEPTIC ULCER used to be common before the advent of e?ective drug therapy.

The operation is sometimes still done if the patient has failed to respond to dietary treatment and treatment with H2-blocking drugs (see CIMETIDINE; RANITIDINE) along with antibiotics to combat Helicobacter pylori, an important contributary factor to ulcer development. Partial gastrectomy is usually accompanied by VAGOTOMY, which involves cutting the VAGUS nerve controlling acid secretion in the stomach. Among the side-e?ects of gastrectomy are fullness and discomfort after meals; formation of ulcers at the new junction between the stomach and duodenum which may lead to GASTRITIS and oesophagitis (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF); dumping syndrome (nausea, sweating and dizziness because the food leaves the stomach too quickly after eating); vomiting and diarrhoea. The side-e?ects usually subside but may need dietary and drug treatment.... Medical Dictionary

GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX

Medical Dictionary

A disorder in which the contents of the STOMACH back up into the OESOPHAGUS because the usual neuromuscular mechanisms for preventing this are intermittently or permanently failing to work properly. If persistent, the failure may cause oesophagitis (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF). If a person develops HEARTBURN, regurgitation, discomfort and oesophagitis, the condition is called gastro-oesophageal re?ux disease (GORD) and sometimes symptoms are so serious as to warrant surgery. Gastrooesophageal re?ux is sometimes associated with HIATUS HERNIA.

Gastro-oesophageal disease should be diagnosed in those patients who are at risk of physical complications from the re?ux. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms present or by monitoring the production of acid using a pH probe inserted into the oesophagus through the mouth, since lesions are not usually visible on ENDOSCOPY. Severe heartburn, caused by the lining of the oesophagus being damaged by acid and PEPSIN from the stomach, is commonly confused with DYSPEPSIA. Treatment should start with graded doses of one of the PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS; if this is not e?ective after several months, surgery to remedy the re?ux may be required, but the e?ects are not easily predictable.... Medical Dictionary

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX

Herbal Medical

The involuntary regurgitation of stomach contents or surface acids into the throat, with heartburn; it can be simple or serious.... Herbal Medical

GENE EXPRESSION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The full use of the information in a gene via transcription and translation leading to production of a protein.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

GENETIC SCREENING

Medical Dictionary

A screening procedure that tests whether a person has a genetic make-up that is linked with a particular disease. If so, the person may either develop the disease or pass it on to his or her o?spring. When an individual has been found to carry a genetically linked disease, he or she should receive genetic counselling from an expert in inherited diseases.

Genetic screening is proving to be a controversial subject. Arguments are developing over whether the results of such screenings should be made available to employers and insurance companies – a move that could have adverse consequences for some individuals with potentially harmful genetic make-ups. (See GENES; GENETIC DISORDERS.)... Medical Dictionary

GENNESARET

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) From the garden of riches... Medical Dictionary

GEOPHILA REPENS

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) I. M. Johnson.

Synonym: G. reniformis D. Don.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Western Ghats and Andaman Islands.

Folk: Karintakaali (Kerala).

Action: Properties are similar (though inferior) to those of Ipeac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Rich.).... Indian Medicinal Plants

GERIATRIC CARE

Community Health

Care of older persons that encompasses a wide range of treatments from intensive care to palliative care.... Community Health

GERIATRIC CENTRE

Community Health

A facility specializing in services for older persons which include acute care, geriatric assessment, rehabilitation, medical and nursing services, therapy services and residential care.... Community Health

GILLES DE LA TOURETTE’S SYNDROME

Medical Dictionary

Also known as Tourette’s syndrome, this is a hereditary condition of severe and multiple tics (see TIC) of motor or vocal origin. It usually starts in childhood and becomes chronic (with remissions). With a prevalance of one in 2,000, a dominant gene (see GENES) with variable expression may be responsible. The disorder is associated with explosive vocal tics and grunts, occasionally obscene (see COPROLALIA). The patient may also involuntarily repeat the words or imitate the actions of others (see PALILALIA). HALOPERIDOL, pimozide (an oral antipsychotic drug similar to CHLORPROMAZINE hydrochloride) and clonidine are among drugs that may help to control this distressing, but fortunately rare, disorder.... Medical Dictionary

GIRONNIERA RETICULATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Thw.

Synonym: G. cuspidata Kurz.

Family: Ulmaceae.

Habitat: Northeastern parts of India and in Deccan Peninsula.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodaittani.

Folk: Narakyaa-ood (Maharashtra, Indian bazar).

Action: Blood-purifier in itch and cutaneous eruptions; mixed with lemon juice, applied externally.

The wood contains a skatole and silica (0.86-1.2%).

Family: Aizoaceae.

Habitat: Drier parts of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Elavaaluka (var.). (Prunus cerasus Linn., Rosaceae, is the accepted source of Elavaaluka.)

Folk: Baalu-ka-saag, Morang, Sareli.

Action: Anthelmintic. Fresh herb is used for taenia.

The plant contains triacontane, do- triacontane, myristone, sugars, and flavonoids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GMELINA ARBOREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: Premna arborea Roth.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 1,700 m on the hills and in Andaman Island; also grown in gardens.

English: Candahar tree, White Teak.

Ayurvedic: Gambhaari, Kaash- mari, Kaashmarya, Sarvatobhadraa, Bhadra, Mahaabhadraa, Sadaab- hadraa, Madhuparnikaa, Sriparni, Pitarohini, Hiraa, Bhadraparni, Trishati.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattanam, Kumizham

Action: Leaf—demulcent, bechic. Used for removing foetid dis charges from ulcers. Root— stomachic, laxative, antibilious, demulcent, galactagogue. Bark— anticephalalgic. Root and bark— febrifuge.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the use of the bark and stem in inflammatory diseases and oedema; the fruit in dysuria and haem- orrhagic diseases.

The heartwood contains lignans, ar- borone, 7-oxodihydrogmelinol, pau- lownin acetate and epieudesmin; me- trans-p-methoxycinnamate and trans- p-hydroxycinnamic acid.

Alcoholic extract of stem bark showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone.

Dosage: Root, root bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)

The leaves show antibiotic activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GODFREYA

Medical Dictionary

(German) Feminine form of Godfrey; having the peace of God Godfredya, Gotfreya, Godafrid, Godajryd... Medical Dictionary

GOITRE

Medical Dictionary

Enlargement of the thyroid gland... Medical Dictionary

GOITRE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Goitre is a term applied to a swelling in the front of the neck caused by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND. The thyroid lies between the skin and the front of the windpipe and in health is not large enough to be seen. The four main varieties of goitre are the simple goitre, the nodular, the lymphadenoid goitre and the toxic goitre. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.)... Medicinal Plants Glossary

GOITRE

Medical Dictionary

SIMPLE GOITRE A benign enlargement of the THYROID GLAND with normal production of hormone. It is ENDEMIC in certain geographical areas where there is IODINE de?ciency. Thus, if iodine intake is de?cient, the production of thyroid hormone is threatened and the anterior PITUITARY GLAND secretes increased amounts of thyrotrophic hormone with consequent overgrowth of the thyroid gland. Simple goitres in non-endemic areas may occur at puberty, during pregnancy and at the menopause, which are times of increased demand for thyroid hormone. The only e?ective treament is thyroid replacement therapy to suppress the enhanced production of thyrotrophic hormone. The prevalence of endemic goitre can be, and has been, reduced by the iodinisation of domestic salt in many countries. NODULAR GOITRES do not respond as well as the di?use goitres to THYROXINE treatment. They are usually the result of alternating episodes of hyperplasia and involution which lead to permanent thyroid enlargement. The only e?ective way of curing a nodular goitre is to excise it, and THYROIDECTOMY should be recommended if the goitre is causing pressure symptoms or if there is a suspicion of malignancy. LYMPHADENOID GOITRES are due to the production of ANTIBODIES against antigens (see ANTIGEN) in the thyroid gland. They are an example of an autoimmune disease. They tend to occur in the third and fourth decade and the gland is much ?rmer than the softer gland of a simple goitre. Lymphadenoid goitres respond to treatment with thyroxine. TOXIC GOITRES may occur in thyrotoxicosis (see below), although much less frequently autonomous nodules of a nodular goitre may be responsible for the increased production of thyroxine and thus cause thyrotoxicosis. Thyrotoxicosis is also an autoimmune disease in which an antibody is produced that stimulates the thyroid to produce excessive amounts of hormone, making the patient thyrotoxic.

Rarely, an enlarged gland may be the result of cancer in the thyroid.

Treatment A symptomless goitre may gradually disappear or be so small as not to merit treatment. If the goitre is large or is causing the patient di?culty in swallowing or breathing, it may need surgical removal by partial or total thyroidectomy. If the patient is de?cient in iodine, ?sh and iodised salt should be included in the diet.

Hyperthyroidism is a common disorder a?ecting 2–5 per cent of all females at some time in their lives. The most common cause – around 75 per cent of cases – is thyrotoxicosis (see below). An ADENOMA (or multiple adenomas) or nodules in the thyroid also cause hyperthyroidism. There are several other rare causes, including in?ammation caused by a virus, autoimune reactions and cancer. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism a?ect many of the body’s systems as a consequence of the much-increased metabolic rate.

Thyrotoxicosis is a syndrome consisting of di?use goitre (enlarged thyroid gland), over-activity of the gland and EXOPHTHALMOS (protruding eyes). Patients lose weight and develop an increased appetite, heat intolerance and sweating. They are anxious, irritable, hyperactive, su?er from TACHYCARDIA, breathlessness and muscle weakness and are sometimes depressed. The hyperthyroidism is due to the production of ANTIBODIES to the TSH receptor (see THYROTROPHIN-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)) which stimulate the receptor with resultant production of excess thyroid hormones. The goitre is due to antibodies that stimulate the growth of the thyroid gland. The exoph-

thalmos is due to another immunoglobulin called the ophthalmopathic immunoglobulin, which is an antibody to a retro-orbital antigen on the surface of the retro-orbital EYE muscles. This provokes in?ammation in the retro-orbital tissues which is associated with the accumulation of water and mucopolysaccharide which ?lls the orbit and causes the eye to protrude forwards.

Although thyrotoxicosis may a?ect any age-group, the peak incidence is in the third decade. Females are a?ected ten times as often as males; the prevalence in females is one in 500. As with many other autoimmune diseases, there is an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in the relatives of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Some of these patients may have hypothyroidism (see below) and others, thyrotoxicosis. Patients with thyrotoxicosis may present with a goitre or with the eye signs or, most commonly, with the symptoms of excess thyroid hormone production. Thyroid hormone controls the metabolic rate of the body so that the symptoms of hyperthyroidism are those of excess metabolism.

The diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis is con?rmed by the measurement of the circulating levels of the two thyroid hormones, thyroxine and TRIIODOTHYRONINE.

Treatment There are several e?ective treatments for thyrotoxicosis. ANTITHYROID DRUGS These drugs inhibit the iodination of tyrosine and hence the formation of the thyroid hormones. The most commonly used drugs are carbimazole and propylthiouricil: these will control the excess production of thyroid hormones in virtually all cases. Once the patient’s thyroid is functioning normally, the dose can be reduced to a maintenance level and is usually continued for two years. The disadvantage of antithyroid drugs is that after two years’ treatment nearly half the patients will relapse and will then require more de?nitive therapy. PARTIAL THYROIDECTOMY Removal of three-quarters of the thyroid gland is e?ective treatment of thyrotoxicosis. It is the treatment of choice in those patients with large goitres. The patient must however be treated with medication so that they are euthyroid (have a normally functioning thyroid) before surgery is undertaken, or thyroid crisis and cardiac arrhythmias may complicate the operation. RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY This has been in use for many years, and is an e?ective means of controlling hyperthyroidism. One of the disadvantages of radioactive iodine is that the incidence of hypothyroidism is much greater than with other forms of treatment. However, the management of hypothyroidism is simple and requires thyroxine tablets and regular monitoring for hypothyroidism. There is no evidence of any increased incidence of cancer of the thyroid or LEUKAEMIA following radio-iodine therapy. It has been the pattern in Britain to reserve radio-iodine treatment to those over the age of 35, or those whose prognosis is unlikely to be more than 30 years as a result of cardiac or respiratory disease. Radioactive iodine treatment should not be given to a seriously thyrotoxic patient. BETA-ADRENOCEPTOR-BLOCKING DRUGS Usually PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE: useful for symptomatic treatment during the ?rst 4–8 weeks until the longer-term drugs have reduced thyroid activity.

Hypothyroidism A condition resulting from underactivity of the thyroid gland. One form, in which the skin and subcutaneous tissues thicken and result in a coarse appearance, is called myxoedema. The thyroid gland secretes two hormones – thyroxine and triiodothyronine – and these hormones are responsible for the metabolic activity of the body. Hypothyroidism may result from developmental abnormalities of the gland, or from a de?ciency of the enzymes necessary for the synthesis of the hormones. It may be a feature of endemic goitre and retarded development, but the most common cause of hypothyroidism is the autoimmune destruction of the thyroid known as chronic thyroiditis. It may also occur as a result of radio-iodine treatment of thyroid overactivity (see above) and is occasionally secondary to pituitary disease in which inadequate TSH production occurs. It is a common disorder, occurring in 14 per 1,000 females and one per 1,000 males. Most patients present between the age of 30 and 60 years.

Symptoms As thyroid hormones are responsible for the metabolic rate of the body, hypothyroidism usually presents with a general sluggishness: this a?ects both physical and mental activities. The intellectual functions become slow, the speech deliberate and the formation of ideas and the answers to questions take longer than in healthy people. Physical energy is reduced and patients frequently complain of lethargy and generalised muscle aches and pains. Patients become intolerant of the cold and the skin becomes dry and swollen. The LARYNX also becomes swollen and gives rise to a hoarseness of the voice. Most patients gain weight and develop constipation. The skin becomes dry and yellow due to the presence of increased carotene. Hair becomes thinned and brittle and even baldness may develop. Swelling of the soft tissues may give rise to a CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME and middle-ear deafness. The diagnosis is con?rmed by measuring the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood, which are low, and of the pituitary TSH which is raised in primary hypothyroidism.

Treatment consists of the administration of thyroxine. Although tri-iodothyronine is the metabolically active hormone, thyroxine is converted to tri-iodothyronine by the tissues of the body. Treatment should be started cautiously and slowly increased to 0·2 mg daily – the equivalent of the maximum output of the thyroid gland. If too large a dose is given initially, palpitations and tachycardia are likely to result; in the elderly, heart failure may be precipitated.

Congenital hypothyroidism Babies may be born hypothyroid as a result of having little or no functioning thyroid-gland tissue. In the developed world the condition is diagnosed by screening, all newborn babies having a blood test to analyse TSH levels. Those found positive have a repeat test and, if the diagnosis is con?rmed, start on thyroid replacement therapy within a few weeks of birth. As a result most of the ill-e?ects of cretinism can be avoided and the children lead normal lives.

Thyroiditis In?ammation of the thyroid gland. The acute form is usually caused by a bacterial infection elsewhere in the body: treatment with antibiotics is needed. Occasionally a virus may be the infectious agent. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder causing hypothyroidism (reduced activity of the gland). Subacute thyroiditis is in?ammation of unknown cause in which the gland becomes painful and the patient su?ers fever, weight loss and malaise. It sometimes lasts for several months but is usually self-limiting.

Thyrotoxic adenoma A variety of thyrotoxicosis (see hyperthyroidism above) in which one of the nodules of a multinodular goitre becomes autonomous and secretes excess thyroid hormone. The symptoms that result are similar to those of thyrotoxicosis, but there are minor di?erences.

Treatment The ?rst line of treatment is to render the patient euthyroid by treatment with antithyroid drugs. Then the nodule should be removed surgically or destroyed using radioactive iodine.

Thyrotoxicosis A disorder of the thyroid gland in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones are secreted into the bloodstream. Resultant symptoms are tachycardia, tremor, anxiety, sweating, increased appetite, weight loss and dislike of heat. (See hyperthyroidism above.)... Medical Dictionary

GONADORELIN

Medical Dictionary

A hormone that stimulates the PITUITARY GLAND to secrete three hormones: gonadotrophic, luteinising and follicle-stimulating. Gonadorelin can be made arti?cially and given by intravenous injection. It is used to stimulate the OVARIES when treating infertile women, and to investigate suspected disease of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Analogues of the hormone (buserelin and goserelin) are chemically similar and can be used to suppress release of gonadorelin, so cutting the production of pituitary hormones. The two analogues are given to treat

ENDOMETRIOSIS, breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) and prostate cancer (see PROSTATE GLAND, DISEASES OF).... Medical Dictionary

GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated all over India as a fibre plant.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GRAY OR GREY LITERATURE

Community Health

Research reports that are not found in traditional peer-reviewed publications, such as government agency monographs, symposium proceedings and unpublished reports.... Community Health

GREATER AMMI

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Ammi majus

Apiaceae

Importance: Greater Ammi, also known as Bishop’s weed or Honey plant is an annual or biennial herb which is extensively used in the treatment of leucoderma (vitiligo) and psoriasis. The compounds responsible for this are reported to be furocoumarins like ammoidin (xanthotoxin), ammidin (imperatorin) and majudin (bergapten) present in the seed. Xanthotoxin is marketed under the trade name “Ox soralen” which is administered orally in doses of 50 mg t.d. or applied externally as 1% liniment followed by exposure of affected areas to sunlight or UV light for 2 hours. It is also used in “Suntan lotion”. Meladinine is a by-product of Ammi majus processing, containing both xanthotoxin and imperatorin sold in various formulations increases pigmentation of normal skin and induces repigmentation in vitiligo. Imperatorin has antitumour activity. Fruit or seed causes photosensitization in fouls and sheep.

Distribution: The plant is indigenous to Egypt and it grows in the Nile Valley, especially in Behira and Fayoom. It is also found in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, in Syria, Palestine, Abyssinia, West Africa, in some regions of Iran and the mountains of Kohaz (Ramadan, 1982). It grows wild in the wild state in Abbottabad, Mainwali, Mahran and is cultivated in Pakistan. The crop was introduced to India in the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, in 1955 through the courtesy of UNESCO. Since then, the crop has been grown for its medicinal fruit in several places in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Kashmir and Tamil Nadu.

Botany: Ammi majus Linn. belongs to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). A. visnaga is another related species of medicinal importance. A. majus is an annual or beinnial herb growing to a height of 80 to 120 cm. It has a long tap root, solid erect stem, decompound leaves, light green alternate, variously pinnately divided, having lanceolate to oval segments. Inflorescence is axillary and terminal compound umbels with white flowers. The fruits are ribbed, ellipsoid, green to greenish brown when immature, turning reddish brown at maturity and having a characteristic terebinthinate odour becoming strong on crushing with extremely pungent and slightly bitter taste.

Agrotechnology: Ammi is relatively cold loving and it comes up well under subtropical and temperate conditions. It does not prefer heavy rainfall. Though the plant is biennial it behaves as an annual under cultivation in India. A mild cool climate in the early stages of crop growth and a warm dry weather at maturity is ideal. It is cultivated as a winter annual crop in rabi season. A wide variety of soils from sandy loam to clay loam are suitable. However, a well drained loamy soil is the best. Waterlogged soils are not good. Being a hardy crop, it thrives on poor and degraded soils.

The plant is seed propagated. Seeds germinate within 10-12 days of sowing. The best time of sowing is October and the crop duration is 160-170 days in north India. Crop sown later gives lower yield. The crop can be raised either by direct sowing of seed or by raising a nursery and then transplanting the crop. Seed rate is 2 kg/ha. The land is brought to a fine tilth by repeated ploughing and harrowing. Ridges and furrows are then formed at 45-60 cm spacing. Well decomposed FYM at 10-15 t/ha and basal fertilisers are incorporated in the furrows. Seeds being very small are mixed with fine sand or soil, sown in furrows and covered lightly with a thin layer of soil. A fertilizer dose of 80:30:30 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha is generally recommended for the crop while 150:40:40 kg/ha is suggested in poor soils for better yields. The furocoumarin content of Ammi majus is increased by N fertiliser and the N use efficiency increases with split application of N at sowing, branching and at flowering. For obtaining high yields it is essential to give one or two hoeings during November to February which keeps down the weeds. If winter rains fail, one irrigation is essential during November to January. As the harvesting season is spread over a long period of time, two irrigations during March and April meets the requirements of the crop (Chadha and Gupta, 1995).

White ants and cut worms are reported to attack the crop which can be controlled by spraying the crop with 40g carbaryl in 10 l of water. Damping off and powdery mildew are the common diseases of the crop. Seed treatment with organomercuric compounds is recommended for damping off. To control powdery mildew the crop is to be sprayed with 30g wettable sulphur in 10 l of water whenever noticed.

The crop flowers in February. Flowering and maturity of seed is spread over a long period of two months. The primary umbels and the early maturing secondary umbels are the major contributors to yield. A little delay in harvesting results in the shattering of the seed which is the main constraint in the commercial cultivation of the crop and the main reason for low yields in India. Sobti et al (1978) have reported increased yield by 50 - 60% by the application of planofix at 5 ppm at flower initiation and fruit formation stages. The optimum time of harvest is the mature green stage of the fruit in view of the reduced losses due to shattering and maximum contents of furocoumarins. The primary umbels mature first within 35-45 days. These are harvested at an interval of 2-4 days. Later, the early appearing secondary umbels are harvested. Afterwards, the entire crop is harvested, stored for a couple of days and then threshed to separate the seeds. The seed yield is 900-1200 kg/ha.

Postharvest technology: The processing of seed involves solvent extraction of powdered seeds, followed by chilling and liquid extraction and chromatographic separation after treatment with alcoholic HCl. Bergapten, xanthotoxin and xanthotoxol can be separated. Xanthotoxol can be methylated and the total xanthotoxin can be purified by charcoal treatment in acetone or alcohol.

Properties and activity: Ammi majus fruit contains amorphous glucoside 1%, tannin 0.45%, oleoresin 4.76%, acrid oil 3.2%, fixed oil 12.92%, proteins 13.83% and cellulose 22.4%. This is one of the richest sources of linear furocoumarins. Ivie (1978) evaluated the furocoumarin chemistry of taxa Ammi majus and reported the presence of xanthotoxin, bergapten, imperatorin, oxypencedanin, heraclenin, sexalin, pabulenol and many other compounds. Furocoumarins have bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, larvicidal, moluscicidal, nematicidal, ovicidal, viricidal and herbicidal activities (Duke, 1988).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

GREATER GALANGAL

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Alpinia galanga

Zingiberaceae

San:Sugandhamula, Rasna;

Hin:Kulainjan; Mal:Aratta, Chittaratha;

Tam:Arattai;

Guj: Kolinjan;

Kan: Dumba-rasmi; Mar: Kosht-Kulinjan;

Tel: Pedda-dumparash-tram

Importance: The greater galangal, Java galangal or Siamese ginger is a perennial aromatic rhizomatous herb. This plant is cultivated for its rhizome in tropical areas of south and East India. Because of the presence of essential oil, the rhizomes are used in bronchial troubles and as a carminative. They are also useful in vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammations, stomatopathy, pharyngopathy, cough, asthma, hiccough, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, obesity, diabetes, cephalagia, tubercular glands and intermittent fevers. It is one of the ingredients of medicated “Pan” used for removing the foul smell of the mouth and getting relief in throat inflammation. In Ayurveda, “Rasna-saptak-kwath” and “Rasna-adikamath” are used as antiinflammatory decoctions. In Unani, it is an ingredient of aphrodisiac preparations, “Majun Mugawivi ma Mumsik”, “Majun Samagh”, and antispasmodic nervine tonic “Majun Chobchine” and “Lubab Motadil”. It is also used in “Arq Pan” as a cardiac stimulant and carminative.

Distribution: The Java galangal is mainly distributed in Eastern Himalayas and South-West India. This is very common in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Kerala, Karnataka and throughout the Western Ghats. It is cultivated also in these places. They are also found in countries like Sri Lanka and Malaya.

Botany: Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a perennial herb, about 2m high with lower portion covered with smooth leaf sheaths. The leaves are broadly lanceolate, 30-60cm long and 10-15cm broad. The flowers are arranged in erect, terminal panicles. composed of numerous spreading dichotomous branches each with two to six, pale greenish-white faintly fragrant flowers. Fruits 1.25 cm long, oblong, constricted in the middle or even pear shaped, three sided and deep orange red in colour. Seeds are ash coloured, three angled, finely striated towards the hilum. Both the seeds and rhizomes have pungent aroma.

Apinia calcarata (Linn.) Willd is another species of the genus with much medicinal importance. It is shorter in stature but stronger in aroma than Alpinia galanga.

Agrotechnology: Siamese Ginger comes up well in tropical climate. It grows on a wide range of climates and soils. Well drained hilly areas and places of 1400m high altitude are good for its cultivation. This is commercially propagated vegetatively by rhizomes. The field should be ploughed to a good tilth. All the stones and pebbles should be removed. Organic manures at 10t/ha are applied during land preparation. Seedbeds are prepared with 1m breadth, 2m length and 15cm height. Small pits are made at 25cm spacing above the seedbeds and 5cm long rhizomes are planted. Seedbeds are covered with dried leaves. It is irrigated immediately after planting. Regular weeding is needed during the initial stages of crop growth. This is cultivated also as an intercrop in coconut or rubber plantations. Rhizomes are dug out after cutting the top portions when the crop reaches 1.5-2 years of maturity. The average yield is 10-15 tonnes of fresh rhizomes/ha and the driage is 25-30%. The collected rhizomes are washed and cut into pieces of 5cm long and dried in sun for 4 days before sale.

Properties and activity: The rhizome contains tannins and flavonoids, some of which have been identified as kaempferide, galangin and alpinin. Seeds contain 1’-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1’-acetoxy eugenol acetate, antiulcer principles caryophyllenols I and II, n-pentadecane, 7-heptadecane and fatty acid methyl esters. Rhizomes yield essential oil containing methyl cinnamate, cineole and d-pinene and sesquiterpenoids. Fresh rhizome yielded 18 monoterpenoids of which -pinene, -pinene and limonene as major compounds and 17 oxygen containing monoterpenoids with cineol, terpinen-4-o1, and -terpineol as minor compounds.

The rhizomes are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, aromatic, nervine tonic, stimulant, revulsive, carminative, stomachic, disinfectant, aphrodisiac, expectorant, broncho-dilator, antifungal, febrifuge, antiinflammatory and tonic. Rhizome is CVS and CNS active, diuretic, hypothermic. Seed is antiulcerative. Rhizome spray in ether, over a space showed high knock down values against houseflies. Alcohol (50%) extract of rhizome is anti-amphetaminic. Unani physicians consider it good for impotence.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

GREEN CHIRETTA

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Andrographis paniculata

Acanthaceae

San: Bhunimbah, Kiratatiktah

Hin: Kakamegh, Kalpanath

Ben: Kalmegh

Mal: Nilaveppu, Kiriyattu Tam: Nilavempu Kan: Kreata

Importance: Kalmegh, the Great or Green Chiretta is a branched annual herb. It is useful in hyperdipsia, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic fever, malarial and intermittent fevers, inflammations, cough, bronchitis, skin diseases, leprosy, pruritis, intestinal worms, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and vitiated conditions of pitta (Warrier et al, 1993). It is used to overcome sannipata type of fever, difficulty in breathing, hemopathy due to the morbidity of kapha and pitta, burning sensation, cough, oedema, thirst, skin diseases, fever, ulcer and worms. It is also useful in acidity and liver complaints (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1962). The important preparations using the drug are Tiktakagheta, Gorocandi gulika, Candanasava, Panchatiktam kasaya, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). A preparation called “Alui” is prepared by mixing powdered cumin (Cuminium cyminum) and large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) in the juice of this plant and administered for the treatment of malaria (Thakur et al, 1989). It is also a rich source of minerals.

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout the tropics. It is found in the plains of India from U.P to Assam, M.P., A.P, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, also cultivated in gardens.

Botany: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall ex.

Nees belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It is an erect branched annual herb, 0.3-0.9m in height with quadrangular branches. Leaves are simple, lanceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous, with 4-6 pairs of main nerves. Flowers are small, pale but blotched and spotted with brown and purple distant in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles. Calyx-lobes are glandular pubescent with anthers bearded at the base. Fruits are linear capsules and acute at both ends. Seeds are numerous, yellowish brown and sub-quadrate (Warrier et al,1993).

Another species of Andrographis is A. echioides (Linn.) Nees. It is found in the warmer parts of India. The plant is a febrifuge and diuretic. It contains flavone-echiodinin and its glucoside-echioidin (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: The best season of planting Andrographis is May-June. The field is to be ploughed well, mixed with compost or dried cowdung and seedbeds of length 3m, breadth 1/2m and 15cm height are to be taken at a distance of 3m. The plant is seed propagated. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 6 hours before sowing. Sowing is to be done at a spacing of 20cm. Seeds may germinate within 15-20 days. Two weedings, first at one month after planting and the second at 2 month after planting are to be carried out. Irrigation during summer months is beneficial. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Flowering commences from third month onwards. At this stage, plant are to be collected, tied into small bundles and sun-dried for 4-5 days. Whole plant is the economic part and the yield is about 1.25t dried plants/ha (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Leaves contain two bitter substances lactone “andrographolid” and “kalmeghin”. The ash contains sodium chloride and potassium salts. Plant is very rich in chlorophyte. Kalmeghin is the active principle that contains 0.6% alkaloid of the crude plant. The plant contains diterpenoids, andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11-oxo-andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-dihydroandrographolide, 14-deoxy andrographolide and neoandrographolide (Allison et al, 1968). The roots give flavones-apigenin-7,4-dio-O-methyl ether, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2’,3’- tetramethoxyflavone, andrographin and panicolin and -sitosterol (Ali et al, 1972; Govindachari et al, 1969). Leaves contain homoandrographolide, andrographosterol and andrographone.

The plant is vulnerary, antipyretic, antiperiodic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, depurative, sudorific, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic, tonic, febrifuge and cholagogue. The plant is antifungal, antityphoid, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and cholinergic. Shoot is antibacterial and leaf is hypotensive(Garcia et al, 1980). This is used for the inflammation of the respiratory tract. In China, researchers have isolated the andrographolide from which soluble derivative such as 14-deoxy-11, 12-dehydro-andrographolide which forms the subject of current pharmacological and clinical studies. Apigenin 7,4’-O-dimethyl ether isolated from A. paniculata exhibits dose dependent, antiulcer activity in shay rat, histamine induced ulcer in guinea pigs and aspirin induced ulcers in rats. A crude substance isolated from methanolic extract of leaves has shown hypotensive activity. Pre-treatment of rats with leaf (500mg/kg) or andrographolide (5mg/kg) orally prevented the carbon tetrachloride induced increase of blood serum levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in liver and prevented hepatocellular membrane.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

GREEN CHIRETTA

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Andrographis paniculata

Acanthaceae

San: Bhunimbah, Kiratatiktah

Hin: Kakamegh, Kalpanath

Ben: Kalmegh

Mal: Nilaveppu, Kiriyattu Tam: Nilavempu Kan: Kreata

Importance: Kalmegh, the Great or Green Chiretta is a branched annual herb. It is useful in hyperdipsia, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic fever, malarial and intermittent fevers, inflammations, cough, bronchitis, skin diseases, leprosy, pruritis, intestinal worms, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and vitiated conditions of pitta (Warrier et al, 1993). It is used to overcome sannipata type of fever, difficulty in breathing, hemopathy due to the morbidity of kapha and pitta, burning sensation, cough, oedema, thirst, skin diseases, fever, ulcer and worms. It is also useful in acidity and liver complaints (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1962). The important preparations using the drug are Tiktakagheta, Gorocandi gulika, Candanasava, Panchatiktam kasaya, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). A preparation called “Alui” is prepared by mixing powdered cumin (Cuminium cyminum) and large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) in the juice of this plant and administered for the treatment of malaria (Thakur et al, 1989). It is also a rich source of minerals.

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout the tropics. It is found in the plains of India from U.P to Assam, M.P., A.P, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, also cultivated in gardens.

Botany: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall ex.

Nees belongs to the family

Acanthaceae. It is an erect branched annual herb, 0.3-0.9m in height with quadrangular branches. Leaves are simple, lanceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous, with 4-6 pairs of main nerves. Flowers are small, pale but blotched and spotted with brown and purple distant in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles. Calyx-lobes are glandular pubescent with anthers bearded at the base. Fruits are linear capsules and acute at both ends. Seeds are numerous, yellowish brown and sub-quadrate (Warrier et al,1993).

Another species of Andrographis is A. echioides (Linn.) Nees. It is found in the warmer parts of India. The plant is a febrifuge and diuretic. It contains flavone-echiodinin and its glucoside-echioidin (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: The best season of planting Andrographis is May-June. The field is to be ploughed well, mixed with compost or dried cowdung and seedbeds of length 3m, breadth 1/2m and 15cm height are to be taken at a distance of 3m. The plant is seed propagated. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 6 hours before sowing. Sowing is to be done at a spacing of 20cm. Seeds ma y germinate within 15-20 days. Two weedings, first at one month after planting and the second at 2 month after planting are to be carried out. Irrigation during summer months is beneficial. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Flowering commences from third month onwards. At this stage, plant are to be collected, tied into small bundles and sun-dried for 4-5 days. Whole plant is the economic part and the yield is about 1.25t dried plants/ha (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and Activity: Leaves contain two bitter substances lactone “andrographolid” and “kalmeghin”. The ash contains sodium chloride and potassium salts. Plant is very rich in chlorophyte. Kalmeghin is the active principle that contains 0.6% alkaloid of the crude plant. The plant contains diterpenoids, andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11-oxo-andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-dihydroandrographolide, 14-deoxy andrographolide and neoandrographolide (Allison et al, 1968). The roots give flavones-apigenin-7,4-dio-O-methyl ether, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2’,3’- tetramethoxyflavone, andrographin and panicolin and -sitosterol (Ali et al, 1972;

Govindachari et al, 1969). Leaves contain homoandrographolide, andrographosterol and andrographone.

The plant is vulnerary, antipyretic, antiperiodic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, depurative, sudorific, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic, tonic, febrifuge and cholagogue. The plant is antifungal, antityphoid, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and cholinergic. Shoot is antibacterial and leaf is hypotensive(Garcia et al, 1980). This is used for the inflammation of the respiratory tract. In China, researchers have isolated the andrographolide from which soluble derivative such as 14-deoxy-11, 12-dehydro-andrographolide which forms the subject of current pharmacological and clinical studies. Apigenin 7,4’-O-dimethyl ether isolated from A. paniculata exhibits dose dependent, antiulcer activity in shay rat, histamine induced ulcer in guinea pigs and aspirin induced ulcers in rats. A crude substance isolated from methanolic extract of leaves has shown hypotensive activity. Pre-treatment of rats with leaf (500mg/kg) or andrographolide (5mg/kg) orally prevented the carbon tetrachloride induced increase of blood serum levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in liver and prevented hepatocellular membrane.... Tropical Medicinal Plants

GREEN TEA

Beneficial Teas

GREEN-TEA Green Tea comes with such a host of health benefits, that it’s called the ‘wonder herb’ by tea drinkers and medical practitioners alike. Drinking green tea lowers cancer risk and also inhibits carcinogenic in cigarettes and other compounds when imbibed. Green Tea contains potent antioxidants called polyphenols, which help suppress free radicals. Green tea also stops certain tumors from forming. Green tea lowers cholesterol and triglyceride levels and thereby promotes heart health. Green tea also lowers blood pressure, prevents and fights tooth decay and dental issues, and inhibits different viruses from causing illnesses.... Beneficial Teas

GREEN TEA OR THE WONDER DRUG

Beneficial Teas

Green tea is considered a “wonder drug” because of its healthy contribution in human diets. Its antioxidant properties fight successfully against cancer, but not only. Green tea description Green tea is made from Camellia sinensis, an Asian plant, originating from China, Japan and South Korea. Oolong tea and black tea are prepared from the same plant as the green tea. A special feature of this type of tea is the ability to block the natural process of fermentation: after being picked, its leaves are steamed, dried and then rolled, thus blocking fermentation. Due to its constituents, it acts as an antioxidant, diuretic, cerebral and fattening burning stimulator, and also as a cancer protector. Green tea has been the subject of many scientific and medical studies so as to determine its health benefits. It seems that regular green tea drinkers may have a lower risk of developing heart diseases and certain types of cancer. There are several types of green tea available on the market: Bancha Tea, Chun Hao Tea , Dao Ren Tea , Dragonwell Tea , Genmaicha Tea , Gunpowder , Gyokuro Tea , Hojicha Tea , Kai Hua Long Ding Tea, Kukicha Tea , Matcha Tea , Sencha Tea , White Monkey Tea. Green Tea brewing To prepare green tea, use: two grams of tea per 100ml of water, or one teaspoon of green tea per five ounce cup. Green tea steeping time varies from thirty seconds to two, three minutes. The temperature differs as well, from 140°F to 190°F. Consumers recommend that lower-quality green teas to be steeped hotter and longer and higher-quality teas to be steeped cooler and shorter. In case of steeping the green tea too hot or too long, the resulting beverage is bitter and astringent. Green Tea benefits Green Tea lowers the risk of cancer. Studies have shown the green tea’s contribution against tumors growth, due to its high content of antioxidants, able to fight free radicals which are responsible for cancer spreading. Green Tea lowers the risk of stroke and heart diseases. The formation of blood clots (or thrombosis) is the main cause of the heart attacks and strokes. Green Tea has been acknowledged to exhibit abnormal blood clot formation. Green Tea lowers blood pressure. Green Tea is proven to block the effects of an enzyme secreted by the kidneys, considered to be one of the main causes of hypertension. Green Tea prevents tooth decay. Dental plaque and bacterial colonies that occur on the tooth surfaces and cause tooth decay can be inhibited by one of the compounds of the green tea. Also, this beverage has been shown to be effective against fighting gum diseases. Green Tea inhibits viruses Studies revealed that green tea can kill certain bacteria and staphs. It blocks the development of several viruses such as viral hepatitis. Green tea has also been successful in:
  • Slowing early aging;
  • Diets;
  • The treatment of physical or intellectual fatigue;
  • Treating fast cold and flu recovery;
  • Preventing allergenic reactions;
  • Balancing body fluids;
  • Improving the immune function of the epidermis;
  • Preventing and mending arthritis;
  • Improving bone structure
Green Tea side effects Green tea is not recommended to patients suffering from high blood pressure, gastric acid secretion, gastritis and ulcer. Due to the amount of caffeine contained, scientists advise a reduced consumption of green tea for pregnant and nursing women. Also, this tea should not be drunk after 5 p.m., because the consumption may lead to insomnia, palpitations and agitation. Green tea is a well known beverage, especially due to its medicinal contribution to a large array of diseases such as arthritis, heart diseases and several types of cancer.... Beneficial Teas

GREENSTICK FRACTURE

Medical Dictionary

An incomplete fracture, in which the bone is not completely broken across. It occurs in the long bones of children and is usually due to indirect force. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... Medical Dictionary

GREER

Medical Dictionary

(Scottish) Feminine form of Gregory; one who is alert and watchful Grear, Grier, Gryer... Medical Dictionary

GREGORIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Feminine form of Gregory; one who is alert and watchful Gregoriana, Gregorijana, Gregorina, Gregorine, Gregorya, Gregoryna, Gregorea, Gregoriya... Medical Dictionary

GREIP

Medical Dictionary

(Norse) In mythology, a frost giantess... Medical Dictionary

GRETA

Medical Dictionary

(German) Resembling a pearl Greeta, Gretal, Grete, Gretel, Gretha, Grethe, Grethel, Gretna, Gretta, Grette, Grietje, Gryta, Gretchen, Gredel... Medical Dictionary

GREWIA ASIATICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

GREWIA ASIATICA-1 GREWIA ASIATICA-2 auct. non L. Synonym: G. subinaequalis DC.Family: Tiliaceae.Habitat: Extensively cultivated in India.Ayurvedic: Parushaka, Parusha.Unani: Phaalsaa.Siddha/Tamil: Palisa, Thadachi.Action: Fruit—stomachic, astringent, cooling. Bark—demulcent. Root bark—antirheumatic. Leaf— used in pastular eruptions.The bark contains taraxasterol, beta- sitosterol, erythrodiol; lupeol, betulin, lupenone, friedelin; alpha-amyrin. The heartwood gave beta-sitosterol. Quer- cetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were also obtained from the leaves.Ripe fruits are rich in vitamin A and C; threonine, phosphoserine, serine and taurine are the dominant amino acids in the juice. The fruits also contain sodium 22, potassium 1250, and calcium 260 ppm Fruits also gave pelargonidin-3, 5- diglucoside, quercetin, quercetin-3-0- beta-D-glucoside, naringenin and 7-0- beta-D-glucoside.The stem bark exhibited antifertility activity.Dosage: Ripe fruit—20-50 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GREWIA HIRSUTA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Vahl.

Synonym: G. polygama Mast.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus to Nepal up to 1,500 m, also in hills of Bihar, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Naagabalaa, Gud- sharkaraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Tavadu.

Folk: Gulshakari.

Action: Fruit and root—diuretic, antidiarrhoeal. Roots and leaves, crushed with sugar candy, are prescribed for spermatorrhoea.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GREWIA POPULIFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Vahl.

Synonym: G. tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Sind, Rajasthan and Western India, down to the Nilgiri Hills.

Ayurvedic: Gaangeru(ki). Substitute for Gulshakari (Naagabalaa).

Siddha/Tamil: Achhu.

Folk: Gangeran.

Action: See G. hirsuta.

The stem bark contains triterpe- noids.

Dosage: Root—10-20 ml juice; 50100 ml decotion. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GREWIA SCLEROPHYLLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb. ex G. Don.

Synonym: G. scabrophylla Roxb. G. obliqua auct. non-Juss.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract and outer hills from Kumaon to Bhutan up to 1,200 m and in Assam

Ayurvedic: Parushaka (related species), Dhanvana (related species)

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Kadali.

Folk: Jangali Phaalsaa.

Action: Root—emollient, bechic. Used in irritable conditions of the intestines and bladder.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GREWIA TILIAEFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Vahl.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Upper Gengetic plain, Bihar, Bengal, Central and Peninsular India.

English: Dhaman.

Ayurvedic: Dhanvana, Dhanur- vriksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Tarra, Unnu, Sadachi.

Folk: Dhaamin, Dhaaman.

Action: Bark—antidysenteric. Stem bark—semen coagulant. Plant— used in fractures.

The roots and bark gave triterpe- noids.

A related species, Grewia optiva, found in sub-Himalayan tract at 5002,000 m, is also known as Dhaaman.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GREWIA VILLOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Willd.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Tamthar.

Siddha/Tamil: Kullai.

Folk: Dhohan (Rajasthan), Jalidar (Punjab), Kharamati (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—antidiarrhoeal. Root and bark—used in genitourinary infections, syphilis and smallpox.

The methanol extract of the roots contain beta-carboline alkaloids, harman, harmine, harmol, harmalol and harmaline.

The roots are also used to treat cough.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GREY MATTER

Medical Dictionary

Those parts of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD that comprise mainly the interconnected and tightly packed nuclei of neurons (nerve cells). The tissue is darker than that of the white matter, which is made of axons from the nerve cells. In the brain, grey matter is mainly found in the outer layers of the cerebrum, which is the zone responsible for advanced mental functions. The inner core of the spinal cord is made up of grey matter.... Medical Dictionary

GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME

Medical Dictionary

A disease of the peripheral nerves causing weakness and numbness in the limbs. It customarily occurs up to three weeks after an infection – for example, CAMPYLOBACTER infection of the gastrointestinal tract provoking an allergic response in the nerves. It may begin with weakness of the legs and gradually spread up the body. In the worst cases the patient may become totally paralysed and require to be arti?cially ventilated. Despite this, recovery is the rule.... Medical Dictionary

GUINEVERE

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) One who is fair; of the white wave; in mythology, King Arthur’s queen

Guenever, Guenevere, Gueniver, Guenna, Guennola, Guinever, Guinna, Gwen, Gwenevere, Gweniver, Gwenn, Gwennie, Gwennola, Gwennora, Gwennore, Gwenny, Gwenora, Gwenore, Gwyn, Gwynn, Gwynna, Gwynne, Guanhamara, Guanhumora, Gvenour, Gwenhwyfar, Gwenhwyvar, Gwenhyvar, Gwenifer, Gwennor, Gwenyver... Medical Dictionary

GUNPOWDER TEA - A POPULAR CHINESE GREEN TEA

Beneficial Teas

Gunpowder tea is a Chinese tea made in Zhejiang Provence, China. It’s a form of green tea made out of withered, steamed, rolled and dried leaves. The name of gunpowder tea was given due to the fact that the small leaves which are tightly rolled into small round pellets, look like gunpowder. Gunpowder tea, like most green teas, comes from the Camellia Sinensis plant, which is a small leaved bush with many stems that can reach to almost 3 meters. There are many types of gunpowder tea, judging by the type of the leaves:
  • Pingshui gunpowder which is the most common type, has larger pellets and a more powerful flavor. It is sold as Temple of Heaven Gunpowder.
  • Formosa Gunpowder which is grown in Taiwan. Its fragrance is very close to the Taiwanese oolong tea.
  • Ceylon Gunpowder is produced at high altitudes in Sri Lanka.
Brewing Gunpowder Tea There are many ways to brew gunpowder tea, but the most handy and common preparation is by putting 1 tablespoon of gunpowder leaves for every 5 ounces of water. The gunpowder must be steeped up to 1-2 minutes into water, boiled at 160 degrees. After that, it can be streamed and served. It is not recommended to put milk or sweeteners in it such as honey or sugar, since the tea already has a soft honey flavor. What does Gunpowder Tea contain? Gunpowder tea, since it is classified as a green tea, it shares all of the components of classic green tea, mainly antioxidant ingredients such as green tea catechins (GTC). The importance of antioxidants is very high since they find and eliminate disease-causing free radicals that can develop cancer or even damage the DNA structure. Benefits of Gunpowder Tea Because antioxidants fight free-radicals, the gunpowder tea helps maintaining your general health.
  • It helps fight cancer due to the fact that antioxidants neutralize and reduce the damage that free radicals can cause to cells.
  • Prevents type II diabetes due to the fact that green tea may improve insulin sensibility and glucose tolerance.
  • It can also be used for treating loose digestion or indigestion. The antioxidants help reduce inflammations that are associated with ulcerative colitis and Chron’s disease.
  • Heals wounds and controls bleeding because of the strong fluoride content.
  • Slows aging process.
Gunpowder Tea side effects The general side effects that gunpowder tea can have are the same as the ones normal green tea present, such as nausea or stomach ache. Since it has caffeine,gunpowder tea can cause insomnia, nervousness or irritability, so avoid drinking it in the evening or before bed. Also it can cause iron deficiency, which is why people who take iron supplements are strongly advised not to drink any type of green tea, or to drink it at least 2 hours before taking the supplements or 4 hours after taking them. All in all, gunpowder tea has more benefits for your health than side effects.  It is good to drinkgunpowder tea, because it helps your immune system and provides you with all the vitamins you need in order to stay healthy.... Beneficial Teas

GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE

Indian Medicinal Plants

B. Br.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Central and Peninsular India.

English: Australian Cow Plant, Ipecacuanha (Indian).

Ayurvedic: Meshashringi, Meshav- ishaanikaa, Meshavalli, Chhaagal- shrngi. Ajashringi (also equated with Dolichandrone falcata and Pergularia extensa).

Unani: Gurmaar Buuti.

Siddha/Tamil: Kannu Minnayam- kodi, Passaam, Shirukurinja.

Action: Leaf—antidiabetic. Stimulates the heart and circulatory system, activates the uterus. Used in parageusia and furunculosis. Plant—diuretic, antibilious. Root— emetic, expectorant, astringent, stomachic.

Gymnemagenin, the main sapoge- nin in the leaves, yielded 3.9-4.6% of total gymnemic acids.

Gymnemic acids are antisweet principles and exhibit inhibitory effect on levels of plasma glucose.

The extract of dried leaves, given to diabetic rats at a dose of 20 mg/day per rat for 8 weeks, was found to bring about blood glucose homoeostasis by increasing serum insulin levels. Increased glycoprotein level and the resultant nephropathy, retinopathy and micro-and macro-angiopathy were also controlled.

The leaf extract (25-100 mg/kg), when orally administered to experimentally induced hyperlipidaemic rats for 2 weeks, reduced the elevated serum triglyceride and total cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The efficacy and antiatherosclerotic potential of the extract (100 mg/kg) were comparable to that of a lipid lowering agent, clofibrate.

In homoeopathy, a drug obtained from the leaves and roots is prescribed for both diabetes mellitus and insipidus Gymnemic acid is reported to inhibit melanin formation in vitro. It also inhibits dental plaque formation.

Dosage: Root, leaf-3-5 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

H2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS

Medical Dictionary

These are drugs that block the action of HISTAMINE at the H2 receptor (which mediates the gastric and some of the cardiovascular e?ects of histamine). By reducing the production of acid by the stomach, these drugs – chie?y cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and nizatidine – are valuable in the treatment of peptic ulcers (healing when used in high dose; preventing relapse when used as maintenance therapy in reduced dose), re?ux oesophagitis (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF), and the ZOLLINGERELLISON SYNDROME. These drugs are now being supplanted by PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS and HELICOBACTER PYLORI eradication therapy. (See also DUODENAL ULCER.)... Medical Dictionary

HAIR, REMOVAL OF

Medical Dictionary

See DEPILATION.... Medical Dictionary

HARE-LIP

Medical Dictionary

See PALATE, MALFORMATIONS OF.... Medical Dictionary

HARRELL

Medical Dictionary

(American) A great leader Harel, Harell, Harrel, Harelle, Harrelle... Medical Dictionary

HAZARENAN

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) From the town of fountains

Hazara, Hazarah, Hazarenanna, Hazarena, Hazaryna... Medical Dictionary

HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Services provided to individuals or communities by health service providers for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health.... Community Health

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM

Community Health

See “health system”.... Community Health

HEALTH CARE INSTITUTION / FACILITY

Community Health

Any establishment that is engaged in direct patient care on site.... Community Health

HEALTH CARE TEAM

Community Health

A group comprising a variety of professionals (medical practitioners, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, pharmacists, spiritual counsellors), as well as family members, who are involved in providing coordinated and comprehensive care. There are three types of health care team, defined by the degree of interaction among members and the sharing of responsibility for care:... Community Health

HEALTH CARE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT (HCTA)

Community Health

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... Community Health

HEALTH CENTRE

Community Health

A centre that may carry out promotive, protective, preventive, diagnostic, curative and rehabilitative health care activities for ambulant people.... Community Health

HEALTH CENTRE

Medical Dictionary

An imprecise term that may refer to a group of doctors and supporting sta? operating from one building owned or leased by the doctors, or to a building owned or leased by a health authority that contains sta? or services from one or more sections of the National Health Service.... Medical Dictionary

HEALTH RESEARCH

Community Health

Research on all aspects of health, the factors affecting it, and ways of promoting, protecting and improving it. It is an essential part of national health development. It includes medical and biomedical research relating to a wide variety of medical matters and involving various life sciences, such as molecular biology and biophysics; clinical research, which is based on the observation and treatment of patients or volunteers; epidemiological research, which is concerned with the study and control of diseases and of situations that are suspected of being harmful to health; and socioeconomic and behavioural research, which investigates the social, economic, psychological and cultural determinants of health and disease with a view to promoting health and preventing disease. Often a multidisciplinary combination of the above kinds of research is needed to solve a health problem.... Community Health

HEALTH RESOURCES

Community Health

All the means available for the operation of the health system, including manpower, buildings, equipment, supplies, funds, knowledge and technology.... Community Health

HEALTH SERVICE AREA

Community Health

A geographic area designated on the basis of such factors as geography, political boundaries, population and health resources, for the effective planning and development of health services.... Community Health

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH

Community Health

The multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviours affect access to health care, the quality and cost of health care, and ultimately health and well-being. Its research domains are individuals, families, organizations, institutions, communities and populations.... Community Health

HEALTH SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE

Community Health

Services, facilities, institutions, personnel or establishments, organizations and those operating them for the delivery of a variety of health programmes.... Community Health

HEALTH SYSTEMS RESEARCH

Community Health

Research dealing with the entire health system or only part of it, the object being to ensure that the system is optimally planned and organized and that programmes are carried out by the health system infrastructure efficiently and effectively and with appropriate technology.... Community Health

HEALTH TREND

Community Health

A picture of a health situation, referring also to what led up to it and to prospects for the future.... Community Health

HEALTH-CARE PRIORITIES

Medical Dictionary

As the needs and demands of patients, and the costs of health care of populations, have risen sharply in recent years, governments and health-care providers – whether tax-funded, insurance-based, employer-provided or a mix of these – have had increasingly to face the dilemma of what services a country or a community can a?ord to provide. As a result, various techniques for deciding priorities of care and treatment are evolving. In the United Kingdom, priorities were for many years based on the decisions of individual clinicians who had wide freedom to prescribe the most appropriate care. Increasingly, this clinical freedom is being circumscribed by managerial, community and political decisions driven in part by the availability of resources and by what people want. Rationing services, however, is not popular and as yet no broadly agreed consensus has emerged, either in western Europe or in North America, as to how priorities can be decided that have broad community support and which can be a?orded. (See CLINICAL GOVERNANCE; EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.)... Medical Dictionary

HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE (HRQL) MEASURE

Community Health

Individual outcome measure that extends beyond traditional measures of mortality and morbidity to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and vitality, health perception and general life satisfaction (some of these are also known as health status, functional status or quality-of-life measures).... Community Health

HEALTHCARE COMMISSION (COMMISSION FOR HEALTH IMPROVEMENT)

Medical Dictionary

Launched in 1999 in England and Wales as CHI, this is an inspectorate charged with protecting patients from ‘unacceptable failings in the National Health Service’. A statutory body under the 1999 Health Act, it evaluates and re?nes local systems designed to safeguard standards of clinical quality. Working separately from the NHS and the health departments, it o?ers an independent safeguard that provides systems to monitor and improve clinical quality in primary care, community services and hospitals. As of 2004 it became responsible for dealing with patients’ complaints if they could not be settled by the trust concerned. The board members include health professionals, academics and eight lay members. Scotland has set up a similar statutory body. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... Medical Dictionary

HEBEPHRENIA

Medical Dictionary

A form of SCHIZOPHRENIA that comes on in youth and is marked by depression and gradual failure of mental faculties with egotistic and self-centred delusions.... Medical Dictionary

HELICTERES ISORA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Dry forests throughout the country.

English: East Indian Screw tree.

Ayurvedic: Aavartani, Aavartphalaa, Aavartaki.

Unani: Marorphali.

Siddha/Tamil: Valampiri.

Action: Pods and bark—antidiar- rhoeal, astringent, antibilious. Bark and root—antigalactic, demulcent, expectorant (used in cough and asthma). Leaf—paste used against skin diseases. Pods—anthelmintic. Used in fever due to cold. Seeds— aqueous extract administered in colic and dysentery.

The plant contains a 4-quinolone alkaloid, malatyamine, an antidiarrhoeal principle.

The seeds gave diosgenin. Root gave cytotoxic principles—cucurbitacin B and iso-cucurbitacin B. Leaves yielded as ester tetratriacontanyl—tetratri- acontanoate along with tetratriacon- tanoic acid, tetratriacontanol and sitos- terol.

Dosage: Fruit, bark—3-6 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

HELLEBORE, BLACK

Protection ****TOXIC*** ...

HEMIPARESIS

Medical Dictionary

Paralysis a?ecting the muscles of one side of the body. This most commonly follows a STROKE and occurs when parts of the brain serving motor function on the opposite side of the body are damaged.... Medical Dictionary

HEREDITY

Medical Dictionary

The principle on which various peculiarities of bodily form or structure, or of physical or mental activity, are transmitted from parents to o?spring. (See also GENES.)... Medical Dictionary

HERENDIRA

Medical Dictionary

(American) A tender woman Herendyra, Herendeera, Herendeara, Herendiera, Herendeira... Medical Dictionary

HIGH DEPENDENCY CARE FACILITY

Community Health

An establishment primarily engaged in providing inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services to individuals requiring nursing care.... Community Health

HILDEMARE

Medical Dictionary

(German) A glorious woman; famous in battle

Hildemara, Hildimar, Hildimara, Hildemar, Hyldemare, Hyldemar, Hyldemara... Medical Dictionary

HILDIRETH

Medical Dictionary

(German) An advisor during war time Hildreth... Medical Dictionary

HOJICHA TEA - A DIFFERENT JAPANESE GREEN TEA

Beneficial Teas

Hojicha tea is a type of Japanese green tea which is made from the sun-grown Japanese green tea known as bancha, harvested from the tea plant later in the season.Hojicha tea is roasted in a porcelain pot over charcoal at a high temperature, fact that alters the leaf color from green to reddish-brown. Hojicha tea has been certified as organic by the government of Japan. Brewing Hojicha tea There are many ways of preparing Hojicha tea, depending on each and other person’s taste. For example, shorter infusions of Hojicha tea may produce a fresh flavor, while longer infusions are more developed and have a “nuttier” taste. For starters, heat the the teapot with boiling water. The heat of the water is the one that brings out the aroma of Hojicha tea, so it shouldn’t be boiled at more than 180°F (80 degrees Celsius). The next step is adding the tea inside the teapot, one tablespoon of tea for each serving, when the water has just boiled. Then, depending on the flavor that you want, let it steep between 30 - 90 seconds.  In the end, pour the tea into a cup, making sure to use all the water in the teapot. Hojicha tea is usually served after the evening meal or before bed since it has lower caffeine content than other green teas. Components of Hojicha tea The main components of Hojicha tea are, like most green teas, tannin, caffeine, theanine (which is an amino acid) and Vitamin C.  Hojicha tea is known for the low amounts of caffeine and tannin (less astringency), fact that makes the tea easier to drink in the evening and it is also more suitable for children and elders.  Since it lacks in caffeine, some people even drinkHojicha tea to replace coffee, or before bed for a deep and calm sleep. Hojicha tea benefits Hojicha tea has a lot of health benefits, even though the same process that removes the caffeine also reduces the antioxidants. Due to the fact that Hojicha tea is actually a green tea, it basically presents the same benefits as any other green tea:
  • Hojicha tea helps fighting against diseases caused by viruses or bacteria and strengthens the immune system.
  • Hojicha tea helps protect against cardiovascular diseases, tumors and it’s also an important element when it comes to cancer prevention.
  • Hojicha tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Hojicha tea gives an overall well-being and helps you relax.
 Hojicha tea side effects Hojicha tea, because of the low caffeine, tannin and theanine content doesn’t actually present any particular side effects. However, being a green tea you should be aware of the following side effects that may appear if it is not consumed properly:
  • You should not drinkHojicha tea when you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • If you suffer from anemia or iron deficiency. According to some studies, green tea extract reduces the absorption of iron by 25%.
  • It is advised not to drink green tea on an empty stomach since it could cause liver damage.
  • Avoid green tea if you have kidney disorders or stomach ulcers.
All in all, try not to drink more than 6 cups a day of Hojicha green tea. If you are a green tea drinker or if you just want to try a different tea taste, besides the herbal flavor that most green teas have, you should not miss Hojicha tea. The components of Hojicha tea helps improve your immune system and, generally, keeps you healthy. It’s perfect for cold winter days!  ... Beneficial Teas

HOME HEALTH AGENCY (HHA) / HOME HEALTH CARE AGENCY

Community Health

A public or private organization that provides home health services supervised by a licensed health professional in a person’s home, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations.... Community Health

HOME HEALTH CARE / HOME CARE

Community Health

See “domiciliary care”.... Community Health

HOME-FROM-HOSPITAL / HOSPITAL AFTER-CARE SCHEMES

Community Health

Schemes providing nursing care, personal care or practical help for older people who have returned home after a stay in hospital.... Community Health

HOMESHARE

Community Health

A scheme whereby a householder offers a bedroom and a share of the home’s facilities and pays a small contribution to someone in exchange for services.... Community Health

HORDEUM VULGARE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated as food crop in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.

English: Barley

Ayurvedic: Yava, Hayeshtha, Hayapriya, Shuka-dhaanya, Tiksh- nashuka.

Unani: Barley, Jao Shaeer.

Siddha: Yavam. Saambaluppu (ash).

Action: Barley—nutritive and demulcent during convalescence and in cases of bowel inflammation and diarrhoea. Protects immune system.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends barley in urinary disorders, muscular rigidity, chronic sinusitis, cough, asthma, lipid disorder and obesity.

Juice of young barley leaves—7 times richer in vitamin C than oranges, 5 times richer in iron than spinach, 25 times richer in potassium than wheat; high in SOD (superoxide dismutase), an enzyme that slows ageing of cells.

The nutritional quality of the barley depends on beta-glucan fraction of the grain. Beta-glucan-enriched fraction produced cholesterol-lowering effect in hamsters.

Naked barley extracts have been found to selectively inhibit cyclohex- anase activity and may be useful as a therapeutic drug for treating thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

Ethanol extract of young green leaves exhibits antioxidant activity attributed to a flavonoid, 2"-O-glucosyl- isovitexin. It also exhibits antiinflammatory and antiallergic activities. The leaves contain an indole alkaloid, gramine, which exhibits antibacterial properties.

Dosage: Dried fruit—100-200 g. (API Vol. II); dried plant—10-20 g. (API Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

HOREHOUND

Marrubium vulgare. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Hoarhound.

Habitat: Horehound flourishes in dry, and particularly chalky waste ground.

Features ? It grows to a height of one and a half to two feet. The bluntly four-cornered stem sends out spreading branches covered with white, woolly hair. The leaves, also spread with the soft hair, are egg-shaped and deeply toothed, the lower ones stalked, those above sessile. The small, white flowers appear during July in thick rings just above the upper leaves.

Part used ? The whole plant.

Action: Aromatic and bitter, having expectorant and slight diuretic action.

Horehound is probably the best known of all herbal pectoral remedies, and is undoubtedly effective in coughs, colds and pulmonary complaints. The whole herb is infused in 1 ounce quantities to 1 pint of water, and taken frequently in wineglass doses.

The refreshing and healthy Horehound Beer or Ale is brewed from this herb, and a Horehound candy is made which, when properly prepared, is one of the best of "cough sweets."

Coffin speaks highly of the tonic and expectorant qualities of Horehound, and its latter virtue has certainly been known for nearly three hundred years, as Culpeper tells us that "it helpeth to expectorate tough phlegm from the chest."...

HOREHOUND

Herbal Manual

Protection, Mental Powers, Exorcism, Healing... Herbal Manual

HOREHOUND TEA

Beneficial Teas

Horehound Tea is popular for being effective in treating respiratory problems, having antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, expectorant, diaphoretic and diuretic properties. Horehound is a perennial herb that grows in places like meadows, pastures, railroad tracks in the United States, Canada and Europe. Horehound can be recognized by its wrinkled leaves. The main constituents of horehound tea include flavonoids, marrubin, caffeine, resin, tannins, fat and sugar. How To Make Horehound Tea To brew Horehound Tea, place about 2 teaspoons of horehound tea in boiling water. After that, let the mix steep for about 10-15 minutes. Having a bitter taste, the tea can be flavored with lemon juice and sweetened with molasses. Horehound Tea Benefits
  • Horehound Tea helps fighting respiratory disorders such as cough or asthma.
  • Calms headaches caused by sinus infection.
  • Relieves pain caused by cough or indigestion.
  • Fights sore throat.
Horehound Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking Horehound Tea.
  • Black Horehound Tea contains certain chemicals that may affect treatment for Parkinson`s disease.
  • Horehound Tea may interact with the effects of some medications, so avoid drinking this tea without medical advice.
Horehound Tea is a wonderful tea with many health benefits. Just try not to experience its side effects and enjoy its amazing benefits!... Beneficial Teas

HOREHOUND, BLACK

Herbal Manual

Ballota nigra. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Crantz, Marrubium nigrum. Habitat: Hedgerows, waste ground.

Features ? Stem stiff, erect, freely branched, up to four feet high. Leaves greyish-

green, upper ovate, lower cordate, in pairs, each pair pointing in opposite direction to next pair, crenate, hairy, stalked. Flowers (July and August) purplish, labiate, in rings just above leaves. Disagreeable odour.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Stimulant, expectorant, diaphoretic, antispasmodic.

Coughs, colds and bronchial complaints generally. Hool prefers this herb to the white Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), and makes wide claims on its behalf. He recommends it in the treatment of consumption, various menstrual troubles, and parturition—in the last-named instance combined with Motherwort. "In chronic coughs, accompanied by spitting of blood," he tells us, "it will be found most excellent, either of itself or combined with other reliable remedies such as Lobelia, Marshmallow, Hyssop, etc."... Herbal Manual

HOREM

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) One who is dedicated to God

Horema, Horemah, Horym, Horyma... Medical Dictionary

HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY(HRT)

Medical Dictionary

See under MENOPAUSE.... Medical Dictionary

HORSERADISH TREE

Medicinal Plants

Moringa pterygosperma

Description: This tree grows from 4.5 to 14 meters tall. Its leaves have a fernlike appearance. Its flowers and long, pendulous fruits grow on the ends of the branches. Its fruit (pod) looks like a giant bean. Its 25-to 60-centimeter-long pods are triangular in cross section, with strong ribs. Its roots have a pungent odor.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree is found in the rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests of the tropical regions. It is widespread in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central America. Look for it in abandoned fields and gardens and at the edges of forests.

Edible Parts: The leaves are edible raw or cooked, depending on their hardness. Cut the young seedpods into short lengths and cook them like string beans or fry them. You can get oil for frying by boiling the young fruits of palms and skimming the oil off the surface of the water. You can eat the flowers as part of a salad. You can chew fresh, young seedpods to eat the pulpy and soft seeds. The roots may be ground as a substitute for seasoning similar to horseradish.... Medicinal Plants

HOSPICE CARE

Community Health

A cluster of comprehensive services that address the needs of dying persons and their families, including medical, spiritual, legal, financial and family support services.... Community Health

HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTION

Medical Dictionary

An infection acquired by a patient while in hospital. Because of the high level of antibiotic use in hospitals, some bacteria become resistant

– for example, METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA). This makes hospital-acquired infections potentially dangerous and sometimes life-threatening, and is one of the developments that is prompting calls for greater care in the prescribing of antibiotics as well as higher standards of cleanliness.... Medical Dictionary

HOUSING WITH CARE

Community Health

A range of housing schemes providing high levels of care.... Community Health

HUMAN-FACTOR RESEARCH

Community Health

The study of the interrelationships between humans, the tools they use, and the environment in which they live and work.... Community Health

HUNTINGTON’S CHOREA

Medical Dictionary

A hereditary disease characterised by involuntary movements and DEMENTIA. Each child of a parent with the disease has a 50:50 chance of developing it. Onset is most common between the ages of 35 and 45, but 10 per cent of cases occur under the age of 20. Some patients show more severe mental disturbance; others more severe disturbances of movement; but in all it pursues an inexorable downward course over a period of 10–20 years to a terminal state of physical and mental helplessness. It is estimated that there are around 6,000 cases in Britain. The defective gene (located on chromosome no. 4) has now been identi?ed and GENETIC SCREENING is possible for those at risk. People with Huntington’s chorea and their relatives can obtain help and guidance from Huntington’s Disease Association.... Medical Dictionary

HURA CREPITANS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into India.

English: Sandbox tree, Monkey Dinner-bell.

Siddha/Tamil: Mullarasanam.

Action: Seed, bark and fresh latex— emetocathartic, antileprotic. Seed— insecticidal, piscidal.

In South America, a poultice made from the latex is used for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis. Highly irritant and tumour-promoting deterpene esters (DTC) have been detected in the latex. Latex gave the triterpenes, 24- methylene cycloartanol, cycloartanol and butyrospermol. Sap of the plant gave a diterpene hexaol ester, huratox- in, and a glycolipoprotein, crepitin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

HYPERDIURESIS

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Excessive secretion of urine... Medicinal Plants Glossary

HYPEREMESIS

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Excessive vomiting... Medicinal Plants Glossary

HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM

Medical Dictionary

A rare condition (less than 0·2 per cent) of pregnancy, in which there is severe vomiting. If untreated it can result in severe dehydration, ketoacidosis (an excess of KETONE acids) and liver damage. More common in multiple pregnancy, it may recur in subsequent pregnancies.... Medical Dictionary

HYPEREMIA

Herbal Medical

Excessive presence of blood, usually arterial; and the resultant increase in heat and metabolic rate. Hyperemia can be a pathology, blowing out blood vessels and the like; used here to describe the chronic or subclinical condition of functional vascular excess and excitation.... Herbal Medical

HYPERENDEMIC

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Intense, seasonal transmission where the immunity is insufficient to prevent the effect of diseases on all age groups.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

HYPEREXTENSIONS

Herbal Medical

The excessive extension of a limb or joint, usually followed by pain and some inflammation.... Herbal Medical

HYPERNATREMIA

Herbal Medical

An excess of sodium in the blood...a short-lived condition since the body retains water until the concentration is back to normal...and the blood volume (as well as blood pressure) has increased.... Herbal Medical

HYPEROREXIA

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Excessive appetite... Medicinal Plants Glossary

HYPERPYREXIA

Medical Dictionary

High FEVER. (See also TEMPERATURE.)... Medical Dictionary

HYPERSECRETION

Herbal Medical

Oversecretion of fluids by a gland. It may occur from irritation, infection, or allergy, as in the nasal drooling in a head cold or hay fever, or, as in gastric hypersecretion, from a functional imbalance in the chemical and neurologic stimulus of the stomach lining.... Herbal Medical

HYSTERECTOMY

Medical Dictionary

Surgical removal of the UTERUS. Hysterooophorectomy is the term applied to removal of the uterus and OVARIES. (See also UTERUS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

ILANDERE

Medical Dictionary

(American) Moon woman Ilander, Ilanderre, Ilandera, Ilanderra... Medical Dictionary

IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT

Medical Dictionary

An agent that acts to suppress the body’s natural immune response. This is totally understandable in tissue and organ transplants, and in some dangerous inflammatory conditions, but nearly all anti-inflammatory medications are immunosuppressant, including cortisone, antihistamines, and even aspirin. Some medical radicals are convinced that the chronic viral and fungal disorders of our age are partially facilitated by such medications.... Medical Dictionary

IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT

Herbal Medical

A drug that reduces the body’s resistance to infection and other foreign agents. It does so by suppressing the activity of the immune system (see IMMUNITY). Examples of such drugs are AZATHIOPRINE, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and CICLOSPORIN A. Immunosuppressants are used to help transplanted organs and tissues to survive the potential immune reaction from the host. They are also used to treat AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS such as RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.... Herbal Medical

IMMUNOSUPPRESSED

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A state of the body where the immune system defences do not work properly. This can be the result of illness or the administration of certain drugs (commonly ones used to fight cancer).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION

Medical Dictionary

The term given to suppression of harmful immune responses (see IMMUNITY), the most obvious application being the prevention of organ rejection by people who receive kidney, heart or bone-marrow transplants (see TRANSPLANTATION). Immunosuppression is also used in certain diseases in a way that is non-speci?c – that is, it inhibits the entire immune system, not just harmful reactions. CORTICOSTEROIDS are the commonest dugs used in this way, as are METHOTREXATE and AZATHIOPRINE. Tacrolimus, a macrolide (see MACROLIDES) IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT, is used not only for engrafted patients but also in treating eczema (see DERMATITIS).

There has been a rapid introduction in recent years of monoclonal antibodies which prevent T-cells from proliferating. They can be recognised by the su?x ‘mab’ (standing for monoclonal antibody) and include rituximab and alemtuzumab. In?iximab, used in CROHN’S DISEASE and RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, inhibits tumour necrosis factor alpha.... Medical Dictionary

IMPRESSION

Medical Dictionary

In dentistry, a mould (using a rubber or alginate compound) of the teeth and gums from which a plaster-of-Paris model is prepared. This model provides a base on which to construct a denture, bridge or dental inlay. A similar process is used in ORTHODONTICS to make dental appliances to correct abnormalities in the positioning of teeth.... Medical Dictionary

INAPPARENT INFECTION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The presence of infection in a host without occurrence of recognisable clinical signs or symptoms. Inapparent infections are only identifiable by laboratory means. A synonym would be subclinical infection.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

INBREEDING

Medical Dictionary

The birth of o?spring to parents who are closely related (see CONSANGUINOUS). In traditional rural communities, marriage between cousins was common and this could lead to a higher-than-average number of children with congenital anomalies or learning di?culties. This is now seen in certain ethnic groups who have brought the custom of inbreeding with them to their new homes in the western world.... Medical Dictionary

INCIDENCE MONITORING AND REPORTING

Community Health

The reporting and tracking of adverse incidents by care providers.... Community Health

INCREMENTAL COST

Community Health

See “cost”.... Community Health

INDIGOFERA ARRECTA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hochst.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Assam, Bihar and in parts of Uttar Pradesh.

English: Natal Indigo, Java Indigo, Bengal Indigo.

Ayurvedic: Nili (related species).

Action: See I. tinctoria.

Aqueous extract of the plant exhibits antihyperglycaemic activity in rats due to insulinotropic property.

The indigotin content of the plant (0.8-1.0%) is higher than that of other species of Indigofera. The leaves contain up to 4% of a flavonol glycoside which on hydrolysis yields rhamnose and kaempferol.

Indigofera articulata auct. non-Gouan.

Synonym: I. caerulea Roxb.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Bihar and Western and Peninsular India.

English: Egyptian Indigo, Arabian Indigo, Wild Indigo, Surat Indigo.

Ayurvedic: Nili (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Aaramuri, Irup- pumuri, Kattavuri.

Folk: Surmai Nila.

Action: Root, leaf—bitter tonic. Seed—anthelmintic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

INDIRECT COST

Community Health

See “cost”.... Community Health

INDIRECT INSULT

Medical Dictionary

Septic, haemorrhagic and cardiogenic SHOCK

METABOLIC DISORDERS such as URAEMIA and pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF)

Bowel infarction

Drug ingestion

Massive blood transfusion, transfusion reaction (see TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD), CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS, disseminated intravascular coagulation

Treatment The principles of management are supportive, with treatment of the underlying condition if that is possible. Oxygenation is improved by increasing the concentration of oxygen breathed in by the patient, usually with mechanical ventilation of the lungs, often using continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP). Attempts are made to reduce the formation of pulmonary oedema by careful management of how much ?uid is given to the patient (?uid balance). Infection is treated if it arises, as are the possible complications of prolonged ventilation with low lung compliance (e.g. PNEUMOTHORAX). There is some evidence that giving surfactant through a nebuliser or aerosol may help to improve lung e?ectiveness and reduce oedema. Some experimental evidence supports the use of free-radical scavengers and ANTIOXIDANTS, but these are not commonly used. Other techniques include the inhalation of NITRIC OXIDE (NO) to moderate vascular tone, and prone positioning to improve breathing. In severe cases, extracorporeal gas exchange has been advocated as a supportive measure until the lungs have healed enough for adequate gas exchange. (See also RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME; HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE; SARS.)... Medical Dictionary

INDRE

Medical Dictionary

(Hindi) Woman of splendor... Medical Dictionary

INFERENCE

Community Health

The process of passing from observations and axioms to generalizations. In statistics, the development of generalizations from sample data, usually with calculated degrees of uncertainty.... Community Health

INFORMAL CARE

Community Health

See “informal assistance”.... Community Health

INFORMATION AND REFERRAL SERVICE

Community Health

A designated site or contact for locating needed services or care for older adults.... Community Health

INFRARED RADIATION

Medical Dictionary

The band of electromagnetic radiation which has a longer wavelength than that of the red in the visible spectrum. Infrared radiation is used in the special photographic process essential to THERMOGRAPHY. Its property of transmitting radiant heat has made infrared radiation invaluable in PHYSIOTHERAPY, where it warms tissues, soothes pain and increases the local circulation.... Medical Dictionary

INGUINAL REGION

Medical Dictionary

The groin – that area of the body where the lower part of the abdomen meets the upper thigh. The inguinal ligaments extend on each side from the superior spines of the iliac bones to the pubic bone. It is also called Poupart’s ligament (see diagram of ABDOMEN).... Medical Dictionary

INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The ability of a mosquito or other insect to survive contact with an insecticide in quantities that would normally kill a mosquito of the same species.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

INSTITUTIONAL (CARE) HEALTH SERVICES

Community Health

Health services delivered on an inpatient basis in hospitals, nursing homes or other inpatient institutions. The term may also refer to services delivered on an outpatient basis by departments or other organizational units of such institutions, or sponsored by them.... Community Health

INSULIN-RESISTANT DIABETES

Herbal Medical

Also called NIDDM (Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes) and Type II (Type II), it generally means you make your own insulin, you eat too many calories, your storage cells are filled and are taking no more fuel, your liver is stuck in a rut and keeps making more glucose out of everything you eat, your brain has no control over its consumption of glucose, but you have run out of places to put it so you pee it out, sweat it out, etc. etc. Also called Adult-onset Diabetes. An Internist may cry out in dismay at this simplification, and there are many subtle distinctions between the various types, as well as a number of distinct hereditary considerations. This, however, is the glossary of an herbalist, and this is the common picture of the Type II person that herbs will help.... Herbal Medical