Keywords of this word: Rat


Medical Dictionary

Formerly known as adult respiratory distress syndrome. A form of acute respiratory failure in which a variety of di?erent disorders give rise to lung injury by what is thought to be a common pathway. The condition has a high mortality rate (about 70 per cent); it is a complex clinical problem in which a disproportionate immunological response plays a major role. (See IMMUNITY.)

The exact trigger is unknown, but it is thought that, whatever the stimulus, chemical mediators produced by cells of the immune system or elsewhere in the body spread and sustain an in?ammatory reaction. Cascade mechanisms with multiple interactions are provoked. CYTOTOXIC substances (which damage or kill cells) such as oxygen-free radicals and PROTEASE damage the alveolar capillary membranes (see ALVEOLUS). Once this happens, protein-rich ?uid leaks into the alveoli and interstitial spaces. SURFACTANT is also lost. This impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and gives rise to the clinical and pathological picture of acute respiratory failure.

The typical patient with ARDS has rapidly worsening hypoxaemia (lack of oxygen in the blood), often requiring mechanical ventilation. There are all the signs of respiratory failure (see TACHYPNOEA; TACHYCARDIA; CYANOSIS), although the chest may be clear apart from a few crackles. Radiographs show bilateral, patchy, peripheral shadowing. Blood gases will show a low PaO2 (concentration of oxygen in arterial blood) and usually a high PaCO2 (concentration of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). The lungs are ‘sti?’ – they are less e?ective because of the loss of surfactant and the PULMONARY OEDEMA.

Causes The causes of ARDS may be broadly divided into the following:... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Costs which are not attributable to the direct delivery of health services and are not direct clinical care or service costs.... Community Health


Community Health

A record concerned with administrative matters, such as length of stay, details of accommodation, or billing.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Asteraceae, Compositae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,800 m.

English: Goat Weed, White Weed.

Ayurvedic: Dochunty, Uchunti, Sahadevi (related sp.).

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, styptic.

The leaf is reported to contain stig- masterol (59.9%) and beta-sitosterol (26.7%) as major component of sterol faction. The dried flowering plant contains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycop- samine and echinatine.

An aqueous extract of leaves is reported to show haemostatic activity. The plant extract exhibited muscle relaxant activity experimentally. The ethanolic extract (95%) of roots possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

The aqueous extract of leaves exhibits antifungal and crude plant extract antibacterial properties.

... Indian Medicinal Plants


Herbal Medical

Causing a favorable change in the disordered functions of the body or metabolism... Herbal Medical


Medicinal Plants Glossary

A term applied in naturopathic, Eclectic, and Thomsonian medicine to those plants or procedures that stimulate changes of a defensive or healing nature in metabolism or tissue function when there is chronic or acute diseases. The whole concept of alteratives is based on the premise that in a normally healthy person, disease symptoms are the external signs of activated internal defenses and, as such, should be stimulated and not suppressed. Sambucus (Elder), as an example, acts as an alterative when it is used to stimulate sweating in a fevered state. Without a fever or physical exertion, Sambucus tea will increase intestinal, lung, and kidney secretions. With fever or exercise, the buildup of heat from combustion, and the dilation of peripheral blood supply, it takes the defense response to the next stage of breaking a sweat. You might have sweated eventually anyway, but you may be one of those people who doesn’t perspire easily, and a diaphoretic such as Sambucus will act as an alterative for you by stimulating the next stage of defenses sooner than you would have on your own. The term alterative is sometimes inaccurately used as a synonym for “blood purifier,” particularly by nature-cure neo-Thomsonians such as Jethro Kloss and John Christopher. “Blood purifier” is a term better applied to the liver, spleen, and kidneys, not to some dried plant.... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Medical Dictionary

(Basque) Refers to the Virgin Mary... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Syrian) In mythology, goddess of the sea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Aspiration means the withdrawal of ?uid or gases from the natural cavities of the body or from cavities produced by disease. It may be performed for curative purposes; alternatively, a small amount of ?uid may be drawn o? for diagnosis of its nature or origin. An instrument called an aspirator is used to remove blood and ?uid from a surgical-operation site – for example, the abdomen or the mouth (in dentistry).

PLEURISY with e?usion is a condition requiring aspiration, and a litre or more of ?uid may be drawn o? by an aspirator or a large syringe and needle. Chronic abscesses and tuberculous joints may call for its use, the operation being done with a small syringe and hollow needle. PERICARDITIS with e?usion is another condition in which aspiration is sometimes performed. The spinal canal is aspirated by the operation of LUMBAR PUNCTURE. In children the ventricles of the brain are sometimes similarly relieved from excess of ?uid by piercing the fontanelle (soft spot) on the infant’s head. (See HYDROCEPHALUS.)... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Family: Balanophoraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim and Darjeeling at altitudes of 1,800-3,400 m

Ayurvedic: Chavya (tentative synonym).

Action: Astringent. Used in piles, also in rheumatism.

A related species, B.polyandra Griff., found in Nagaland, Manipur, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 2,000 m, gave a phenolic gly- coside, coniferin. The plant is used as an antiasthmatic.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

A group of drugs which depress the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM by inhibiting the transmission of impulses between certain neurons. Thus they cause drowsiness or unconsciousness (depending on dose), reduce the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen, and depress respiration. Their use as sedatives and hypnotics has largely been superseded by more modern drugs which are safer and more e?ective. Some members of this group of drugs – for instance, phenobarbitone – have selective anticonvulsant properties and are used in the treatment of GRAND MAL convulsions and status epilepticus (see EPILEPSY). The short-acting drugs thiopentone and methohexitone are widely used to induce general ANAESTHESIA. (See also DEPENDENCE.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hindi) In Hinduism, goddess of sacrifice

Bharatie, Bharaty, Bharatey, Bharatee, Bharatea, Bharateah, Barati, Baratie, Baraty, Baratey, Baratee, Baratea, Barateah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

In 2003, 695,500 live births were registered in the United Kingdom; 38 per cent occurred outside marriage. Overall, total fertility is falling slowly. The number of births per 1,000 women aged over 40 years has been rising, and in 1999 was 8.9 per cent. In Great Britain in 2003, 193,817 legal abortions were performed under the Abortion Act 1967.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Burseraceae.

Habitat: The drier parts of Peninsular India.

English: Indian Frankincense, Indian Olibanum.

Ayurvedic: Shallaki, Susravaa, Gajabhakshyaa, Salai. Gum— Kunduru.

Unani: Kundur (gum).

Siddha/Tamil: Parangisambirani, Kungli.

Folk: Salai Guggul.

Action: Gum-resin—antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiatheroscle- rotic, emmenagogue, analgesic, sedative, hypotensive. Also used in obesity, diarrhoea, dysentery, piles, urinary disorders, scrofulous affections. Oil—used topically in chronic ulcers, ringworm.

Nonphenolic fraction of gum-resin exhibited marked sedative and analgesic effect in rats. It produced a marked and long-lasting hypotension in anaesthetized dogs.

Many derivatives of 3-keto-methyl- beta-boswellic ester, isolated from the gum-resin., have been prepared; a py- razoline derivative exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity. (Gum-resin is used in osteoarthri- tis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue fibrositis and spondylitis, also for cough, bronchitis, asthma, mouth sores.)

Essential oil from gum-resin—anti- fungal.

Gum-resin contains triterpenes of oleanane, ursane and euphane series. Stem and fruit—hypoglycaemic.

Dosage: Gum-resin—1-3 g (API Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

A technique by which narrowing or blockage of an artery (see ARTERIES), vein (see VEINS) or a section of the gastrointestinal tract is bypassed using surgery. Arterial blockages – usually caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS – in the carotid, coronary or iliofemoral arteries are bypassed utilising sections of artery or vein taken from elsewhere in the patient. Tumour growths in the intestines are sometimes too large to remove and can be bypassed by linking up those parts of the intestines on each side of the growth.... Medical Dictionary


Medicinal Plants Glossary

Demonstrating that a measuring device produces results within the specified limits of those produce by a reference standard device over an appropriate rang of measurements... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Medical Dictionary

The term applied to an organic substance in which the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water. Carbohydrates are all, chemically considered, derivatives of simple forms of sugar and are classi?ed as monosaccharides (e.g. glucose), disaccharides

(e.g. cane sugar), polysaccharides (e.g. starch). Many of the cheaper and most important foods are included in this group, which comprises sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. When one of these foods is digested, it is converted into a simple kind of sugar and absorbed in this form. Excess carbohydrates, not immediately needed by the body, are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. In DIABETES MELLITUS, the most marked feature consists of an inability on the part of the tissues to assimilate and utilise the carbohydrate material. Each gram of carbohydrate is capable of furnishing slightly over 4 Calories of energy. (See CALORIE; DIET.)... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The number of fatal cases of specific disease, divided by total number of known cases and it is usually expressed as percent. Case fatality is one index of disease severity and is of more interest in acute than in chronic disease.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

This is literally de?ned as ‘deprivation of the power of generation’. In practical terms this involves surgical removal of both OVARIES, or both testicles (see TESTICLE). Such an operation is most commonly associated with the treatment of malignant lesions. In women who have reached the menopause, bilateral oophorectomy is routinely performed during HYSTERECTOMY, especially in cases of uterine carcinoma, and is usually performed when removing an ovarian tumour or malignant cyst. It is essential that the surgeon discusses with a woman before an operation when it might prove bene?cial to remove her ovaries in addition to carrying out the main procedure. In men, orchidectomy is routine for testicular tumours, and is sometimes carried out when treating prostatic cancer.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An infection in humans caused by a small gram-negative BACILLUS (Bartonella henselae). The domestic cat is a reservoir for the bacteria, and up to 50 per cent of the cat population may be a?ected. The disorder manifests itself as a skin lesion 3–10 days after a minor scratch; within two weeks the victim’s lymph glands enlarge and may produce pus. Fever, headache and malaise occur in some patients. Antibiotics do not seem to be e?ective. The skin lesion and lymph-gland enlargement subside spontaneously within 2–5 months.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

(Wall.) Gagnep.

Synonym: C. trifolia (L.) Domin. Vitis carnosa Wall. V.trifolia Linn.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India, from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam and up to 300 m.

Ayurvedic: Gandira.

Siddha/Tamil: Tumans.

Action: Leaves, seeds, roots— astringent, applied to ulcers and boils. Leaves—diaphoretic (recommended in high fever). Root- given in anaemic conditions. Aerial parts—CNS active, hypothermic. The stems, leaves and roots contain hydrocyanic acid. Presence of delphinidin and cyanidin is reported in the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants

(Wall.) Gagnep.

Synonym: Vitispedata VahlexWall.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, West Bengal and Assam, up to 900 m.

Ayurvedic: Godhaapadi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattuppirandai.

Action: Leaves—astringent and refrigerant (used for ulcers, diarrhoea, uterine and other fluxes).

Aerial parts—diuretic, spasmolytic.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: Vernonia anthelmintica Willd.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to 2,000 m in the Himalayas and Khasi Hills.

English: Purple Flea-bane, Achenes.

Ayurvedic: Aranya-Jiraka, Vanajira- ka, Kaalijiri, Karjiri. Somaraaji (also equated with Psoralea corylifolia Linn., Papilionaceae).

Unani: Kamoon barri.

Siddha/Tamil: Kaattu seerakam.

Action: Anthelmintic (against earthworms and tapeworms), stomachic, diuretic; used in skin diseases.

Delta-7-avenasterol is the main active principle of seeds. Seed oil contains vernasterol. Seeds bitter principle is a demanolide lactone. Centratherin and germacranolide from the leaves and stem have been isolated. Leaves contain abscisic acid. EtOH extract of achenes exhibited good results in giar- diasis. Various plant parts are used in syphilis. Clinical studies on vircarcika eczema validated the use of the drug in skin diseases.

The drug exhibited smooth muscle- relaxant and hypotensive activity in animals.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Caesalpinaceae. Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab. English: Locust Bean; St. John's Bread, Carob tree.

Unani: Kharnub Shaami.

Action: Pod and husk from seed— antidiarrhoeal (stools in gastroenteritis and colitis are known to solidify within 48 h).

The pods contain tannin from 0.88 to 4.09%.

Pulp of the pod contains 30-70% sugars, fats, starch, protein, amino acids, gallic acid; leucoanthocyanins and related phenolics. Leaves contain catechols.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Ceratophyllaceae.

Habitat: All over India from temperate to tropics, in ponds and lakes.

English: Coontail, Hornwort.

Ayurvedic: Shaivaala (also equated with Vallisneria spiralis Linn., Hydrocharitaceae), Jalnili, Jalaja.

Unani: Tuhlub, Pashm Vazg.

Siddha/Tamil: Velampasi.

Folk: Sevaar.

Action: Purgative, antibilious, antibacterial.

The herb is rich in protein, calcium and magnesium; contains ferre- doxin and plastocyanin. EtOH (50%) extract—antimicrobial.

Dosage: Whole plant—10- 20 ml juice; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

This drug is now rarely used but chloral betaine (Welldorm) is occasionally used in the elderly and in newborns with ?ts or cerebral irritation after a di?cult delivery.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Moon.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: A shrub distributed throughout the country, especially common in Assam and Bengal.

English: Blue-flowered Glory tree, Beetle Killer.

Ayurvedic: Bhaargi, Bhaaran- gi, Angaarvalli, Phanji, Braah- manyashtikaa, Kharshaak, Padma, Bhragubhavaa, Brahmayashtikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kandoorbarangi (root), cherutekku.

Action: Root—Antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, antispasmodic, antitussive carminative, febrifuge. Leaf—febrifuge.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the dried roots in cough, bronchitis, dyspnoea, chest diseases and sinusitis.

The bark contains triterpenoids— serratagenic, oleanolic and queretaric acids; leaves contain alpha-spinasterol and flavonoids, including luteolin, api- genin, baicalein, scutellarein, phenolic acids—caffeic and ferulic acids.

EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibited hypotensive and spasmolytic activity. Polyhydric property on isolated guinea pig ileum. Antiasthmatic effect was also observed pharmacologically.

Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder; 1020 g for decoction. (API Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

See HYPERLIPIDAEMIA.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A non-pro?t-making international organisation which systematically ?nds, appraises and reviews available evidence, mainly from randomised CLINICAL TRIALS, about the consequences of health care. The aim is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care. The main work is done by around 50 review groups, the members of which share an interest in generating reliable, up-to-date evidence on the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of particular health problems or groups of problems. The UK Cochrane Centre opened in Oxford in 1992 and the International Collaboration launched a year later. Its origins lay in the work of a UK epidemiologist, Dr Archie Cochrane, who in 1979 published a monograph calling for a systematic collection of randomised controlled trials on the e?ect of health care.

The main output of the Cochrane Collaboration is published electronically as the Cochrane Library, updated quarterly, with free access in many countries. (See CLINICAL TRIALS, EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE and Appendix 2.)... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Animals having no spine. This group originally contained Spongiaria, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Coelenterata is a term which generally includes the cnidarians and ctenophores. As the phylum Cnidaria does not include the ctenophores, the two terms are not interchangeable.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Community Health

A method for the determination of health insurance premiums that spreads the risk among members of a large community and establishes premiums based on the utilization experience of the whole community. For a set of benefits, the same rate applies to everyone regardless of age, gender, occupation or any other indicator of health risk.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

The Royal College of General Practitioners has issued guidelines on the use of computer-generated prescriptions for drugs other than controlled drugs. The guidelines include rules on giving the patient’s name, address and date of birth with the responsible prescribing doctor’s name at the bottom, along with his or her surgery address and telephone number. The prescription has to be signed by the doctor. Several other requirements are included to minimise the risk of prescription-tampering, fraud or the inclusion of identi?able con?dential information. Full details of the guidelines appear in the British National Formulary, published every six months.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: South India, particularly in Western Ghats.

English: False Calumba.

Ayurvedic: Pitachandana, Pitasaara, Harichandana, Kaaliyaka, Kalam- baka.

Siddha/Tamil: Maramanjal, Man- jalkodi.

Folk: Jharihaldi.

Action: Root—stomachic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidysenteric, antibacterial, antifungal, bitter tonic in dyspepsia and debility.

The stems and roots of Kalambaka contain alkaloids including berberine 3.5-5% and jatorrhizine. Stems contain ceryl palmitic acid and oleic acid.

The plant is also used against fractures; for dressing wounds and ulcers and in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

The stems are used in South India as a substitute for Berberis (Daaruhari- draa); also as an Indian substitute for True Calumba (Jateorhiza palmata Miers).

Dosage: Root—3-5 g powder; decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: British and European hedge plant, met with in the temperate Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1,800-3,000 m. (The plant does not thrive in the plains of India.)

English: English Hawthorn.

Folk: Ring, Ringo, Pingyat, Phindak, Ban Sanjli (Punjab hills).

Action: Coronary vasodilator (strengthens heart muscle without increasing the beat in coronary arteries), antispasmodic, antihypertensive, sedative to nervous system, diuretic.

Key application: In cases of cardiac insufficiency Stage II as defined by NYHA (New York Heart Association). An improvement of subjective findings as well as an increase in cardiac work tolerance, a decrease in pressure/heart rate product, an increase in the ejection fraction and a rise in the anaerobic threshold have been established in human pharmacological studies. (German Commission E, WHO.)

The active principles include oligo- meric procyanidins and flavonoids.

The drug is official in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Contraindicated in low blood pressure, chest pain, bleeding disorders. The herb may interfere with therapeutic effect of cardiac drugs. (Sharon M. Herr.) Preparations based on hydroal- coholic extracts of Crataegus monogy- na or C. laevigata are used as Hawthorn in the Western herbal.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Sutluj to Bhutan at altitudes of 8002,500 m.

Folk: Ghingaaru.

Action: See Cratageus oxyacantha.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: C. magna (Lour.) DC.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Wild as well as cultivated in gardens all over India.

Ayurvedic: Varuna, Varana, Barnaa, Setu, Ashmarighna, Kumaarak, Tiktashaaka.

Unani: Baranaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Maavilingam.

Action: Bark—diuretic (finds application in urinary disorders, including urolithiasis, prostatic hypertrophy, neurogenic bladder and urinary infections; uterine and gastro-intestinal problems). Juice of the bark is given to women after childbirth. Extract of root bark, mixed with honey, is applied to scrofulous enlargements of glands. Whole plant powder—cholinergic in smooth muscles including urinary bladder.

Key application: As antiurolithiatic. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The antiurolithic activity of the stem-bark is attributed to the presence of lupeol. Lupeol not only prevented the formation of vesical calculi, but also reduced the size of the preformed stones in the kidneys of calculogenic rats. It also reversed the biochemical parameters in urine, blood and serum towards normal.

The stem bark also exhibit anti- inflammatory activity, and is reported to stimulate bile secretion, appetite and bowel movement.

Dosage: Stem bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

Medical treatment and care that cures a disease or relieves pain and promotes recovery.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants

(DC.) Stapf.

Synonym: Andropogon citratus DC.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: Grown in Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka.

English: Lemongrass.

Ayurvedic: Bhuutika, Bhuutikaa.

Action: Leaf—stimulant, sudorific, antiperiodic, anticatarrhal. Essential oil—carminative, anticholerin, depressant, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, antifungal.

The lemongrass contains a volatile oil, with citral (about 70%), citronellal, geraniol and myrcene as its main constituents. Cetral and citronellal exhibit marked sedative activity.

The lemongrass is taken as a tea for digestive problems; it relaxes muscles of the stomach and gut, relieves spasm and flatulence. In catarrhal conditions, it is taken as a febrifuge.

An infusion of fresh leaves on oral administration has been found to produce dose-dependent analgesia in rats. This analgesic acitivity is caused by myrcene present in the leaf.

Geraniol and d-limonene from the essential oil induce activity of glu- tathione S-transferase, a detoxifying enzyme, which is believed to be a major factor for chemical carcinogen detoxification.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

The proportion of deaths in a specified population. The death rate is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a population in a year by the midyear resident population. Death rates are often expressed as the number of deaths per 100 000 persons. The rate may be restricted to deaths in specific age, race, sex, or geographic groups or deaths from specific causes of death (specific rate), or it may be related to the entire population (crude rate).... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

The death (mortality rate) is the number of deaths per 100,000 – or sometimes 10,000 or 1,000 – of the population per year. In 2001 the population of the UK was 59.8 million, of whom 9 million were over 65 and 4.2 million over 75. Females comprised 30.33 million and males 29.47. In 2003 – the latest year for which ?gures are available – the death rate was 7.2 per 1,000 population; in 1980 the ?gure was

11.8. The total mortality comprises individual deaths from di?erent causes: for example, accidents, cancer, coronary artery disease, strokes and suicides. Mortality is often calculated for speci?c groups in epidemiological (see EPIDEMIOLOGY) studies of particular diseases. Infant mortality measures the deaths of babies born alive who die during the ?rst year of life: infant deaths per 1,000 live births were steady at around 5 from 2003–2005.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A change in structure or in chemical composition of a tissue or organ, by which its vitality is lowered or its function interfered with. Degeneration is of various kinds, the chief being fatty, where cells become invaded by fat globules; calcareous, where calcium is deposited in tissue so that it becomes chalky in consistency; and mucoid, where it becomes semi-lique?ed.

Causes of degeneration are, in many cases, very obscure. In some cases heredity plays a part, with particular organs – for example, the kidneys – tending to show ?broid changes in successive generations. Fatty, ?broid, and calcareous degenerations are part of the natural change in old age; defective nutrition may bring them on prematurely, as may excessive and long-continued strain upon an organ like the heart. Various poisons, such as alcohol, play a special part in producing the changes, and so do the poisons produced by various diseases, particularly SYPHILIS and TUBERCULOSIS.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An umbrella description for a wide variety of conditions in which there is increased deterioration of the structure or function (or both) of the body. Ageing causes a steady degeneration of many tissues and organs – for example, wrinkling of the skin, CATARACT and poor neuromuscular coordination. In degenerative disorders the changes occur earlier in life. The nervous system, muscles, arteries, joints and eyes are all susceptible. Specialised tissues are replaced by CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The commonest example in the nervous system is ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, which causes dementia; while in HUNTINGTON’S CHOREA, a genetic disorder, dementia is accompanied by incoordination of movements.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A fall in the water content of the body. Sixty per cent of a man’s body weight is water, and 50 per cent of a woman’s; those proportions need to be maintained within quite narrow limits to ensure proper functioning of body tissues. Body ?uids contain a variety of mineral salts (see ELECTROLYTES) and these, too, must remain within narrow concentration bands. Dehydration is often accompanied by loss of salt, one of the most important minerals in the body.

The start of ‘dehydration’ is signalled by a person becoming thirsty. In normal circumstances, the drinking of water will relieve thirst and serious dehydration does not develop. In a temperate climate an adult will lose 1.5 litres or more a day from sweating, urine excretion and loss of ?uid through the lungs. In a hot climate the loss is much higher – up to 10 litres if a person is doing hard physical work. Even in a temperate climate, severe dehydration will occur if a person does not drink for two or three days. Large losses of ?uid occur with certain illnesses – for example, profuse diarrhoea; POLYURIA in diabetes or kidney failure (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF); and serious blood loss from, say, injury or a badly bleeding ULCER in the gastrointestinal tract. Severe thirst, dry lips and tongue, TACHYCARDIA, fast breathing, lightheadedness and confusion are indicative of serious dehydration; the individual can lapse into COMA and eventually die if untreated. Dehydration also results in a reduction in output of urine, which becomes dark and concentrated.

Prevention is important, especially in hot climates, where it is essential to drink water even if one is not thirsty. Replacement of salts is also vital, and a diet containing half a teaspoon of table salt to every litre of water drunk is advisable. If someone, particularly a child, suffers from persistent vomiting and diarrhoea, rehydration therapy is required and a salt-andglucose rehydration mixture (obtainable from pharmacists) should be taken. For those with severe dehydration, oral ?uids will be insu?cient and the a?ected person needs intravenous ?uids and, sometimes, admission to hospital, where ?uid intake and output can be monitored and rehydration measures safely controlled.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

An indicator used in population studies to measure the portion of the population which is economically dependent on active age groups. It is calculated as the sum of the 0-14 year-olds and the over 60 or 65 year-olds, depending on the working age limit considered, divided by the number of people aged between 15 and 59 or 64, respectively.... Community Health


Medicinal Plants Glossary

An agent that purifies blood... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Medical Dictionary

A FILARICIDE derived from PIPERAZINE used to treat FILARIASIS – a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms called nematode ?lariae.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) My God is bountiful Efrata, Efratia, Efratea... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: E. cuneatus Wt.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae. Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats up to 1,000 m. English: Wild Olive tree, Ceylon Olive.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Uttraccham, Ulankarei. Action: Leaf—antirheumatic. Fruit—antidysenteric. Aerial parts—CVS and CNS active.

The leaves gave ellagic acid, myric- itrin, myricetin and mearnsetin. Fruit pulp gave citric acid and D-galactose. It contains pectin (2.57% fresh weight basis).... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) A respected lady Emberatrise, Emberatreece, Emberatreese, Emberatryce, Emberatryse, Emberatrice... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) One who is fruitful Ephrata, Ephratia, Ephratea, Ephrath, Ephratha, Ephrathia, Ephrathea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, the muse of lyric poetry... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: E. ramentaceae Lindl. ex Wt.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Pasture lands of Deccan from Konkan southwards.

English: Salep (var.).

Folk: Sataavari (Maharashtra).

Action: Tuber—used for scrofulous glands.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) From the great river Euphratees, Eufrates, Eufratees... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Extrusion of the abdominal VISCERA or internal organs, usually as the result of serious injury. (Usually described as disembowelment when deliberately carried out by one person on another.) In surgery the term refers to part-removal of the viscera, and in OPHTHALMOLOGY it is an operation to remove the contents of the eyeball (see also EYE).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Expectoration means either material brought up from the chest by the AIR PASSAGES, or the act by which it is brought up.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A method of adjusting health plan premiums based on historical utilization data.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(1) Breathing out air from the lungs.

(2) The act of dying.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A surgical operation to investigate the cause of a patient’s illness.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

As a result of ANAEMIA, interference with blood or nerve supply, or because of the action of various poisons, body cells may undergo abnormal changes accompanied by the appearance in their substance of fat droplets.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A largely obsolete surgical operation to form a new opening in the bony LABYRINTH of the inner ear in the treatment of deafness caused by otosclerosis (see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Nowadays the disorder is usually surgically treated by STAPEDECTOMY.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The number of live births that occur in a year for every 1,000 women of childbearing age (this is usually taken as 15–44 years of age). The fertility rate in the UK (all ages) was 54.9 in 2002 (UK Health Statistics, 2001 edition, The Stationery O?ce).... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Variations in health status that arise from the different causal factors to which each birth cohort in the population is exposed as the environment and society change. Each consecutive birth cohort is exposed to a unique environment that coincides with its life span.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

Each of the two KIDNEYS ?lters a large volume of blood – 25 per cent of cardiac output, or around 1,300 ml – through its two million glomeruli (see GLOMERULUS) every minute. The glomeruli ?lter out cell, protein, and fat-free ?uid which, after reabsorption of certain chemicals, is excreted as urine. The rate of this ultra?ltration process, which in health is remarkably constant, is called the glomerular ?ltration rate (GFR). Each day nearly 180 litres of water plus some small molecular-weight constituents of blood are ?ltrated. The GFR is thus an indicator of kidney function. The most widely used measurement is CREATININE clearance and this is assessed by measuring the amount of creatinine in a 24-hour sample of urine and the amount of creatinine in the plasma; a formula is applied that gives the GFR.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Also known as trinitrin and nitroglycerin, this is a drug used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and left ventricular failure of the heart. It is normally given as a sublingual tablet or spray, though percutaneous preparations may be useful in the prophylaxis of angina – particularly for patients who su?er attacks at rest, and especially at night. Sublingually it provides rapid symptomatic relief of angina, but is only e?ective for 20–30 minutes. It is a potent vasodilator, and this may lead to unwanted side-e?ects such as ?ushing, headache, and postural HYPOTENSION. Its antispasmodic e?ects are also valuable in the treatment of ASTHMA, biliary and renal colic, and certain cases of VOMITING. (See also COLIC.)... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Research reports that are not found in traditional peer-reviewed publications, such as government agency monographs, symposium proceedings and unpublished reports.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: Hydnocarpus odorata Landl.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)

Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.

Folk: Chaaval-mungari.

Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.

A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

A technique similar to HAEMODIALYSIS. Blood is dialysed using ultra?ltration through a membrane permeable to water and small molecules (molecular weight <12,000). Physiological saline solution is simultaneously reinfused.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A communication strategy to inform the public or communities about health issues with the objective of reducing health risks and improving health status.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

See WILSON’S DISEASE.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See WILSON’S DISEASE.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Ran Bhindi.

Folk: Kishli-Keerai (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Flower—emollient, pectoral. Stem and leaf—used in urethritis and venereal diseases.

Petals (yellow part) gave gossypitrin and gossypetin; the purple part gave cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargoni-... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

A famous Greek physician who lived from

c.460 to 377 BC and who taught students at the medical school in Cos. Often called the ‘father of medicine’, he is renowned for drawing up the HIPPOCRATIC OATH, some of which may have been derived from the ancient oath of the Aesclepiads. Apart from his oath, Hippocrates has about 60 other medical works attributed to him, forming a corpus which was collected around 250 BC in the famous library of Alexandria in Egypt. Hippocratic medicine appealed ‘to reason rather than to rules or to supernatural forces’ is how the late Roy Porter, the English social historian, summed up its ethos in his medical history, The Greatest Bene?t to Mankind (Harper Collins, 1997). Porter also commended Hippocrates as being patient-centred rather than disease-orientated in his practice of medicine.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An oath once (but no longer) taken by doctors on quali?cation, setting out the moral precepts of their profession and binding them to a code of behaviour and practice aimed at protecting the interests of their patients. The oath is named after HIPPOCRATES (460–377 BC), the Greek ‘father of medicine’. Almost half of British medical students and 98 per cent of American ones make a ceremonial commitment to assume the responsibilities and obligations of the medical profession, but not by reciting this oath.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(English) Feminine form of Horace; the keeper of time Horacia, Horacya, Horatya, Horatiah, Hora, Horada, Horae... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

Merging of two or more firms at the same level of production in some formal, legal relationship. In hospital networks, this may refer to the grouping of several hospitals, the grouping of outpatient clinics with the hospital, or a geographic network of various health care services. Integrated systems seek to integrate both vertically with some organizations and horizontally with others. See “vertical integration”.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A chronic in?ammatory disease of the apocrine sweat glands (see PERSPIRATION). It is more common in women – in whom it usually occurs in the armpit – than in men, in whom it is most common in the perineum of the drivers of lorries and taxis. It occurs in the form of painful, tender lumps underneath the skin, which burst often in a week or so. Treatment consists of removal by operation.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Hypericaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Shimla at 2,000-3,000 m.

English: Common St. John's wort.

Unani: Heufaariqoon, Bassant, Balsaan.

Action: Antidepressant, sedative, relaxing nervine, anti-inflammatory. Used in anxiety, stress, depression, menopausal nervousness, menstrual cramps, neuralgia and rheumatism.

Key application: Psychovegetative disturbances, depressive moods, anxiety and or nervous unrest. Externally, oil preparation for treatment and post-therapy of acute and contused injuries, myalgia and first degree burns. (German Commission E, ESCOP, British Herbal Pharmocopoeia.)

The herb contains hypericin and pseudohypericin (0.0095 to 0.466% in the leaves and as much as 0.24% in the flowers), rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, methylhesperidin, caffeic, chloro- genic, p-coumaric, ferulic, p-hydroxy- benzoic and vanillic acids.

Plant's standardized extract (0.3% hypericin) shows antidepressant activity by inhibiting MAO.

A biflavonoid, amentoflavone, isolated from the plant, exhibited anti- inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activity.

Alcoholic extract of the plant shows in vivo hepatoprotective activity in rodents.

The oily extract of the flowers have been found effective in wound-healing due to the antibiotically active acyl- phlorogucinol, hyperforin.

The aerial parts show significant antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

A lyophilized infusion from the aerial parts exhibited antiviral activity and inhibited reproduction of different strains of influenza virus types A and B both in vivo and in vitro.

The whole herb is effective against many viral infections.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

Thickening of the horny (outer) layer of skin, a?ecting the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The disorder may be inherited.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Increased activity of the PARATHYROID gland. Parathyroid hormone increases SERUM calcium. Hyperparathyroidism may be primary (due to an ADENOMA or HYPERPLASIA of the gland), secondary (in response to HYPOCALCAEMIA) or tertiary (when secondary hyperparathyroidism causes the development of an autonomous adenoma).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Underactivity of the parathyroid glands (see under ENDOCRINE GLANDS). Thus there is a lack of parathyroid hormone resulting in HYPOCALCAEMIA. It may be caused by inadvertent removal of the glands when the thyroid gland is surgically removed, or by failure of the glands because of autoimmune disease.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Synonym: I. arundinacea Cyr.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: The hotter parts of India, both in plains and hills, ascending up to 2,300 m in the Himalayas.

English: Thatch Grass.

Ayurvedic: Darbha, Suuchyagra, Yagnika, Yagyabhuushana, Bahir.

Siddha/Tamil: Dharba.

Folk: Daabh.

Action: Diuretic, anti-inflammatory.

The rhizomes contain flavonoids, together with lignans, graminone A and B. A sesquiterpenoid, cylindrene, and biphenylether compounds, cylindol A and B, are also reported.

Cylindrene and graminone B show inhibitory activity on the contractions of vascular smooth muscles and aorta of rabbit respectively; while cylin- dol A exhibits 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.

The hot aqueous extract of the rhizomes show moderate GTP activity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride cy- totoxicity.

The leaves and stem contain cyano- chroic constituents. The roots contain antibacterial substances. The root is used in fevers but does not possess antipyretic activity.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

An adjective meaning lack of an opening. For example, occasionally the ANUS fails to develop properly, resulting in partial or complete obstruction of the opening. Sometimes pubertal girls have an imperforate HYMEN which obstructs the opening to the VAGINA and prevents menstrual ?ow of blood draining to the exterior.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A quotient, with the number of cases of a specified disease diagnosed or reported during a stated period of time as the numerator, and the number of persons in the population in which they occurred as the denominator.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

The pathological hardening of a tissue or organ. This may occur when a tissue is infected or when it is invaded by cancer. (See also SCLEROSIS.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The number of deaths of infants under one year of age. The IMR in any given year is calculated as the number of deaths in the ?rst year of life in proportion to every 1,000 registered live births in that year. Along with PERINATAL MORTALITY, it is accepted as one of the most important criteria for assessing the health of the community and the standard of the social conditions of a country.

The improvement in the infant mortality rate has occurred mainly in the period from the second month of life. There has been much less improvement in the neonatal mortality rate – that is, the number of infants dying during the ?rst four weeks of life, expressed as a proportion of every 1,000 live births. During the ?rst week of life the main causes of death are asphyxia, prematurity, birth injuries and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the main cause of death is infection.

Social conditions also play an important role in infant mortality. In England and Wales the infant mortality rate in 1930–32 was: Social Class I (professional), 32·7; Social Class III (skilled workers), 57·6; Social Class V (unskilled workers), 77·1. Many factors come into play in producing these social variations, but overcrowding is undoubtedly one of the most important.

1838–9 146 1950–52 30 1851–60 154 1960–62 22 1900–02 142 1970–72 18 1910–12 110 1980–82 12 1920–22 82 1990–92 7 1930–32 67 1996 6·2 1940–42 59 1999 5.8 2000 5.6

It is thus evident that for a reduction of the infant mortality rate to the minimum ?gure, the following conditions must be met. Mothers and potential mothers must be housed adequately in healthy surroundings, particularly with regard to safe water supplies and sewage disposal. The pregnant and nursing mother must be ensured an adequate diet. E?ective antenatal supervision must be available to every mother, as well as skilled supervision during labour (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR). The newborn infant must be adequately nursed and fed and mothers encouraged to breast feed. Environmental and public-health measures must be taken to ensure adequate housing, a clean milk supply and full availability of medical care including such protective measures as IMMUNISATION against diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis and whooping-cough. (See also PERINATAL MORTALITY.)... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The invasion of tissues or organs by cells or ?uid not normally present – for example, local anaesthetic is in?ltrated into an area of tissue to produce analgesia in a de?ned area.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The methods and strategies for linking and coordinating the various aspects of care delivered by different care systems, such as the work of general practitioners, primary and specialty care, preventive and curative services, and acute and long-term care, as well as physical and mental health services and social care, to meet the multiple needs/problems of an individual client or category of persons with similar needs/problems.... Community Health


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A combination of biological and insecticidal methods of control, e.g. the introduction of predacious fish to breeding places which are also sprayed with insecticides that have minimum effect on the fish.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Community Health

A network of organizations, usually including hospitals and medical practitioner groups, that provides or arranges to provide a coordinated continuum of services to a defined population and is held both clinically and financially accountable for the outcomes in the populations served.... Community Health


Community Health

A coherent set of methods and models, on the funding, administrative, organizational, service delivery and clinical levels, designed to create connectivity, alignment and collaboration within the health sector.... Community Health


Community Health

See “synthetic study”.... Community Health


Community Health

Links between generations which often involve exchanges of support.... Community Health


Community Health

An activity or set of activities aimed at modifying a process, course of action or sequence of events in order to change one or several of their characteristics, such as performance or expected outcome. For example, it is used in public health to describe a programme or policy designed to have an impact on an illness or disease.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

Intrathecal means within the membranes or meninges which envelop the SPINAL CORD. The intrathecal space, between the arachnoid and the pia mater, contains the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (see INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An ANTICHOLINERGIC, BRONCHODILATOR drug, given by aerosol inhalation to treat ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS and RHINITIS.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Basque) Refers to the Virgin Mary Iratza, Iratzia, Iratzea, Iratzi, Iratzie, Iratzy, Iratzey, Iratzee... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Of the awakening Jagratie, Jagraty, Jagratey, Jagratee, Jagratea... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

In July 1997, participants at the Fourth International Conference on Health Promotion presented the Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century. The Declaration identifies five priorities: promote social responsibility for health; increase investments for health development; consolidate and expand partnerships for health promotion; increase community capacity and empower the individual; and secure an infrastructure for health promotion.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

The substance of which horn and the surface layer of the skin are composed.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Deposition of KERATIN in cells, in particular those in the skin. The cells become horny and ?attened and lose their nuclei, forming hair and nails or hard areas of skin.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Inflammation of the cornea.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

See under EYE, DISORDERS OF.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

Softening of the cornea due to a severe vitamin A de?ciency (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See CORNEAL GRAFT.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Also known as actinic keratosis; a rough, scaly area on exposed skin caused by chronic solar damage from exposure to sun. The face and backs of the hands are most commonly a?ected. (See also MELANOMA; PHOTODERMATOSES.) CRYOTHERAPY is e?ective, but prevention by appropriate clothing and sun-blocking creams is a better strategy.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) From the mountain Kiratie, Kiraty, Kiratey, Kiratee, Kiratea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A wound to the skin or surface of an organ which results in a cut with irregular edges (cf. an incision produced with a knife, which has smooth, regular edges).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

An antidote to MORPHINE. It is usually given intravenously.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See RADIOTHERAPY.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Orchidaceae.

Ayurvedic: Jivaka-Rshabhaka (bulbs of Microstylis wallichi Lindl. and M. musifera, also of other orchids, are sold as Jivaka-Rshabhaka).

Action: Used in age-sustaining and invigorating tonics.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

A summary and interpretation of research findings reported in the literature. It may include unstructured qualitative reviews by single authors as well as various systematic and quantitative procedures, such as meta-analysis.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) From the desolate land Maaratha, Marath, Marathe, Maratha, Maarathe... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Maceration is the softening of a solid by soaking in ?uid.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. emend. Huds.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Maharashtra, Kashmir and Punjab.

English: Peppermint, Brandy Mint.

Ayurvedic: Vilaayati Pudinaa.

Action: Oil—digestive, carminative, chloretic, antispasmodic, diuretic, antiemetic, mild sedative, diaphoretic, antiseptic, antiviral, used in many mixtures of indigestion and colic and cough and cold remedies.

Key application: Leaf—internally for spastic complaints of the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and bile ducts. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) The British Herbal Compendium indicates peppermint leaf for dyspepsia, flatulence, intestinal colic, and biliary disorders.

Key application: Oil—as a carminative. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In spastic discomfort fo the upper gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts, irritable colon, the respiratory tract and inflammation of the oral mucosa. Externally, for myalgia and neuralgia. (German Commission E.) ESCOP indicates its use for irritable bowel syndrome, coughs and colds. Externally, for coughs and colds, rheumatic complaints, pruritus, urticaria, and pain in irritable skin conditions. (ESCOP.)

The essential oil has both antibacterial and antifungal properties.

The major constituents of the essential oil are: menthol, menthone, pulegone, menthofuran, 1,8-cineole, men- thyl acetate, isomenthone. The leaves contain flavonoid glycosides, erioc- itrin, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, hesperi- din, isorhoifolin, diosmin, eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside and narirutin, besides rosmarinic acid, azulenes, cholene, carotenes.

Peppermint oil relaxed carvachol- contracted guinea-pig tenia coli, and inhibited spontaneous activity in guinea-pig colon and rabbit jejunum. It relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle by reducing calcium influx. Peppermint oil reduced gastric emptying time in dyspeptics.

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts exhibited antiviral activity against RPV (rinder pest virus), a highly contagious viral disease of cattle.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

(Latin) From the jagged mountain

Montserrat... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

See “death rate”.... Community Health


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The percentage that die within a specified period of time.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(African) A beloved friend Muraty, Muratia, Murati, Muratie, Muratee, Muratea... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

A. W. Hill.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

Folk: Chathuravalli, Chathuramulla (Kerala). Hem-maalati.

Action: Leaves—used with clarified butter in cough, asthma, chest diseases; also in nervous complaints and rheumatism. Oil extract of the leaves is used for massage in fever, headache and backaches.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

Based on national health policy, a set of decisions that includes the broad lines of action required in all sectors involved to give effect to the national health policy and indicates the problems and ways of dealing with them.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

Chemical compounds that have a valuable role in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. They are very e?ective in dilating the ARTERIES supplying the HEART; their prime bene?t, however, is to reduce the return of venous blood to the heart (via the superior and inferior venae cavae), thus reducing the demands on the left ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Undesirable side-e?ects such as ?ushing, headache and postural HYPOTENSION may restrict the use of nitrates. Among the nitrate drugs used is GLYCERYL TRINITRATE which, taken under the tongue (sublingually), provides quick, symptomatic relief of angina, lasting for up to half an hour. Alternative administration can be via a spray product. Isorbide dinitrate taken sublingually is a more stable preparation, suitable for patients who need nitrates infrequently. The drug’s e?ect may last for 12 hours in modi?ed-release form. Patients taking long-acting nitrates or preparations absorbed through the skin (transdermal) may develop TOLERANCE.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

1 The upper portion of a fraction used to calculate a rate or ratio. 2 For a performance measure, the cases in the denominator group that experience events specified in a review criterion. See “denominator”.... Community Health


Community Health

A measure of the use of facilities, most often inpatient health facility use, determined by dividing the number of patient days by the number of bed days (or places) available, on average, per unit of time, multiplied by 100.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Shrubby Basil.

Ayurvedic: Vriddha Tulasi, Raam- Tulasi, Raan-Tulasi.

Siddha: Elumicha-Tulasi, Peria- Tulasi.

Action: Plant—used in neurological and rheumatic affections, in seminal weakness and in aphthae of children. Seed—used in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.

In homoeopathy, fresh mature leaves are used in constipation, cough, fever, nasal catarrh; also in gonorrhoea with difficult urination.

A heterotic hybrid 'Clocimum' (po- lycross of gratissimum) has been developed in India which yields 4.55.7% essential oil having a eugenol content up to 95%. Direct production of methyl eugenol and eugenol acetate from 'Clocimum' oil is reported.

Major constituents reported from 'Clocimum' oil are myrcene 8.87, eugenol 68.14, isoeugenol 13.88, methyl- eugenol 1.74%; other constituents are alpha- pinene, limonene, phellandrene, terpene 4-ol, alpha-terpineol, carveol, carvene, geranyl acetate, caryophyl- lone and caryophyllone oxide.

(At Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu, a study was conducted Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke.

Synonym: O. camphora Guerke.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native of Kenya. Cultivated on a small scale in West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Dehr Dun.

English: Camphor Basil.

Ayurvedic: Karpura Tulasi.

Action: Plant—spasmolytic, antibacterial. Decamphorized oil— insecticidal, mosquito repellent.

Essential oil contains camphor, pi- nene, limonene, terpinolene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, linalool, camphene, p-cymene, borneol and alpha-selinene. The Camphor content varies in different samples from 61 to 80.5%.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

1 A measure of association which quantifies the relationship between an exposure and outcome from a comparative study; also known as the cross-product ratio. 2 Comparison of the presence of a risk factor in a sample.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

See OESTROGENS.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

See “cost”.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A binocular MICROSCOPE used for MICROSURGERY on, for example, the EYE and middle EAR; this microscope is also used for suturing nerves and blood vessels damaged or severed by trauma and for rejoining obstructed FALLOPIAN TUBES in the treatment of INFERTILITY in women.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A surgical procedure using instruments – or sometimes just the hands; for example, when manipulating a joint or setting a simple fracture. Operations range from simple removal of a small skin lesion under local anaesthetic to a major event such as transplanting a heart which takes several hours and involves many doctors, nurses and technical sta?. Increasingly, operations are done on an outpatient or day-bed basis, thus enabling many more patients to be treated than was the case 25 years ago, and permitting them to resume a normal life – often within 24 hours. (See also SURGERY; MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).)... Medical Dictionary


Medicinal Plants Glossary

documented verification that the system or sub system performs as intended throughout all anticipated operating ranges... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Medical Dictionary

This is the essential initial treatment for DIARRHOEA, and is particularly valuable for dehydrated children in developing countries ill with diseases such as CHOLERA. A litre of water containing one teaspoonful of salt and eight of sugar, taken by mouth, is readily absorbed. It replaces salts and water lost because of the diarrhoea and usually no other treatment is required.

In developed countries ORT is useful in treating gastroenteritis. There are a number of proprietary preparations, often dispensed as ?avoured sachets, including Dioralyte® and Rehydrate®.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

An intermediate host which becomes infected by consuming another intermediate host and in which the parasite does not develop any further than in the first intermediate host. Also called a “transport host”.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

One of the ORGANOPHOSPHORUS insecticides. It is highly toxic to humans and must therefore be handled with the utmost care.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The grouping of four small glands, about 5 mm in diameter, which lie to the side of and behind the THYROID GLAND. These glands regulate the metabolism of calcium and of phosphorus. If for any reason there is a de?ciency of the secretion of the parathyroid glands, the amount of calcium in the blood falls too low and the amount of phosphorus increases. The result is the condition known as TETANY characterised by restlessness and muscle spasms – sometimes severe. The condition is checked by the injection of calcium gluconate, which causes an increase in the amount of calcium in the blood.

The most common cause of this condition (hypoparathyroidism) is accidental injury to or removal of the glands during the operation of thyroidectomy for the treatment of Graves’ disease (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Thyrotoxicosis). If there is over-production of the parathyroids, there will be an increase of calcium in the blood: this extra calcium is drawn from the bones, causing cysts to form with resulting bone fragility. This cystic disease of bone is known as OSTEITIS FIBROSA CYSTICA. Tumours of the parathyroid glands result in this overactivity of the parathyroid hormone, and the resulting increase in the amount of calcium in the blood leads to the formation of stones in the kidneys. The only available treatment is surgical removal of the tumour. Increased activity of the parathyroid glands, or hyperparathyroidism, may cause stones in the kidneys. (See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary


Herbal Medical

These are several minute glandular masses embedded in the lower edge of the thyroid gland. They produce Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), part of the calcium-phosphorus control system. Calcium levels in the blood MUST be within a narrow band of safety. If free calcium drops too low, PTH acts on the kidneys and blocks calcium loss in urine, amplifies calcium absorption into the portal blood (from food and from submucosal storage) and stimulates release of calcium from bone storage. When levels are back up, the hormone backs off. Oddly enough, the thyroid gland secretes its virtual antagonist, calcitonin, which, when calcium levels are too high, stimulates the urine excretion, bone retention and digestive resistance to calcium, and when the blood levels drop, recedes. The body finds calcium levels to be so critical that it has in place TWO separate, mutually antagonistic negative feedback systems,,,like a binary star system. (Be thankful I didn’t bring in the calcium maintenance of minerocortical steroid hormones or vasopressin)... Herbal Medical


Medical Dictionary

See ENTERIC FEVER.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The proportion of female mosquitoes that have laid eggs at least once. Use for age-grading a mosquito population.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: North-West India, Bengal and Konkan.

English: Fragrant Sticky Mallow.

Ayurvedic: Vaalaka, Baalaka, Baala, Barhishtha, Hrivera, Ambu, Jala, Nira, Paya, Toya, Udichya, Vaari, Muurdhaja. Sugandhbaalaa (also equated with Valeriana Jatamansi). In the South, Celus vettiveroides is equated with Baalaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Peraamutti, Kastoori vendai.

Action: Plant—anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic. Used in rheumatic affections. Root—stomachic, astringent, demulcent. Used in dysentery, haemorrhages from intestines; ulcers and bleeding disorders.

The roots gave an essential oil containing isovaleric acid, isovaleralde- hyde, armomadendrene, pavonene, alpha-terpinene, azulene and pavo- nenol.

The plant exhibits antiparasitic activity against Entamoeba histolytica.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

The perforation of one of the hollow organs of the abdomen or major blood vessels may occur spontaneously in the case of an ulcer or an advanced tumour, or may be secondary to trauma such as a knife wound or penetrating injury from a tra?c or industrial accident. Whatever the cause, perforation is a surgical emergency. The intestinal contents, which contain large numbers of bacteria, pass freely out into the abdominal cavity and cause a severe chemical or bacterial PERITONITIS. This is usually accompanied by severe abdominal pain, collapse or even death. There may also be evidence of free ?uid or gas within the abdominal cavity. Surgical intervention, to repair the leak and wash out the contamination, is often necessary. Perforation or rupture of major blood vessels, whether from disease or injury, is an acute emergency for which urgent surgical repair is usually necessary. Perforation of hollow structures elsewhere than in the abdomen – for example, the heart or oesophagus – may be caused by congenital weaknesses, disease or injury. Treatment is usually surgical but depends on the cause.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A method of autologous blood TRANSFUSION – using a patient’s own blood, salvaged during a surgical operation – instead of conventional blood-bank transfusion.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Perseveration is the senseless repetition of words or deeds by a person with a disordered mind.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Commonly called sweat, it is an excretion from the SKIN, produced by microscopic sweat-glands, of which there are around 2·5 million, scattered over the surface. There are two di?erent types of sweat-glands, known as eccrine and apocrine. Insensible (that is unnoticed) perspiration takes place constantly by evaporation from the openings of the sweat-glands, well over a litre a day being produced. Sensible perspiration (that is, obvious) – to which the term ‘sweat’ is usually con?ned – occurs with physical exertion and raised body temperature: up to 3 litres an hour may be produced for short periods. Normal sweating maintains the body within its customary temperature range and ensures that the skin is kept adequately hydrated – for example, properly hydrated skin of the palm helps the e?ectiveness of a person’s normal grip.

The chief object of perspiration is to maintain an even body temperature by regulating the heat lost from the body surface. Sweating is therefore increased by internally produced heat, such as muscular activity, or external heat. It is controlled by two types of nerves: vasomotor, which regulate the local blood ?ow, and secretory (part of the sympathetic nervous system) which directly in?uence secretion.

Eccrine sweat is a faintly acid, watery ?uid containing less than 2 per cent of solids. The eccrine sweat-glands in humans are situated in greatest numbers on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands, and with a magnifying glass their minute openings or pores can be seen in rows occupying the summit of each ridge in the skin. Perspiration is most abundant in these regions, although it also occurs all over the body.

Apocrine sweat-glands These start functioning at puberty and are found in the armpits, the eyelids, around the anus in association with the external genitalia, and in the areola and nipple of the breast. (The glands that produce wax in the ear are modi?ed apocrine glands.) The ?ow of apocrine sweat is evoked by emotional stimuli such as fear, anger, or sexual excitement.

Abnormalities of perspiration Decreased sweating may occur in the early stages of fever, in diabetes, and in some forms of glomerulonephritis (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF). Some people are unable to sweat copiously, and are prone to HEAT STROKE. EXCESSIVE SWEATING, OR HYPERIDROSIS, may be caused by fever, hyperthyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), obesity, diabetes mellitus, or an anxiety state. O?ensive perspiration, or bromidrosis, commonly occurs on the hands and feet or in the armpits, and is due to bacterial decomposition of skin secretions. A few people, however, sweat over their whole body surface. For most of those a?ected, it is the palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis that is the major problem.

Conventional treatment is with an ANTICHOLINERGIC drug. This blocks the action of ACETYLCHOLINE (a neurotransmitter secreted by nerve-cell endings) which relaxes some involuntary muscles and tightens others, controlling the action of sweat-glands. But patients often stop treatment because they get an uncomfortably dry mouth. Aluminium chloride hexahydrate is a topical treatment, but this can cause skin irritation and soreness. Such antiperspirants may help patients with moderate hyperhidrosis, but those severely a?ected may need either surgery or injections of BOTULINUM TOXIN to destroy the relevant sympathetic nerves to the zones of excessive sweating.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. var. cuneata Engl.

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Africa and America.

English: Water Lettuce, Tropical Duckweed.

Ayurvedic: Jalakumbhi, Vaariparni, Vaarimuuli.

Siddha/Tamil: Agasatamarai.

Action: Whole plant and root— diuretic, used for dysuria. Leaf—an- titussive, demulcent, antidysenteric, externally applied to haemorrhoids, ulcers, skin diseases. Ash—applied to ringworm of the scalp.

The plant gave 2-di-C-glycosylfla- vones of vicenin and lucenin type, anthocyanin-cyanidin-3-glucoside, lu- teolin-7-glycoside and mono-C-glyco- sylflavones— vitexin and orientin.

Dosage: Plant—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

Service provision targets established by an authority on a population basis.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants

(Forsk.) Alschers & Schweinf.

Synonym: P. loeflingii Benth. & Hook. f.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India in fields and waste places.

Folk: Ghima, Suretaa.

Action: Leaves—an infusion of roasted leaves is given for cough following fever, particularly in measles.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits spasmolytic activity. The aerial parts contain tetrahydroxy triterpenes. Presence ofa triterpenoid saponin, and hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, beta- amyrin and its acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

The period after an operation, the patient’s condition after operation, or any investigations or treatment during this time.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hindi) An understanding woman Pratibhah, Pratybha, Pratybhah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) An image or icon Pratimah, Pratema, Pratyma, Prateema, Prateima, Pratiema, Prateama... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

quotient using as the numerator, the number of persons sick or portraying a certain condition, in a stated population, at a particular time, regardless of when that illness or condition began, and as the denominator, the number of persons in the population in which they occurred.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A measure of the relative contribution to total mortality by a specific cause and these are expressed as number of deaths assigned to the state cause in a calendar year per 1000 total deaths in that year.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

A statutory organisation that is part of the NHS. It comprises ten laboratory groups and two centres in the UK, with central coordination from PHLS headquarters. The service provides diagnostic-testing facilities for cases of suspected infectious disease. The remit of the PHLS (which was set up during World War II and then absorbed into the NHS) is now based on legislation approved in 1977 and 1979. Its overall purpose was to protect the population from infection by maintaining a national capability of high quality for the detection, diagnosis, surveillance, protection and control of infections and communicable diseases. It provided microbiology services to hospitals, family doctors and local authorities as well as providing national reference facilities. In 2001 it was incorporated into the newly established NATIONAL INFECTION CONTROL AND HEALTH PROTECTION AGENCY.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The plains of northern India, and the warm valleys of the Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.

English: Blister Buttercup, Celery- leaved Crowfoot.

Ayurvedic: Kaandira, Kaandakatu- ka, Naasaa-samvedana, Toyavalli, Sukaandaka.

Folk: Jal-dhaniyaa.

Action: Fresh Plant—highly acrid, rubefacient, vesicant and toxic; causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Used after drying or as a homoeopathic medicine for skin diseases.

The plant contains anemonin, pro- toanemonin, ranunculine, serotonin and other tryptamine derivatives.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a potent vaso-constrictor. Pro- toanemonin possesses strong antibacterial, antiviral, cytopathogenic and vermicidal properties, and is effective against both Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria, similar to penicillic acid. It inhibits the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida al- bicans. It inactivates in vitro diptheria toxin.

Dosage: Whole plant—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

An infectious disease following the bite of a rat. There are two causative organisms – Spirillum minus and Actinobacillus muris – and the incubation period depends upon which is involved. In the case of the former it is 5–30 days; in the case of the latter it is 2–10 days. The disease is characterised by fever, a characteristic skin rash and often muscular or joint pains. It responds well to PENICILLIN.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Thai) Resembling a crystal Ratanah, Ratanna, Ratannah, Rathana, Rathanna... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A measure of the frequency of a phenomenon. In epidemiology, demography and vital statistics, a rate is an expression of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population. Rates are usually expressed using a standard denominator such as 1000 or 100 000 persons. Rates may also be expressed as percentages. The use of rates rather than raw numbers is essential for comparison of experience between populations at different times or in different places, or among different classes of persons.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Community Health

A rate is the frequency with which a health event occurs in a defined population. The components of the rate are the numbers of deaths or cases (the numerator), the population at risk (denominator), and the specified time in which the events occurred. All rates are ratios, calculated by dividing the numerator by the denominator.... Community Health


Community Health

Review by a government or private agency of a hospital’s or health service’s budget and financial data, performed for the purpose of determining if the rates are reasonable of the rates and evaluating proposed rate increases.... Community Health


Community Health

A method of paying health care providers in which the government establishes payment rates for all payers for various categories of health service.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Hindi) In Hinduism, goddess of passion and lust

Ratie, Ratea, Ratee, Raty, Ratey... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The value obtained by dividing one quantity by another: a general term of which rate, proportion, percentage, etc. are subsets. A ratio is an expression of the relationship between a numerator and a denominator where the two usually are separate and distinct quantities, neither being included in the other.... Community Health


Community Health

See “measurement scale”.... Community Health


Community Health

Limiting the availability of something (e.g. due to a shortage of the item itself or of resources with which to buy it).... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) As precious as a jewel Ratnah, Ratnia, Ratnea... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) Born in the evening Ratrie, Ratry, Ratrey, Ratree, Ratrea... Medical Dictionary


Medicinal Plants

Calamus species

Description: The rattan palm is a stout, robust climber. It has hooks on the midrib of its leaves that it uses to remain attached to trees on which it grows. Sometimes, mature stems grow to 90 meters. It has alternate, compound leaves and a whitish flower.

Habitat and Distribution: The rattan palm is found from tropical Africa through Asia to the East Indies and Australia. It grows mainly in rain forests.

Edible Parts: Rattan palms hold a considerable amount of starch in their young stem tips. You can eat them roasted or raw. In other kinds, a gelatinous pulp, either sweet or sour, surrounds the seeds. You can suck out this pulp. The palm heart is also edible raw or cooked.

Other Uses: You can obtain large amounts of potable water by cutting the ends of the long stems (see Chapter 6). The stems can be used to make baskets and fish traps.... Medicinal Plants


Protection, Money ...


Community Health

The proportion of a hospital’s patients (or a subset, such as those with asthma) who are readmitted to the hospital following discharge with the same diagnosis. It is used as a performance measure where a higher rate indicates lower quality of care.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

The process in which air passes into and out of the lungs so that the blood can absorb oxygen and give o? carbon dioxide and water. This occurs 18 times a minute in a healthy adult at rest and is called the respiratory rate. An individual breathes more than 25,000 times a day and during this time inhales around 16 kg of air.

Mechanism of respiration For the structure of the respiratory apparatus, see AIR PASSAGES; CHEST; LUNGS. The air passes rhythmically into and out of the air passages, and mixes with the air already in the lungs, these two movements being known as inspiration and expiration. INSPIRATION is due to a muscular e?ort which enlarges the chest, so that the lungs have to expand in order to ?ll up the vacuum that would otherwise be left, the air entering these organs by the air passages. The increase of the chest in size from above downwards is mainly due to the diaphragm, the muscular ?bres of which contract and reduce its domed shape and cause it to descend, pushing down the abdominal organs beneath it. EXPIRATION is an elastic recoil, the diaphragm rising and the ribs sinking into the position that they naturally occupy, when muscular contraction is ?nished. Occasionally, forced expiration may occur, involving powerful muscles of the abdomen and thorax; this is typically seen in forcible coughing.

Nervous control Respiration is usually either an automatic or a REFLEX ACTION, each expiration sending up sensory impulses to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, from which impulses are sent down various other nerves to the muscles that produce inspiration. Several centres govern the rate and force of the breathing, although all are presided over by a chief respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata (see under BRAIN – Divisions). This in turn is controlled by the higher centres in the cerebral hemispheres, so that breathing can be voluntarily stopped or quickened.

Quantity of air The lungs do not completely empty themselves at each expiration and re?ll at each inspiration. With each breath, less than one-tenth of the total air in the lungs passes out and is replaced by the same quantity of fresh air, which mixes with the stale air in the lungs. This renewal, which in quiet breathing amounts to about 500 millilitres, is known as the tidal air. By a special inspiratory e?ort, an individual can draw in about 3,000 millilitres, this amount being known as complemental air. By a special expiratory e?ort, too, after an ordinary breath one can expel much more than the tidal air from the lungs – this extra amount being known as the supplemental or reserve air, and amounting to about 1,300 millilitres. If an individual takes as deep an inspiration as possible and then makes a forced expiration, the amount expired is known as the vital capacity, and amounts to around 4,000 millilitres in a healthy adult male of average size. Figures for women are about 25 per cent lower. The vital capacity varies with size, sex, age and ethnic origin.

Over and above the vital capacity, the lungs contain air which cannot be expelled; this is known as residual air, and amounts to another 1,500 millilitres.

Tests of respiratory e?ciency are used to assess lung function in health and disease. Pulmonary-function tests, as they are known, include spirometry (see SPIROMETER), PEAK FLOW METER (which measures the rate at which a person can expel air from the lungs, thus testing vital capacity and the extent of BRONCHOSPASM), and measurements of the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. (See also LUNG VOLUMES.)

Abnormal forms of respiration Apart from mere changes in rate and force, respiration is modi?ed in several ways, either involuntarily or voluntarily. SNORING, or stertorous breathing, is due to a ?accid state of the soft palate causing it to vibrate as the air passes into the throat, or simply to sleeping with the mouth open, which has a similar e?ect. COUGH is a series of violent expirations, at each of which the larynx is suddenly opened after the pressure of air in the lungs has risen considerably; its object is to expel some irritating substance from the air passages. SNEEZING is a single sudden expiration, which di?ers from coughing in that the sudden rush of air is directed by the soft palate up into the nose in order to expel some source of irritation from this narrow passage. CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING is a type of breathing found in persons su?ering from stroke, heart disease, and some other conditions, in which death is impending; it consists in an alternate dying away and gradual strengthening of the inspirations. Other disorders of breathing are found in CROUP and in ASTHMA.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cessation of breathing, often caused by envenomation (or poisoning).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

Sudden stoppage of breathing which results from any process that strongly suppresses the function of the brain’s respiratory centre. It leads to lack of oxygen in the tissues and, if not remedied, to cardiac arrest, brain damage, COMA and death. Treatment is arti?cial respiration (see APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID) and, if necessary, arti?cial ventilation. Causes of respiratory arrest include cardiac arrest, electrical injury, overdose of narcotic drugs, prolonged seizures (EPILEPSY), serious head injury, STROKE or inhalation of noxious material that causes respiratory failure.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

This may occur in adults as ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS), or in newborn children, when it is also known as HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE. The adult syndrome consists of PULMONARY OEDEMA of non-cardiac origin. The process begins when tissue damage stimulates the autonomic nervous system, releases vasoactive substances, precipitates complement activation, and produces abnormalities of the clotting cascade – the serial process that leads to clotting of the blood (see COAGULATION). The activation of complement causes white cells to lodge in the pulmonary capillaries where they release substances which damage the pulmonary endothelium.

Respiratory distress syndrome is a complication of SHOCK, systemic SEPSIS and viral respiratory infections. It was ?rst described in 1967, and – despite advances with assisted ventilation

– remains a serious disease with a mortality of more than 50 per cent. The maintenance of adequate circulating blood volume, peripheral PERFUSION, acid-base balance and arterial oxygenation is important, and assisted ventilation should be instituted early.

In newborns the mechanism is diferent, being provoked by an inability of the lungs to manufacture SURFACTANT.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Usually known as RSV, this is one of the MYXOVIRUSES. It is among the major causes of BRONCHIOLITIS and PNEUMONIA among infants aged under 6 months; its incidence has been increasing, possibly due to atmospheric pollution.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

All the organs and tissues associated with the act of RESPIRATION or breathing. The term includes the nasal cavity (see NOSE) and PHARYNX, along with the LARYNX, TRACHEA, bronchi (see BRONCHUS), BRONCHIOLES and LUNGS. The DIAPHRAGM and other muscles, such as those between the RIBS, are also part of the respiratory system which is responsible for oxygenating the blood and removing carbon dioxide from it.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The diagnostic evaluation, management and treatment of the care of older persons with deficiencies and abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary (heart lung) system.... Community Health


Community Health

The number of completed or returned survey instruments (questionnaires, interviews, etc) divided by the total number of persons who would have been surveyed if all had participated. Usually expressed as a percentage.... Community Health


Medicinal Plants Glossary

Having the power to restore or renew health ... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Community Health

Services provided to older people on a short-term basis to restore their physical condition to a level which would allow them to return home with appropriate support. See “rehabilitation”.... Community Health


Community Health

Risk rating means that high-risk individuals will pay more than the average premium price.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Midnapore Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Phanji.

Siddha/Tamil: Budthi-kiray.

Folk: Kalmi-lataa, Phaang.

Action: Root—a tonic after childbirth. Leaves—astringent; used in haemorrhagic diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

Health status is usually obtained from survey data by asking the respondent if his/her health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor (or similar questions).... Community Health


Community Health

The ratio of one sex to another. Usually defined as the ratio of males to females.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

An oral drug – better known to the public as Viagra® – for treating erectile dysfunction of the PENIS (see also ERECTION; SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION). Sildena?l citrate was originally developed to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; during clinical trials, patients reported that they were having more erections than before taking the drug. Clinical trials were then conducted on 4,000 men, and 70 per cent of them found sildena?l e?ective. The men, of an average age of 55 years, had experienced erectile problems for around ?ve years before taking part in the trials. The medical conditions associated with their problems included high blood pressure, high concentrations of CHOLESTEROL, DIABETES MELLITUS, surgery and psychological disorders. Among side-e?ects, headache was the most common; others included facial ?ushing, indigestion and a stu?y nose. The drug is a vasodilator so that blood ?ow to the penis is enhanced. It works in response to sexual stimulation and has no properties as an aphrodisiac; nor does it provoke sexual fantasies. Sildena?l must not be taken with drugs containing nitrates such as GLYCERYL TRINITRATE or isosorbide trinitrate as the subject may su?er a sudden fall in blood pressure. Nitrates inhaled for recreational use (poppers) have a similar e?ect. Recent research suggests that the drug may help women with low LIBIDO or who have di?culty in achieving ORGASM.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The extent to which individuals are engaged with their families, friends, neighbours and communities.... Community Health


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Sonneratiaceae.

Habitat: Tidal creeks and mangrove swamps of India.

Folk: Orchaa (Bengal), Tivar, Chipi (Maharashtra).

Action: Fruit—fermented juice is used for arresting haemorrhage. Juice of unripe fruit is given in cough. Fruit is also used as a poultice in sprains and swellings. Fruit wall—vermifuge.

The stem bark and root bark contain 9-17 and 11.0 to 11.9% tannin of the pyrogallol class.

The fruit yields 11% pectin on dry basis.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The proportion of female mosquitoes that have sporozoites in the salivary gland.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Community Health

The process or result of separating a sample into sub-samples according to specified criteria, such as age or occupational group.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A degenerative condition of the SPINAL CORD which most commonly occurs as a complication of PERNICIOUS ANAEMIA. The motor and sensory nerves in the cord are damaged, causing spasticity of the limbs and an unsteady gait. Treatment is with vitamin B12 (see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A compound on which an ENZYME acts: for instance, ribonucleic acid (RNA) is the substrate for ribonuclease (an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of ribonucleic acid, a cellular compound involved in the synthesis of PROTEIN).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The process of PUS formation. When pus forms on a raw surface the process is called ulceration, whilst a deep-seated collection of pus is known as an ABSCESS. (See also INFLAMMATION; PHAGOCYTOSIS; ULCER; WOUNDS.)... Medical Dictionary


Medicinal Plants Glossary

Pus forming... Medicinal Plants Glossary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Symphoremataceae.

Habitat: Indo-Malayasian region. Found in Deccan Peninsula, ascending to 1,200 m, and in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Nagaland.

Folk: Surudu, Konatekkali, Gubbadaara (Telugu).

Action: Quercetin, isolated from fresh water flowers, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity experimentally, comparable to that of phenylbutazone.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Beneficial Teas

Hydration represents the ability of the body to manage water. The optimal hydration is not provided by water only. It should be accompanied by fruit and vegetable consumption. There are some symptoms which come with dehydration: little or no urine or urine that is darker than usual, dry mouth, sleepiness or fatigue, extreme thirst, headache, confusion, feeling dizzy or lightheaded, no tears when crying. How Tea for Hydration works A tea for hydration usually helps the body to keep water within. Efficient Teas for Hydration It has been proved that herbal tea as mint and verbena are efficient for hydration. Mint is a well known plant, due to its ability to soothe the digestive tract. It is appreciated for its flavor and taste, being an important ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. To prepare Mint tea, infuse 2 tablespoons of dried leaves in a cup of boiling water. After steeping it about 15 minutes, you may enjoy the beverage. As a tea for hydration, Mint tea has been used for centuries all over the planet. It enhances the ability of cells to keep water within for a longer period of time. Verbena is a plant originating from South America (Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Paraguay). It has a lemony scent, being preferred in the perfume industry. In cuisine, verbena could replace oregano, especially in fish and poultry dishes. To prepare Verbena tea , immerse about 2 teaspoons of dried verbena herbs or ¼ teaspoon of fresh leaves and tops into one cup of boiling water. Let the mixture soak and steep for about 5 minutes. Drink it slowly. Honey can be added to enhance flavor. As a tea for hydration, Verbena tea is an adjuvant in keeping water in the human tissues. Tea for Hydration: Side Effects Rarely, teas for hydration may induce diarrhea. In these cases, cease consumption and ask for your doctor’s advice. Teas for hydration are a good choice when the body needs extra hydration and also when the person is on a diet, goes outside on a hot weather or practices sports.... Beneficial Teas


Beneficial Teas

Colitis is an affection of your larger bowel. When the problem gets worse, blood could appear, turning your problem into ulcerative colitis. This affection causes poor water absorption and it makes it harder for the nutrients and enzymes in both food and drink to be processed. Ulcerative Colitis is an autoimmune disease, but is usually linked to poor dieting and stress (an unbalanced nutrition and diet pills could trigger this disease faster). How a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis Works A Tea for Ulcerative Colitis’ main purpose is to make sure that your body increases the immunoglobulin level and directs all antibodies to the affected areas. In order to function properly, a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis needs to contain an important quantity of nutrients, enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (such as sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese) and be very low on acids (since they could induce irritable bowel and upset stomach). Efficient Tea for Ulcerative Colitis If you don’t know which teas could be effective for your condition, here’s a list to choose from: - Licorice Tea – has important health benefits, being able to treat not just Ulcerative Colitis, but many other disorders, such as upset stomach, irritable bowel syndrome and gastritis. However, this tea is not very safe so you need to talk to your doctor before starting a treatment based on Licorice Tea. Drinking less than 3 cups per day will give you an energy boost and restore your general well-being. - Wormwood Tea – is well known around the world thanks to its ability to treat infections and flush parasites out of your system. Other than ulcerative colitis, this decoction can be useful in case of Candida. Take a sip of this Tea for Ulcerative Colitis at every 5 minutes for about an hour every day (for a short period of time: 3-7 days) and enjoy its great benefits! - Chamomile Tea – has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic problems and it’s good for almost any health problem, from sore throats to colds and flu. Some specialists even say that Chamomile Tea has proven its efficiency in many cancer cases. If that is the case or not, the important thing is that this Tea for Ulcerative Colitis will calm your pain and energize your body. Tea for Ulcerative Colitis Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day can lead to a number of problems, from diarrhea, nausea, vomiting to gastritis and ulcers. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual symptoms, ask for medical assistance as soon as possible!Don’t take a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you have your doctor’s approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis that fits best your needs and enjoy its great benefits!... Beneficial Teas


Medical Dictionary

Body temperature is the result of a balance of heat-generating forces, chie?y METABOLISM and muscular activity, and heat-loss, mainly from blood circulation through and evaporation from the skin and lungs. The physiological process of homeostasis – a neurological and hormonal feedback mechanism – maintains the healthy person’s body at the correct temperature. Disturbance of temperature, as in disease, may be caused by impairment of any of these bodily functions, or by malfunction of the controlling centre in the brain.

In humans the ‘normal’ temperature is around 37 °C (98·4 °F). It may rise as high as 43 °C or fall to 32 °C in various conditions, but the risk to life is only serious above 41 °C or below 35 °C.

Fall in temperature may accompany major loss of blood, starvation, and the state of collapse (see SHOCK) which may occur in severe FEVER and other acute conditions. Certain chronic diseases, notably hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), are generally accompanied by a subnormal temperature. Increased temperature is a characteristic of many acute diseases, particularly infections; indeed, many diseases have a characteristic pattern that enables a provisional diagnosis to be made or acts as a warning of possible complications. In most cases the temperature gradually abates as the patient recovers, but in others, such as PNEUMONIA and TYPHUS FEVER, the untreated disease ends rapidly by a CRISIS in which the temperature falls, perspiration breaks out, the pulse rate falls, and breathing becomes quieter. This crisis is often preceded by an increase in symptoms, including an epicritical rise in temperature.

Body temperature is usually measured on the Celsius scale, on a thermometer reading from 35 °C to 43·3 °C. Measurement may be taken in the mouth (under the tongue), in the armpit, the external ear canal or (occasionally in infants) in the rectum. (See also THERMOMETER.)

Treatment Abnormally low temperatures may be treated by application of external heat, or reduction of heat loss from the body surface. High temperature may be treated in various ways, apart from the primary treatment of the underlying condition. Treatment of hyperthermia or hypothermia should ensure a gradual return to normal temperature (see ANTIPYRETICS.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The production of physical defects in the FETUS. A drug may interfere with a mechanism that is essential for growth, and result in arrested or distorted development of the fetus – and yet cause no disturbance in adults, in whom these growth processes have ceased. Whether and how the EMBRYO is a?ected depends on what stage of development it has reached when the drug is given. The age of early di?erentiation – that is, from the beginning of the third week to the end of the tenth week of pregnancy – is the time of greatest susceptibility. After this time the likelihood of CONGENITAL malformation resulting from drug treatment is less, although the death of the fetus can occur at any time as a result of drugs crossing the PLACENTA or as a result of their e?ect on the placental circulation.

Although the risks are nil or very small with most drugs, no medication should be given to a pregnant woman, particularly during the ?rst few months of pregnancy, unless it is absolutely essential for her health or that of her unborn child. Alcohol is regarded as ‘medication’ in this context.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A neoplasm possibly starting in the foetus and having different types of tissues; e.g., ovarian teratoma often have teeth, adenoma, and connective tissue proliferation.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

A tumour that consists of partially developed embryonic tissues. The most common sites of this tumour are the ovary (see OVARIES) and the TESTICLE.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A form of chemical analysis by standard solutions of known strength.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Habitat: Outer Himalayan ranges eastwards to Assam; southwards to Travancore, throughout warmer regions of India.

English: Indian Stinging-Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Vrishchhikaali, Vrishchhika-patrikaa. Used in Kerala as Duraalabhaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Chenthatti, Sirrukan- chori.

Action: Root—febrifuge, diaphoretic, alterative, blood purifier. Given in fever when the extremities are cold; also for pain in arms and legs. Used as a blood purifier in venereal diseases; applied externally to skin eruptions. Fruit—paste used in baldness.

Dosage: Whole plant—3-6 g. (API, Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir to Garhwal at 1,200-2,400 m, and the Nilgiris.

English: Red Clover.

Unani: Ispast, Berseem, Clover (equated with T. alexandricum Linn.)

Folk: Trepatra (Punjab).

Action: Flower—deobstruent, antispasmodic, expectorant, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antidermatosis.

Used for psoriasis, eczema and other skin diseases; and as an expectorant in coughs and bronchitis. Also used as antineoplastic against tumours and hard swellings.

The plant contains iso-flavonoids— calycosin - 7 - galactoside, calycosin, pseudobaptigenin, fornononetin, di- adzein and medicagol; also hydroxy- pterocarpans.

The flowerheads contain phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, salicylates, coumarins, cyanogenic glycosides, starch and fatty acids. Flavonoids in the flowers and leaves are oestro- genic; provide relief in menopausal complaints.

The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes anti-inflammatory property of the flower.

Trifolium alexandricum, according to National Formulary of Unani MediMedicine, is used as Ispast. The seeds contain xanthosin.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Medical Dictionary

Chronic in?ammation of the lining of the COLON and RECTUM. The disease a?ects around 50 people per 100,000; it is predominantly a disease of young and middle-aged adults.

Symptoms The onset may be sudden or insidious. In the acute form there is severe diarrhoea and the patient may pass up to 20 stools a day. The stools, which may be small in quantity, are ?uid and contain blood, pus and mucus. There is always fever, which runs an irregular course. In other cases the patient ?rst notices some irregularity of the movement of the bowels, with the passage of blood. This becomes gradually more marked. There may be pain but usually a varying amount of abdominal discomfort. The constant diarrhoea leads to emaciation, weakness and ANAEMIA. As a rule the acute phase passes into a chronic stage. The chronic form is liable to run a prolonged course, and most patients su?er relapses for many years. SIGMOIDOSCOPY, BIOPSY and abdominal X-RAYS are essential diagnostic procedures.

Treatment Many patients may be undernourished and need expert dietary assessment and appropriate calorie, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements. This is particularly important in children with the disorder. While speci?c nutritional treatment can initiate improvement in CROHN’S DISEASE, this is not the case with ulcerative colitis. CORTICOSTEROIDS, given by mouth or ENEMA, help to control the diarrhoea. Intravenous nutrition may be required. The anaemia is treated with iron supplements, and with blood infusions if necessary. Blood cultures should be taken, repeatedly if the fever persists. If SEPTICAEMIA is suspected, broad-spectrum antibiotics should be given. Surgery to remove part of the a?ected colon may be necessary and an ILEOSTOMY is sometimes required. After recovery, the patient should remain on a low-residue diet, with regular follow-up by the physician, Mesalazine and SULFASALAZINE are helpful in the prevention of recurrences.

Patients and their relatives can obtain help and advice from the National Association for Colitis and Crohn’s Disease.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Filtration carried out under pressure. Blood undergoes ultra?ltration in the KIDNEYS to remove the waste products, urea and surplus water that constitute URINE.... Medical Dictionary


Herbal Medical

The salts of uric acid, found in the urine, some kidney stones, and (unfortunately) in gouty joints.... Herbal Medical


Medical Dictionary

See URIC ACID.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Habitat: The temperate regions of northern hemisphere; introduced in Jammu and Kashmir for cultivation.

English: American Hellbore, Green Hellebore.

Action: Rhizomes and roots— cardiac depressant, hypotensive. (Contraindicated in cardiac disease. Large doses cause bradycardia.) Used in the treatment of convulsions, headache, neuralgia, inflammatory affections of respiratory tract; and as sedative. Formerly used for high blood pressure, especially associated with toxemia of pregnancy.

Ceveratrum-type alkaloids, found as esters, are hypotensive and cause vasodilatation (probably by inhibition of vasomotor centre and stimulation of the vagus). Overdoses cause vomiting. Alkaloids are teratogenic.... Indian Medicinal Plants


Community Health

The organization of production whereby one entity controls or owns all stages of the production and distribution of goods or services. In health care, vertical integration can take many forms, but generally implies that medical practitioners, hospitals and health plans have combined their organizations or processes in some manner to increase efficiencies, increase competitive strength, or improve quality of care. Integrated delivery systems or health care networks are generally vertically integrated. See “horizontal integration”.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(1) An instrument used for vibratory massage to improve the tone of muscles and to relax them. It is of help in speeding the healing process after muscle or ligament strains.

(2) A penis-shaped, battery-driven device used by women to attain sexual stimulation and climax.... Medical Dictionary


Indian Medicinal Plants


Family: Violaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Kashmir.

English: Sweet Violet.

Unani: Banafashaa, Banafsaj, Kakosh, Fareer.... Indian Medicinal Plants