Saussurea Costus (falc.) Lipsch. | Health Dictionary

Saussurea Costus (falc.) Lipsch. | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Saussurea Costus Falc Lipsch


ACONITUM FALCONERI

Indian Medicinal Plants

Stapf.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The sub-alpine and alpine zones of the Garhwal Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Folk: Bikh, Bis, Meethaa Telia.

Action: Sedative, carminative, anti-inflammatory (used for the treatment of nervous system, digestive system; rheumatism, fever).

The root alkaloids contain bishati- sine, bishaconitine, falconitine and mithaconitine. Treatment with cow's milk reduces cardiotoxic effect of the root. cardiac depression. Topically, aconi- tine has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

COSTUS

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Costus speciosus

Zingiberaceae

San: Pushkara, Kashmeera, Kemuka;

Hin: Kebu, Keyu, Kust;

Ben: Keu, Kura

Mal: Channakkizhangu, Channakoova;

Tam: Kostam; Mar: Penva;

Tel: Kashmeeramu

Importance: Costus is one of the plants which contains diosgenin in its rhizome. It is widely used as starting material in the commercial production of steroidal hormones. The rhizomes are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, burning sensation, flatulence, constipation, helminthiases, leprosy, skin diseases, fever, hiccough, asthma, bronchitis, inflammation and aneamia. It is used to make sexual hormones and contraceptives (Warrier et al,1994).

Distribution: The plant is widely distributed in Asia and other tropical countries like India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and China. In India, it occurs mostly in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Tripura and Kerala.

Botany: Costus speciosus (Koenig.) Sm. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae consists of two varieties viz., var. nepalensis Rose., found only in Nepal and Arunachal Pradesh and var. argycophyllus Wall., having a wide distribution in India.

The plant is a succulent herb with long leafy spirally twisted stems, 2-3m in height and horizontal rhizomes. Leaves are simple, spirally arranged, oblanceolate or oblong, glabrous above, silky pubescent beneath with broad leaf sheaths. Flowers are white, large, fragrant, arranged in dense terminal spikes. Bracts are bright red. The single stamen present is perfect, lip large with incurved margins. Fruits are globose or ovoid capsules with obovoid or sub- globose seeds (Warrier et al,1994).

Agrotechnology: Costus can be raised under a wide range of agroclimatic conditions. It prefers sandy loam soil for good growth. Propagation is by rhizomes. The best season for planting is April- May. The seed rate recommended is 2-2.4t/ha. The spacing adopted is 50x50cm. After an initial ploughing FYM or poultry manure should be applied at the rate of 30t/ha and the field is to be ploughed again irrigated and prepared to obtain a fine seed bed. Furrows are opened and the rhizome pieces are placed horizontally at a depth of 8-10cm and covered with soil. Care is taken to place the eye buds facing upwards. After 70-75 days about 90-95% sprouting is obtained. Desiccation of the young sprouts have been observed in the hot summer months, necessitating liberal water supply during the period. As September-November is the period of maximum tuberization at least two irrigations should be given at that time. One during the sprouting period of the crop followed by two more keeps the crop fairly free of weeds. Application of 37t/ha of poultry manure and fertilizers, 60kg P2O5 and 40kg K2O /ha as a basal doze, along with 80kg N/ha applied in 3 equal split dozes will take care. Crop is harvested at the end of seven months. Harvesting includes 2 operations, cutting the aerial shoots and digging out the rhizomes. Cost of production of diosgenin ranges from Rs. 271-300/kg (Atal, et al,1982).

Properties and activity: Tubers and roots contain diosgenin, 5 -stigmast-9(11)-en-3 ol, sitosterol- -D- glucoside, dioscin, prosapogenins A and B of dioscin, gracillin and quinones. Various saponins, many new aliphatic esters and acids are reported from its rhizomes, seeds and roots. Seeds, in addition, contain - tocopherol. Saponins from seeds are hypotensive and spasmolytic. Rhizomes possess antifertility, anticholinestrase, antiinflammatory, stimulant, depurative and anthelmintic activities (Hussain et al, 1992).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

COSTUS SPECIOSUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Koenig) Sm.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Assam, North Bengal, Khasi and Jaintia Hills, sub Himalayan tracts of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh and Western Ghats.

English: Canereed, Wild Ginger.

Ayurvedic: Kebuka, Kembuka.

Siddha/Tamil: Krrauvam, Malai Vasambu, Ven Kottam.

Folk: Kebu.

Action: Astringent, purgative, depurative, anti-inflammatory (used in gout, rheumatism; bronchitis, asthma, catarrhal fevers, dysuria), anthelmintic, antivermin, maggoticide, antifungal.

The rhizomes contain saponins— dioscin, gracillin and beta-sitosterol- beta-D-glucoside. The alkaloids show papaverine-like smooth-muscle-relaxant activity, cardiotonic activity like that of digitalis and antispasmodic,

CNS-depressant, diuretic and hydro- choleretic activities. Saponins show significant anti-inflammatory and an- tiarthritic activity.

The seeds also contain saponins and exhibit potent and sustained hypoten- sive and bradycardiac activities in dogs with low toxicity and without any haemolytic activity; also weak spasmolytic activity on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

All parts of the plant yield steroidal sapogenin, diogenin (quantity varies from 0.32 to 4%).

(Not to be confused with Kushtha of Indian medicine, Saussurea lappa.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DENDROPHTHOE FALCATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Vrkshaadani, Vrkshruuhaa.

Siddha: Pulluri, Plavithil (Tamil).

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Bark—astringent and narcotic; used in menstrual disorders, consumption, asthma, also for treating wounds.

The plant contains several flavo- noids. Being parasitic, different flavo- noids have been recorded in plants growing on different host plants. Quer- citrin has been found to be the major common constituent. The plant also contains gallic, ellagic and chebulinic acids.

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant were tested in rats for their diuretic and anti-lithiatic activities. Alcoholic extract was found to be more effective than aqueous extract.

Dosage: Leaf, flower—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)

Essential oil from leaves—antibacterial, antifungal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction; leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DOLICHANDRONE FALCATE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Seem.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Moist forests of central and southern India.

Ayurvedic: Mesha-shringi (also equated with Gymnena sylvestre R. Br.), Vishaanikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Varsana, Kaddalatti, Kaliyacca.

Action: Fruits—bitter, carminative, used in diabetes, urinary disorders, bronchitis and skin diseases. Leaves—applied externally to swollen glands. Abortifacient.

The leaves yield luteolin, chrysin and its 7-rutinoside and glucoside.

Fruits are also known as Rshabhaka in the South.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DOLICHOS FALCATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Seem Klein.

Family: Papilionaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Khasi Hills and in Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kulatthikaa.

Action: Root—prescribed for constipation and skin diseases. A decoction of seeds is used for rheumatism.... Indian Medicinal Plants

LORANTHUS FALCATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a parasite.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Sanharshaa, Vrikshaadani, Vrikshaaruha, Vriksha-bhakshaa. (A large bushy parasite, which causes much damage to the host tree.)

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Tender shoots—contain 10% tannins. Bark—astringent and narcotic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SAUSSUREA AFFINIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Spreng. ex DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Foot Hills of Eastern Himalayas and in Aka and Laushai Hills.

Folk: Ganga-muula (Assam).

Action: Root—juice is prescribed in gynaecological diseases.

Family: Compositae, Asteraceae.

Habitat: Himalayas from Garhwal to Sikkim at 4,200-5,100 m.

Folk: Phen-kamal, Jogi Paashaa, Hiyun Kauni.

Action: Plant, root—a decoction is prescribed in gynaecological diseases.

The plant afforded beta-sitosterol, 3- stigmastanol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol and ergostan-3,24-diol. The aerial parts of the plant collected from Himalayas gave heptacosane, hentriacontane, no- nacosane, alpha- andbeta-amyrins and their acetates and palmitates, lupeol, its acetate, fructose, glucose and surcose.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SAUSSUREA HETEROMALLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(D. Don) Raizada & Saxena.

Synonym: S. candicans C. B. Clarke. Carduus heteromallus D. Don.

Family: Compositae, Asteraceae.

Folk: Batula, Kaaliziri (Punjab).

Action: Leaves—antiseptic; applied to wounds. Seeds— carminative. The plant exhibits CNS depressant and hypothermic properties.

Saussurea hieracioides Hook. f (Sikkim Himalayas at 3,600-4,200 m) gave a sesquilignan, saussol; scopoletin, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside and sy- ringin were isolated from the aerial parts.

Synonym: S. auriculata (DC.) Sch.-Bip.

Aplotaxis auriculata DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Kushtha (pseudo).

Folk: Uplet (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—used in the treatment of syphilis.

The root of the plant is found mixed with the root of Kushtha of Indian medicine.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SAUSSUREA LAPPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Decne) Sch.-Bip.

Synonym: S. costus (Falc.) Lipsch.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Garhwal at 25003,000 m; cultivated in Kashmir and neighbouring regions.

English: Kuth, Costus.

Ayurvedic: Kushtha, Kusht, Vaapya, Kaashmira, Gada, Rug, Ruk, Aamaya, Paalaka. (Substitute: Pushkara Muula, Inula racemosa.)

Unani: Qust.

Siddha/Tamil: Kostum, Kottam.

Folk: Sugandha-Kuutth.

Action: Root—antispasmodic, expectorant, carminative, astringent, antiseptic. An ingredient of prescriptions for dyspepsia, asthma, cough, chronic rheumatism, skin diseases. Applied locally to wounds and ulcerations. Powdered root, mixed with mustard oil, is applied to scalp in prurigo.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the root in cough, bronchitis, dyspnoea; erysipelas and gout.

The root (containing both the essential oil and alkaloid, saussurine) is used for asthma, particularly of vagotonic type. It produces a definite relaxtion of the bronchioles. The relief obtained is comparable to that of conventional bronchodilators without side effects, like a rise in blood pressure, sweating or headache even on repeated administration.

Saussurine depresses parasympa- thetic nervous system. The aminoacid- sesquiterpene adducts, saussureami- nes A, B and C show antiulcer effect. The aqueous extract of the root exhibits antianginal activity.

Essential oil inhibits peristalic movement of the gut. It is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and partly excreted by lungs producing an expectorant action and partly by the kidneys producing diuretic effect. (In Western herbal, Kuth essential oil is not prescribed internally.)

Kuth roots contain resinoids (6%), and essential oil (1.5%), alkaloid (0.05%) inulin (18%), saussurea lactone (20-25%), a fixed oil and minor constituents like tannin and sugars. Roots obtained from Kashmir are, in general, richer in essential oil content than roots obtained from Garhwal and Nepal. The roots of Punjab variety gave cos- tunolide, dehydrocostuslactone, costic acid, palmitic and linoleic acids, beta- sitosterol and alpha-cyclocostunolide. The Kashmir variety, in addition, gave alantolactone, beta-cyclocostunolide and iso-alantolactone.

The essential oil of the roots exhibit strong antiseptic and disinfectant activity against Streptococcus and Staphy- lococcus.

Costus speciosus Sm. synonym Banksea speciosa, also known as Kush- tha, is a different herb of Zingiberaceae family. Rhizomes and stems yield dios- genin.

Dosage: Root—0.2-1.0 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

SAUSSUREA OBVALLATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wall. ex C. B. Clarke.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at 4,2005,000 m.

Folk: Brahma-kamal (Kumaon); Birm-kanwal (Punjab).

Action: Roots—antiseptic, styptic, anti-inflammatory. Applied to wounds and cuts.

Plant—hypothermic. Flower—CNS active, antiviral. The flowers, after frying, are used in rheumatism.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SAUSSUREA SACRA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Edgew.

Habitat: Near snow line at elevations of 4,000 m and above in the Himalayas.

English: Yogiraj Plant, Sacred Saussurea.

Folk: Jogi-paadshaah (Kashmir), Ghuggi (Garhwal).

Action: Plant—used for nervous debility. Root—used for gynaecological disorders.... Indian Medicinal Plants