Tylophora Indica | Health Dictionary

(Burm. f.) Merrill.

Synonym: T. asthamatica Wight & Arn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Peninsular India.

English: Emetic Swallow Wort, Indian or Country Ipecacuanha.

Ayurvedic: Antamuula, Muulini, Arkaparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Nay Palai, Nangilaip- piratti.

Action: Leaves—used for bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyl- tylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaem- pferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, d- septicine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpe- noids alpha-and beta-amyrin; beta- sitosterol, stigmasterol and campes- terol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.

The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyax- enic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14- hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochlo- ride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans.

Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties.

Desmethyltylophorine gave promising results in leukaemia.

The drug irritates the digestive tract.


Tylophora Indica | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Tylophora Indica


ACALYPHA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Occurs throughout the plains of India, ascending the hills in Orissa up to 210 m.

English: Indian Acalypha.

Ayurvedic: Kuppi, Muktavarchaa, Haritamanjari

Siddha/Tamil: Kuppaimeni.

Folk: Khokli, Kuppi, Aamaabhaaji.

Action: Antibacterial (leaf used in scabies). Plant—emetic, expectorant (used in bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia). Tincture of fresh plant is used in homoeopathy for incipient phthisis with bloody expectorations, emaciation and arterial haemorrhage.

The plant contains kaempferol; leaves and twigs contain acalyphamide and other amides, quinone, sterols, cyanogenic glycoside.

The herb causes intestinal irritation.... Indian Medicinal Plants

AESCULUS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook.

Family: Sapindaceae; Hippocastana- ceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to western Nepal, Kulu and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, Tehri-Garhwal and Kumaon in Uttar Pradesh at 900-3,600 m.

English: Indian Horse Chestnut, Himalayan Chestnut.

Folk: Bankhor.

Action: Antirheumatic, galacto- genic, antileucorrhocic.

The leaves contain aescin, quercetin and beta-sitosterol. Stems also contain rutin, astragalin, aesculin. Seeds contain aescin, aesculuside A and B, also aliphatic esters. Seeds possess anti- inflammatory activity.

The extract of seeds is considered to be active against P-388 lymphocy- tic leukaemia and human epidermoid carcinoma of nasopharynx.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ALOCASIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Lour.) Spach.

Synonym: A. macrorrhiza (Linn.) G. Don

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: A genus of topical Asia, Malayasia and the Pacific. Found wild and cultivated all over India.

English: Giant Taro.

Ayurvedic: Maanaka, Maana, Maankanda, Kasaalu, Hastikarni.

Siddha/Tamil: Merukan kizhangu.

Action: Rootstock—mild laxative, diuretic (in anasarca); used in inflammations and diseases of abdomen and spleen. Leaf—astringent, styptic, antitumour. Root and leaf—rubefacient. Tubers—used as vegetable after eliminating oxalate content.

All parts of the plant, except tubers, contain cyanogenic principle, a mixture of triglochinin and iso- triglochinin. The tubers contain sterols and high concentration of soluble oxa- lates (prolonged use may lead to calcium deficiency and oxaluria.) The tubers contain a trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor. The plant contains HCN (0.0027%). It is found to be mitogenic to human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Dosage: Tuber—5-10 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Aristolochiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country, mainly in the plains and lower hilly regions.

English: The Indian Birthwort.

Ayurvedic: Ishvari, Gandhnaakuli, Naagadamani, Arkamuula.

Unani: Zaraavand-Hindi.

Siddha/Tamil: Adagam.

Folk: Isarmuula, Isrola.

Action: Oxytocic, abortifacient, emmenagogue.

Aristolochia sp. contain aristolochic acids and aristolactams.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ASPIDOPTERYS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hochr.

Synonym: A. roxburghiana A. Juss.

Family: Malpighiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Meghalaya, Orissa and peninsular India.

Folk: Chuttakulaa-tigaa (Telugu).

Action: The extract of aerial parts— hypotensive.... Indian Medicinal Plants

AZADIRACHTA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

A. Juss.

Synonym: Melia azadirachta Linn.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Native to Burma; found all over India.

English: Neem tree, Margosa tree.

Ayurvedic: Nimba, Nimbaka, Arishta, Arishtaphala, Pichumarda, Pichumanda, Pichumandaka, Tiktaka, Sutiktak, Paaribhadra.

Unani: Aazaad-Darakht-e-Hindi.

Siddha/Tamil: Vemmu, Veppu, Veppan, Arulundi.

Action: Leaf, bark—antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecti- cidal, antiviral, antipyretic, anti- malarial, antiperiodic, mosquito larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, spermicidal, hypogly- caemic; used in inflammation of gums, gingivitis, periodonitis, sores, boils, enlargement of spleen, malarial fever, fever during childbirth, measles, smallpox, head scald and cutaneous affections. Oil—used as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, for the treatment of vaginal infections, and as a mosquito repellent.

Plant tetranortriterpenoids have been examined extensively for their antibiotic, antitumour, insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal activities.

The methanolic extract of the bark shows antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.

The aqueous extract of leaves exhibited antiulcer and anti-inflammatory activity.

The water-soluble portion of alcoholic extract of leaves reduces blood sugar in glucose-fed and adrenaline- induced hyperglycaemic rats (but not in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats).

A volatile fraction of the Neem oil is reported to be responsible for sper- micidal activity at a dose of 25 mg/ml for human sperm. The oil has been found to retard the growth of human immunodeficiency virus.

Neem oil has caused mitochondri- al injury in mice; poisonous in high doses. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Dosage: Dried leaf—1-3 g powder; 10-20 g for decoction; stembark— 2-4 g powder decoction for external use. (API Vol. II.) Leaf juice— 10-20 ml; oil—5-10 drops; bark decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

COCCINIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

W. & A.

Synonym: C. cordifolia Cogn. Cephalandra indica Naud.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; wild in many parts of India.

English: Ivy-Gourd.

Ayurvedic: Bimbi, Tundi, Tundikaa, Tundikeri, Kunduru, Raktaphala, Piluparni, Dantchhadaa.

Unani: Kanduri.

Siddha/Tamil: Kovvai.

Action: Carminative, antipyretic, galactagogue. Powder of root is taken with water to stop vomiting. Juice of leaves—antispasmodic and expectorant. Applied externally in eruptions of the skin. Root— antiprotozoal. Fruit, leaf and root— antidiabetic. Various plant parts are used in slow pulse and convulsions, also against infective hepatitis.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the whole plant for oedema, anaemia, disorders due to vitiated blood, cough and dyspnoea.

The fruit yielded beta-amyrin and its acetate, lupeol and cucurbitacin B.

Dosage: Whole plant—3-6 g powder; 5-10 ml juice. (API Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CONTRAINDICATION

Community Health

A clinical symptom, circumstance, condition indicating that the use of an otherwise advisable intervention would be inappropriate. A contraindication may be absolute or relative. An absolute contraindication is a situation which makes a particular treatment or procedure absolutely inadvisable. A relative contraindication is a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure somewhat inadvisable, but does not rule it out (for example, X-rays in pregnancy).... Community Health

DILLENIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: Dillenia speciosa Thunb.

Family: Dilleniaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan; north Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.

English: Elephant Apple.

Ayurvedic: Bhavya.

Folk: Uva, Chaaltaa.

Action: Fruit—laxative, carminative, bechic, febrifuge, antispasmodic (used for abdominal pains). Bark and leaves—astringent.

The sepals contain (on dry weight basis): tannin 0.37, glucose 2.92 and malic acid 0.51%. The bark and leaves contain about 10% and 9% tannin (on dry weight basis) respectively.

The fruit yielded a polysaccharide, arabingalactan.

The leaves yielded cycloartenone, n-hentriacontanol, betulin, betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol. The bark gave iso-rhamnetin, naringenin, quercetin derivatives and kaempferol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ELEUSINE INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Gaertin.

Family: Gramineae, Poaceae.

Habitat: Australia, North America; throughout the warmer parts of the world. In India, in wet plains and low hills and pasture grounds.

English: Crowfoot Grass, Crab Grass.

Ayurvedic: Nandimukha (var.).

Folk: Nandiaa (Orissa), Mahaar Naachni (Maharashtra), Thippa Ragi (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Used for biliary disorders. In Vietnamese traditional medicine, a decoction of the whole plant is used as stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and in sprains.

Aerial parts contain vitexin, 3-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-sitosterol and its 6'-O-palmitoyl derivatives. of intoxication. Used for abdominal pains, nausea, bleeding nose. Fresh plants from Uttaranchal gave 0.4% essential oil having dehydroelsholtzia ketone 88.7% as the main constituent, followed by humulene 2.4% and caryophyllene 0.9% (the oil composition of the species which grow in Japan and Kashmir is different.)

Plant contains linarin, apigenin and 7-O-glucosides of apigenin and lute- olin.

The Japanese species, used for hangovers, gave compounds including tri- terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids.

Elsholtzia blenda Benth., synonym Perilla elata D. Don, is also equated with Ban-Tulasi. Major constituent of the essential oil is geranyl acetate. Other constituents are p-cymene, sa- binene, borneol, geraniol, linalyl acetate, fernesol, limonene, linalool, cit- ronellol, thymol and nerolidol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ERYTHRINA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Lam.

Synonym: E. variegata Linn. var. orientalis (Linn.) Merril.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Grown as an ornamental.

English: Indian Coral tree.

Ayurvedic: Paaribhadra, Paarib- hadraka, Paarijaataka, Mandaara, Dadap. Kantaki-palaasha, Kant- kimshuka, Raktapushpa; Nimba- taru. (Erythrina suberosa Roxb. is also equated with Paaribhadra.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kaliyanamurukkan.

Folk: Farhad.

Action: Leaf—cathartic, diuretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Applied externally for dispersing venereal buboes. Bark—antibilious, anthelmintic, febrifuge, astringent, expectorant. (E. variegata is an adulterant to the Ayurvedic drug Rohitaka.) Different parts of the plant are used as nervine sedative, antiepileptic, astringent, antiasthmatic and antiseptic. Bark is used in liver ailments, fever and rheumatism.

A number of tetracyclic alkaloids have been isolated from the plant.

The alkaloids showed a muscle relaxant activity and increased the sedative effects of hexabarbital. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves are reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. Bark alkaloids are neuromus- cular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, hydrocholeretic and anticonvulsant. The bark contains 0.05% alkaloids.

The root extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity in vitro against Staphy- lococcus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis.

The seeds of many of the species of Erythrina contain alkaloids with curare-like activity. Clinical trials on biologically standardized beta-ery- throidine hydrochloride and dihydro- beta-erythroidine hydrochloride have shown promising results in the treatment of conditions involving certain types of muscular rigidity.

Dosage: Stem bark—6-12 g powder; 12-24 g for decoction. (API Vol. II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FLACOURITA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Burm. f.) Merr.

Synonym: F. ramontchi L'Herit.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Assam, Maharashtra and Bengal.

English: Ramontchi, Madagascar Plum, Mauritius Plum, Governor's Plum.

Ayurvedic: Vikankata, Yajnya- vrksha, Gopakantaa, Sruva-vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Sottai-kala, Katukala.

Folk: Poniol (Assam), Kataaya, Kakaiyaa.

Action: Gum—anticholerin. Used as a gargle. Applied to eczema and skin diseases. Bark—antidysenteric, astringent, diuretic. Seed— antirheumatic. Fruit—stomachic. Root—applied externally in skin diseases. Leaves and young shoots— astringent and stomachic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the leaf and stem bark in jaundice, oedema and diseases due to vitiated blood.

The bark contains a phenolic gluco- side ester, (-)-flacourtin. The heart- wood contains the steroid, ramonto- side, beta-sitosterol and its beta-D- glucopyranoside.

The fruits contain 3.9-7.2% protein, vitamin C and mineral matter 0.39%; calcium 24.1 and phosphorus 12.5 mg/100 g. Fruits are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen.

Dosage: Leaf—50-100 g for decoction. (API Vol. IV.) (Also bark—CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

GARCINIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Choisy.

Synonym: G. Purpurea Roxb.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western Ghats from Konkan southwards and in Goa. Also cultivated in southern districts of Maharashtra and on lower slopes of Nilgiris.

English: Kokam Butter tree, Mangosteen Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Vrkshaamla, Tintidika, Chukra, Amlavrkshak, Kokam, Amsula.

Siddha/Tamil: Murgal.

Folk: Kokam.

Action: Fruit—antiscorbutic, cholagogue, cooling, antibilious, emollient and demulcent. A syrup from the fruit juice is given in bilious affections. Bark—astringent, Oil or Kokam Butter—used for dysentery and diarrhoea with mucus. Applied externally to ulcerations, fissures of lips, chapped skin and skin diseases.

The fruit rind contain a polyiso- prenylated phenolic pigment, garci- nol and its isomer isogarcinol, along with (-)-hydroxycitric acid, cyanidin- 3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubio- side. L-leucine and DNP-L-leucine hy- drochloride have been reported from the leaves.

EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts exhibited semen coagulant and CNS depressant activity.

Kokum butter contains fatty acids— palmtic 2.0, stearic 57.5, oleic 39.0, linoleic 1.3 and others 0.2%.

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; root bark—40-80 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

HEALTH INDICATOR / INDEX

Community Health

A characteristic of an individual, population or environment which is subjected to measurement and can be used to describe one or more aspects of the health of an individual or population (quality, quantity and time). A health index comprises a number of indicators.... Community Health

INDICATION

Community Health

A clinical symptom or circumstance indicating that the use of a particular intervention would be appropriate.... Community Health

INDICATOR

Community Health

A variable, with characteristics of quality, quantity and time, used to measure, directly or indirectly, changes in a situation and to appreciate the progress made in addressing it. It also provides a basis for developing adequate plans for improvement. It is a variable that helps to measure changes in a health situation directly or indirectly and to assess the extent to which the objectives and targets of a programme are being attained.... Community Health

KOCHIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wt.

Family: Chenopodiaceae.

Habitat: North-western and Peninsular India.

Folk: Bui-chholi (Punjab). Kauraro.

Action: Cardiac stimulant.

Resinous alkaloid, isolated from alcoholic extract of the plant, showed nicotinic action on autonomic ganglion and neuromuscular junction of voluntary muscles.

Fruits and leaves of a related sp., K. scoparia Schrad are used as a cardiac tonic and diuretic.

Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts contain n-alkanes, free alcohols and a mixture of sterols (mainly sitos- terol, 70.9%).

The plant exhibits antibacterial activity which is attributed to hydrocarbons and sterols present in it. The plant is also used as an ingredient of a medicinal powder used for dermatitis.... Indian Medicinal Plants

LAGERSTROEMIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Native to China; grown as an ornamental.

English: Common Crape Myrtle.

Siddha/Tamil: Pavalak-kurinji, Sinappu.

Folk: Saavani, Faraash.

Action: Seed—narcotic. Bark— stimulant, febrifuge. Leaves and flowers—purgative. Root— astringent. Used as a gargle.... Indian Medicinal Plants

LIMNOPHILA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Lam.) Bruce.

Synonym: L. gratioloides R. Br. L. racemosa Benth.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in damp places, swamps and rice fields.

Folk: Kuttra; Karpuur (Bengal), Ambuli (Maharashtra); Manganari (Kerala).

Action: Plant—carminative, antiseptic. Leaves—an infusion is given in dyspepsia and dysentery. A liniment prepared from the plant is used in elephantiasis.

Related species: L. rugosa (Roth) Merrill, synonym L. roxburghii G. Don, known as Kaalaa Karpuur (throughout India), is used as diuretic, stomachic, digestive tonic. Also used as a hair perfume.... Indian Medicinal Plants

LINDENBERGIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Kuntze.

Synonym: L. urticaefolia Lehm.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to 2,100 m in the Himalayas.

Folk: Haldi Basanto (Bengal), Dhol (Maharashtra), Patthar-chatti (Gujarat), Bheet-chatti.

Action: Plant—juice is given in chronic bronchitis; also applied to skin eruptions.... Indian Medicinal Plants

MADHUCA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

J. F. Gmel.

Madhuca butyracea Macr.

Synonym: Aisandra butyracea (Roxb.) Baehni.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: Found in sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon to Bhutan.

Ayurvedic: Madhuuka (related species).

Synonym: M. longifolia (Koen.) Macb. var. latifolia (Roxb.) Cheval. Bassia latifolia Roxb.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: A large tree, cultivated mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar.

English: Mahua tree, Moha.

Ayurvedic: Madhuuka, Madhu- pushpa, Madhusrav, Gudapushpa.

Unani: Mahuaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Ieluppai.

Action: Flowers—stimulant, demulcent, laxative, anthelmintic, bechic. Seed oil—galactogenic, anticephalgic, emetic. Used in pneumonia, skin diseases, piles. Bark—astringent, emollient. Used for tonsilitis, gum troubles, diabetes, ulcers. Bark, seed oil and gum— antirheumatic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the flower without stalk or calyx in asthma and pthisis.

The fruit pulp yielded a number of triterpenoids (including alpha- and beta-amyrin acetate); also n-hexaco- sanol, beta-D-glucoside of beta-sitos- terol and free sitosterol.

Nut shell gave beta-sitosterol gluco- side, quercetin and dihydroquercetin.

The carollas are rich source of sugars, vitamins, phosphorus, calcium and iron; magnesium and copper are also present. The sugars identified are sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, ara- binose and rhamnose.

The seeds yielded saponins—2,3- di-O-glucopyranoside of bassic acid (saponin A and saponin B). Mixture of saponins from seeds exhibits spermi- cidal activity.

Trunkbarkcontainedlupeol acetate, beta-amyrin acetate, alpha-spinasterol, erythrodiol monocaprylate, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid caprylates.

Dosage: Flower—10-15 g (API, Vol. II.); flower-juice—10-20 ml; bark— 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

MANGIFERA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.

English: Mango.

Ayurvedic: Aamra, Amb, Rasaal, Sa- hakaar, Pikavallabha, Madhudoot, Atisaurabha, Maakanda.

Unani: Aam, Ambaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Manga, Mau, Mamaram (bark), Mangottai Paruppu (seed).

Action: Unripe fruit—astringent, antiscorbutic. Ripe fruit—invigorating and refrigerant in heat apoplexy. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, chloretic, diuretic. Used in diabetes, externally in burns and scalds. Kernel—astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antispas- modic, antiscorbutic; given in diarrhoea, diabetes and menstrual disorders. Stem bark—astringent; used for haemorrhages, diarrhoea, rheumatism.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried seed in diarrhoea and dysentery; and the dried stem bark in genitourinary disorders.

Ripe mango contains sugars (9.518.6%), citric acid (0.12-0.34%), ascorbic acid (10.8-225.0 mg/100 g), carote- noids as beta-carotene (2,00017,000 mcg/100 g). The fruit gave phenolic compounds (m-digallic acid, gal- lotannin, phloroglucinol, protocate- chuic acid); flavonoids (1,2,3,4-tetrahy- droxy benzene, kaempferol and myri- cetin).

The seed kernel contains alpha-and beta-amyrins, gallotannin, glucogallin and several sterols.

The leaves contain a pentacyclic tri- terpene alcohol, indicol, besides tarax- one, taraxerol, friedelin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. Leaves contain several sugars, free malic and citric acids and amino acids. Some esters of ben- zophenone C-glucosides and kinic and shikmic acids have also been reported. Mangiferin is present predominantly in the leaves and twigs.

The bark contains phenolic compounds (gallocatechin, protocatechuic acid), xanthones (homomangiferin), several triterpenoids and sterols.

All parts gave phenolic acids (el- lagic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate); flavonoids (catechin), and xanthones (mangiferin).

Dosage: Dried seed—1-2 g powder (API, Vol. I); stem bark—3-6 g powder, 25-50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

MELILOTUS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) All.

Synonym: M. parviflora Desf.

Family: Paplionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to Eurasia; found as winter weed and cultivated for fodder in parts of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

English: Sweet Clover, Annual Yellow Sweet Clover, Small-flowered Melilot.

Ayurvedic: Vana-methikaa.

Unani: Ilkil-ul-Malik (yellow- flowered var.).

Folk: Ban-Methi, Senji.

Action: Plant—astringent, dis- cutient, emollient. Used as poultice or plaster for swellings. The plant gave coumarins—fraxidin, herniarin, umbelliferone and scopoletin.

When fed alone as a green fodder, it exhibits narcotic properties; causes lethargy, tympanitis and is reported to taint the milk of dairy cattle. It may cause even paralysis. The plant contains 3-methoxyflavone, meliter- natin which experimentally inhibited cell growth, induced granularity, retraction and then lysis of cells.... Indian Medicinal Plants

OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Linn.) Mill., known as Prickly Pear or Indian Fig, is a spineless cactus, mostly cultivated in Indian gardens. Ripe fruits are nutritious. Flowers are astringent and reduce bleeding; used for diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome; also for enlarged prostate. The flower decoction exhibits a strong diuretic effect.

The cladodes are used as a topical anti-inflammatory remedy for oedemata and arthrosis, as regulators of smooth muscles in the treatment of whooping cough and as anti-infective agent.

The stem or their crude preparations showed hypoglycaemic effect in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mel- litus patients (irrespective of its being heated or blended during preparation).

Neobetanin (14,15-dehydro betanin) is the major constituent in the fruit.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PAVETTA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

P. tomentosa Roxb. ex

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater part of India, ascending to an altitude of about 1,500 m in the Himalayas, also recorded from the Andamans.

English: White-Pavetta.

Ayurvedic: Papata, Kathachampaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Pavattai.

Folk: Paapadi (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—bitter and aperient. Prescribed in visceral obstructions, renal dropsy and ascites. Leaves— used for fomenting piles and for haemorrhoidal pains. The root bark contains d-mannitol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PERFORMANCE MEASURE OR INDICATOR

Community Health

Methods or instruments to estimate or monitor the extent to which the actions of an individual practitioner or whole programme conform to practice standards of quality or allow comparisons between services.... Community Health

PLUCHEA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Less.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Sundarbans, in salt marshes and mangrove swamps.

Folk: Kukarondh, Manjurukh (Bengal).

Action: Root and leaves—astringent, antipyretic; given in decoction as a diaphoretic in fevers. Leaf— juice is given for dysentery; an infusion for lumbago, also against leucorrhoea. Root—antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective.

The aerial parts contain terpenic glycosides. The root contains sesqui- terpenes, lignin glycosides, thiophene derivatives.

The extracts of defatted roots showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The extracts inhibited protein exudation and leucocyte migration.

Neuropharmacological studies on different experimental models of rodents exhibited potent central nervous system depressant activity.

The methanolic fraction of the extract exhibited significant hepatopro- tective activity against induced hepa- totoxicity in rats and mice. The extract also caused significant reduction in the elevated serum enzyme levels and serum bilirubin content in acute liver injury.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PLUMBAGO INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: P. rosea Linn.

Family: Plumbaginaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Sikkim and khasi hills, grown in Indian gardens.

English: Rose-coloured Leadwort.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-chitraka (red- flowered var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Chittramoolam.

Action: See P. zeylanica. P indica is preferred in West Bengal and Kerala. Both P. indica and P. zeylanica contain about 0.9 plumbagin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

QUASSIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Nooteboom.

Synonym: Samadera indica Gaertn. S. indica var. lucida Blatter. S. lucida Wall.

Family: Simaroubaceae.

Habitat: West Coast, along back waters and evergreen forests from Maharashtra southwards to Trivandrum.

English: Niepa Bark tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Nibam, Niepa, Karinjottei.

Folk: Lokhandi (Maharashtra).

Action: Bark—febrifuge; juice applied to skin diseases. An infusion of wood and bark is given as emmenagogue. Seed— emetic, purgative; used for bilious fevers. Seed oil—applied in rheumatism. Leaves— externally in erysipelas.

The bark contains the quassinoids, indaquassin, A, D, E and F; samader- ine B to E, dihydrosamaderine B, brucein D, soulameolide, cedronin and canthin-2, 6-dione.

Brucin D showed activity against Walker's carcinoma. Samaderine E, isolated from the plant, exhibits anti- leukaemic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

QUISQUALIS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Native to Java and Malaysia; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Rangoon Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Rangoon-ki-Bel.

Siddha/Tamil: Irangunmalli.

Folk: Laal-chameli.

Action: Fruits and seeds— anthelmintic (particularly against ascarites and soporific). Seeds— soporific. Ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhoea and fever. Macerated in oil, are applied to parasitic skin diseases. Leaves— decoction prescribed in abdominal pain.

The leaves and flowers gave rutin and pelargonidin-3-glucoside, quis- qualic acid, trigonelline, L-proline and L-asparagine.

Quisqualic acid showed anthelmin- tic activity. Seeds gave arachidic, lino- leic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

REISSANTIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Halle.

Synonym: Hippocratea indica Willd. Pristimera indica A. C. Smith.

Family: Celastraceae; Hippo- crateaceae.

Habitat: North-eastern India.

Siddha/Tamil: Odangod.

Folk: Kazurati, Tirruli (Maharashtra), Atari-lataa, Kathapahaariaa, Lokhandi (Bengal).

Action: Root bark—used for the treatment of respiratory troubles. Stem—febrifuge. Leaves—scorched and given to women during confinement. Powdered leaves and roots are applied to sores and wounds.

The roots contain dulcitol. The root bark contains an antibiotic principle, pristimerin (0.1%) which shows considered in vitro activity against several Gram-positive cocci, both haemolyt- ic and non-haemolytic. Pristimerin also inhibits in vitro growth of different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clinical trials have shown that pristimerin is effective in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the naso-pharyngeal mucosa resulting from common cold and influenzal infections. It is found useful as an adjunct to the common antibiotic therapy of respiratory inflammations of both bacterial and viral origin, and is reported to possess antitumour properties, but its high toxicity precludes its use as a cancero-static agent.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SCILLA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Baker non-Roxb.

Synonym: S. hyacinthiana (Roth) Macb.

Ledebouria hyacinthina Roth.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Central and Southern India, including Deccan Peninsula.

English: South Indian Squill. Substitute for White Squill, Urginea maritima Baker and Indian Squill, Urginea indica Kunth.

Ayurvedic: Vana-Palaandu (South India), Korikanda.

Unani: Jangli Piyaz.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu velvengayam.

Action: Bulb—cardiotonic, stimulant, expectorant, diuretic. Used in cough, dysuria, strangury. (Not used as a diuretic when kidneys are inflamed.)

The bulb contains cardioactive gly- cosides including bufadienolides, scil- laren A, scillaridin A and proscillari- din A.

The squill has shown to have cardiac effects similar to digoxin, including positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects. The aglycones in squill are poorly absorbed from the GI tract and are therefore less potent than digitalis cardiac glycosides. Additional cardiovascular properties include reducing left ventricular dias- tolic pressure and reducing pathologically elevated venous pressure. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Large amounts of squill are gastric irritants; small amounts expectorant.

The squill of the Indian bazaars consists partly of S. indica and chiefly of Urginea indica.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TAMARINDUS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. 643

English: Big Marigold, Aztec or African Marigold.

Ayurvedic: Jhandu, Gendaa.

Unani: Sadbarg, Gul-hazaaraa, Gul-jaafari.

Siddha: Thuruksaamanthi.

Action: Whole plant—infusion useful in cold and bronchitis, also in the treatment of rheumatism.

Flowers—alterative; juice used for bleeding piles. Leaves—styptic, applied externally to boils and carbuncles; muscle pains. Leaves and florets— emengagogue, diuretic, vermifuge.

The flowers gave lutein esters of dipalmitate, dimyristate and mono- myristate. Fresh petals gave hydrox- yflavones, quercetagetin and tagetiin.

The plant yields an essential oil containing limonene, ocimene, linalyl acetate, linalool, tagetone and n-nonyl aldehyde as major components.

The aqueous extract of flowers showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

Tagetes mmuta Linn., synonym T. glandulifera Schrank (North-west Himalayas; native to South America), known as Stinking-Roger, gives highest yield of the essential oil with high carbonyl content, calculated as tagetone among the Tagetes sp. grown in India.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TAMARINDUS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: T. occidentalis Gaertn. T. officinalis HK.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to tropical Africa; now distributed throughout the plains and sub-Himalayan tracts of India.

English: Tamarind tree.

Ayurvedic: Amli, Amlikaa, Suktaa, Chukraa, Chukrikaa, Chinchaa, Chandikaa, Tintidika.

Unani: Tamar Hindi

Siddha/Tamil: Puli, Aanvilam.

Action: Pulp of fruit—cooling, digestive, carminative, laxative, antiscorbutic; infusion prescribed in febrile diseases and bilious disorders; used as a gargle in sore throat; applied as a poultice on inflammatory swellings.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the fruit pulp in tiredness without exertion.

Leaves—juice, used for bleeding piles, bilious fever and dysuria. Stem- bark—antipyretic and astringent.

Used for diarrhoea. Bark is also prescribed in asthma and amenor- rhoea. Seed-kernel—stimulant; used as a supporting tonic in sexual debility in Unani medicine.

Water stored in the tumbler, made out of the wood, is given for treating splenic enlargement.

Ethanolic extract of the seed coat exhibited antioxidant activity. Kernel gave polysaccharides composed of D- glucose, D-xylose, D-galactose and L- arabinose in a molar ratio of 8:4:2:1. Polysaccharides showed immunomod- ulatory activities such as phagocytic enhancement, leukocyte migration inhibition and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation.

The leaves gave flavone C-glycosi- des—orientin, vitexin, iso-orientin and iso-vitexin. The leaves and fruits gave tartaric acid and malic acid. The fruit pulp yielded amino acids—ser- ine, beta-alanine, proline, pipecolinic acid, phenylalanine and leucine.

A bitter principle, tamarindienal, isolated from the fruit pulp, showed fungicidal and bactericidal activity against Aspergillus nigar, Candida al- bicans, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aerug- inosa.

The ash of the bark is given in colic and indigestion. The ash is also used in gargles and mouthwash for apthous sores.

Dosage: Fruit pulp without seeds— 4-10 g. (API, Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

TAMARIX INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: T. troupii Hole. T. gallica auct. non Linn.

Family: Tamaricaceae.

Habitat: North Indian saline or water-logged soils; on sandy banks in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and South India.

English: Takut Galls.

Ayurvedic: Jhaavuka, Bahugranthi- kaa, Shaavaka.

Unani: Maayeen Kalaan (large galls), Maayeen Khurd (small galls).

Siddha/Tamil: Sirusavakku.

Folk: Jhaau.

Action: Galls—astringent, given internally in dysentery and diarrhoea. Infusion used as a gargle for sore throat. Decoction applied to foul and sloughing ulcers. Pulverized galls, mixed with Vaseline, used for piles and anal fissures. Manna— mild laxative and expectorant. Tannin content—galls 40-50%, bark 15.3%; tannin and non-tannin ratio, quite high as compared to oak bark.

Alcoholic extract of the whole plant exhibited antiallergic activity.

Dosage: Gall, leaf, root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

TETRACERA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Merrill.

Synonym: T. assa DC.

Family: Dilleniaceae.

Habitat: Assam.

Siddha/Tamil: Anaittichal. (A related species T. laevis Vahl, is found in the forests of Kerala.)

Action: Leaves—an infusion of shoots is given in pulmonary haemorrhages and is used as a gargle in aphthae.

The leaves yielded beta-sitosterol, lupeol, betulin and betulinic acid.

T. laevis (Vennelvalli, Piripul) also possesses similar properties. A decoction of leaves, mixed with rice-gruel, is given for the treatment of aphthae.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TYLOPHORA FASCICULATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Buch.-Ham ex Wight.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayas tract from Uttar Pradesh to Meghalaya and in central and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Go-chandanaa.

Action: Toxic. Used as a substitute for Cephaelis ipecacuanha as emetic, purgative and febrifuge; externally on unhealthy ulcers and wounds.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TYLOPHORA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Burm. f.) Merrill.

Synonym: T. asthamatica Wight & Arn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Peninsular India.

English: Emetic Swallow Wort, Indian or Country Ipecacuanha.

Ayurvedic: Antamuula, Muulini, Arkaparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Nay Palai, Nangilaip- piratti.

Action: Leaves—used for bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyl- tylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaem- pferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, d- septicine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpe- noids alpha-and beta-amyrin; beta- sitosterol, stigmasterol and campes- terol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.

The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyax- enic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14- hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochlo- ride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans.

Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties.

Desmethyltylophorine gave promising results in leukaemia.

The drug irritates the digestive tract.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TYLOPHORA TENUIS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Blume

Synonym: T. tenuissima (Roxb.) W. & A.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Tamil Nadu up to 2,100 m, and along the back waters in Kerala and West Bengal.

Folk: Nanjaruppan (Tamil Nadu, Kerala).

Action: Plant—alexipharmic; used for the treatment of urticaria, smallpox, excessive perspiration, biolious swellings, as an antidote to arsenic poisoning. Leaves—used for scabies.... Indian Medicinal Plants

URGINEA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Roxb.) Kunth.

Synonym: Drimia indica Roxb. non-(Wt.) Baker.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Bihar, Konkan and along the Coromandel Coast. U. maritima (L.) Baker is native to Mediterranean region.

English: Indian Squill, Sea Onion (red and white varieties).

Ayurvedic: Vana-palaandu, Kolakanda, Vajrakanda.

Unani: Unsul-e-Hindi, Isqueel- e-Hindi, Piyaaz-Dasti, Piyaaz- Sahraayi, Jangali Piyaaz.

Siddha/Tamil: Narivengayam.

Action: Used as a substitute for European Squill, Urginea maritima. Expectorant (in dry respiratory conditions, whooping cough and bronchial asthma), antispasmodic, emetic (in large doses), diuretic (promotes fluid elimination in heart disease), cardiac tonic (effect, non-cumulative). Used topically as a hair tonic for dandruff and seborrhoea (active constituent is thought to be scilliroside of the Red Squill.)

Key application: Urginea maritima—in milder cases of heart insufficiency, also for diminished kidney capacity. (German Commission E.)

Bulbs contain cardiac glycosides, scillarens A and B. Bulb, leaves and root contain stigmasterol, sitosterol and campesterol. Bulbs also contain hentriacontanol, octacosanoic acid. Defatted air-dried bulbs afforded 6- desacetoxyscillirosidin.

The plant exhibits cyanogenetic activity.

Urginea maritima (White Squill) is contraindicated in potassium deficiency or when digitalis glycosides are being used (Francis Brinker), in hyper- calcaemia and hyperkalaemia (Sharon M. Herr).

Urginea coromandeliana Hook. f. non-Wight, synonym U. wightiana Hook f. (Coromandel coast and in dry regions of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu up to 3,000 m) is used as a substitute for Indian Squill (U. indica).

Dosage: Bulb—120-200 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

VATERIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: V. malabarica Bl.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India, from Kanara to Trivandrum and in Coorg.

English: White Damar, Indian Copal-Tree, Malabar Tallow tree, Piney Varnish-Tree.

Ayurvedic: Sarja, Sarjaka, Karsya, Sasyasumbara, Devdhuupa, Marich-patraka. Chhaagakar- na. Ajakarna and Shaala (related species) are also equated with V indica.

Unani: Raal.

Siddha/Tamil: Kungiliyam, Vellai Kundarakam.

Action: Resin—astringent, antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, emmena- gogue. Used for chronic bronchitis, piles, skin eruptions, ringworm, scrofula, tubercular glands, ulcers, wounds, boils; urinary discharges; amenorrhoea; gonorrhoea and syphilis. Bark—antidysenteric. Oil and resin—antirheumatic. Resin enters into a number of antiseptic and anti-inflammatory ointments. Leaves—juice is applied to cure burns. Orally administered to prevent vomiting.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the resinous exudate internally (1-2 g) in lipid disorders, anaemia, genitourinary diseases, diarrhoea and diseases due to vitiated blood; externally in gout, abscesses, skin diseases, burns, eruptions.

The bark contains polyphenols—dl- epi-catechin, levorotatory isomers of fisetinidol, fzelechin; and bergenin.

Resin is a complex mixture of several triterpene hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols and acids, along with small amounts of sesquiterpenes. On distillation, the oleoresin gave an essential oil (76%), consisting of phenolic constituents and azulenes. The essential oil shows marked antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative micro-organism.

The leaves and roots contain berge- nin and hope phenol. The seed also contain bergenin. Hope phenol showed fungicidal activity. The plant exhibited anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats.

The fruit shell contains 25% tannins.

Dosage: Resinous exudate—1-2 g (API, Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

VICOA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

DC.

Synonym: V. auriculata Cass.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the drier parts of India, ascending to an altitude of about 1,800 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Vandhyaavari.

Siddha/Tamil: Jimikipoo, Mookuti, Poondu.

Action: Plant—used for contraception.

Aerial parts contain the sesquiter- pene lactones (vicolide A-D), the 28- nortriterpenoidal glucosides (vicoside A and B), the triterpenoid vicosigenin and monoterpenediol vicodiol, besides several n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acid esters.

Vicolide A-D showed anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Vicolide D showed antipyretic activity.

Antifertility activity has been attributed to the presence of vicolide B and D, while A and C have been reported to be devoid of antifertility activity. Vicolide D was found to be anti-oestrogenic in nature.... Indian Medicinal Plants

WALTHERIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: W. americana Linn.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Tropical regions of India.

Siddha/Tamil: Shembudu.

Folk: Khar-Duudhi (Bengal).

Action: Plant—emollient, bechic, febrifuge, purgative, abortifacient. Root—prescribed in internal haemorrhages.

The plant yields pelargonidin and cyanidin glycoside and apigeninidin. Anthocyanins were also detected. The alkaloid, adouetin-7 sulfamate, induced hypothermia and sedation at low levels and hyperexcitability at high levels.

A decoction of roots possesses anti- syphlitic property.... Indian Medicinal Plants

XYRIS INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: X. robusta Mart.

Family: Xyridaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Assam and Western Peninsula, generally on sandy soils and salt marshes.

Ayurvedic: Daadmaari, Dhobi Deeb.

Folk: Haabiduuba (Bengal), Kochelachi-pullu (Malayalam).

Action: Plant—used for ringworm, itches and leprosy.

Xyris pauciflora Willd. (marshy areas in Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu) is prescribed as a sedative for... Indian Medicinal Plants

ZANONIA INDICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: The peninsular India, khasi hills of Meghalaya and the Andamans.

Ayurvedic: Chirpoti, Chirpotaa, Kuntali, Tiktaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Penar-valli.

Folk: Parpoti.

Action: Fruits—cathartic, used for cough and asthma. Leaves— antispasmodic; topically applied to reduce inflammation and irritation. Plant—febrifuge.

Synonym: Richardia africana Kunth.

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Cooler parts of Bihar and Orissa.

Action: Leaves—used as a poultice on sores, boils, wounds, burns, insect-bites and on painful parts of gout and rheumatism.

The plant contains an acrid juice which is poisonous and irritant; irritation is caused by raphides of calcium oxalate. A toxic principle has been reported from the inflorescence, spathe and flower stem. It produced effect in rabbits ranging from hypo-aesthesia to paralysis.

The flowers contain cytokinin along with swertisin, swertiajaponin, cyani- din, peonidin and ferulic acid.

Roasting and boiling appear to destroy the toxicity of leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants