(Burm. f.) Merrill.Synonym: T. asthamatica Wight & Arn.Family: Asclepiadaceae.Habitat: Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Peninsular India.English: Emetic Swallow Wort, Indian or Country Ipecacuanha.Ayurvedic: Antamuula, Muulini, Arkaparni.Siddha/Tamil: Nay Palai, Nangilaip- piratti.Action: Leaves—used for bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyl- tylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaem- pferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, d- septicine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpe- noids alpha-and beta-amyrin; beta- sitosterol, stigmasterol and campes- terol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyax- enic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14- hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochlo- ride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans.Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties.Desmethyltylophorine gave promising results in leukaemia.The drug irritates the digestive tract.