Widalo Andh Test | Health Dictionary

Widalo Andh Test | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Widalo Andh Test


Natural Herbs That Increase Sex Drive

Ashwagandha is the Ayurvedic equivalent of ginseng but heats the body less. It is well known for promoting semen and helps treat both infertility and impotency. So, the biggest issue I hear from clients who are looking for help in this area is that they are too stressed and don’t have enough energy for a healthy sex life. Enter ashwagandha. This herb boosts energy, reduces stress and has been shown to increase sperm count and the production of sex hormones (in either sex). The various active principles in this herb (alkaloids, anoloids, withanolides and other technical jargon) are sexually stimulating and support longevity. One thing, though—only take this herb when you’re, you know, in the moment (well, a few hours before you’re in the moment). The body can build up a tolerance for this herb and, as it can increase testosterone, it can cause aggression in some testosterone-sensitive people. My advice? Try taking one 500mg capsule a few times a week and see how it goes.... Natural Herbs That Increase Sex Drive


Beneficial Teas

Ashwagandha tea has a long medicinal history, being used for its healing properties byAyurveda practitioners, native Americans and Africans. At present, it is used to improve memory, but not only. What is Ashwagandha? Ashwagandha is a stout shrub that belongs to the nightshade family, but it does not possess poisonous properties.  It grows in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh. Literally translated, Ashwagandha means horse smell. It has been also known as “India’s ginseng” or “winter cherry.” In Ayurveda, practitioners use Ashwagandha for its medicinal properties which enhance longevity and health in general. Native Americans and Africans have been using Ashwagandha to heal inflammation, fevers and infection. The plant has anti-microbial and anti-bacterial properties. Ashwagandha can be taken as tea, as tincture, in capsule form, or as an extract. Ashwagandha tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Ashwagandha tea brewing To prepare Ashwagandha tea:
  • Place about 1 teaspoon of dried ashwagandha leaves in boiling water.
  • Let the mix steep for about 15 minutes and cool.
  • Strain and then drink.
Ashwagandha tea benefits Studies revealed that Ashwagandha tea is successfully used to:
  • calm the nerves and treat severe stress and nervous exhaustion
  • help in the treatment of hypertension
  • clear the mind, as well as to improve memory and cognitive abilities
  • help in fighting arthritis
  • help in restoring sexual vitality, especially in males
It also has anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer properties. Ashwagandha tea is recommended for expectant mothers. It is said to purify the mother’s blood and strengthen her immune system. Because it acts as a uterine sedative, Ashwagandha tea is used during childbirth, bytraditional Ayurvedic medicine. Ashwagandha tea side effects Ashwagandha tea is not recommended to pregnant women. To avoid any possible side effects, consumers should not intake the tea in high doses or for long periods of time. Ashwagandha tea is a good choice when looking for an increased libido, or an adjuvant against cancer, due to its antioxidant content. It can be also used to enhance the immune system and thus, to release stress.... Beneficial Teas


Medical Dictionary

Fixed dilated pupils of the eyes



No cranial motor response to somatic (physical) stimulation

Absent gag and cough re?exes

No respiratory e?ort in response to APNOEA despite adequate concentrations of CARBON DIOXIDE in the arterial blood.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for gauging the e?ciency of the balancing mechanism (the vestibular apparatus) by applying hot or cold air or water to the external ear.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Removal of venous, capillary or arterial blood for haematological, microbiological or biochemical laboratory investigations.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A medico-legal defence for a clinician accused of failing to provide an acceptable standard of care for one of his or her quali?cation and experience. The defence is that a responsible body of medical practitioners would have taken the same action, even though others would have acted di?erently. The precise size of a ‘responsible body’ has not been de?ned. The test has been modi?ed following a case referred to as Bolitho, in which it was held that the Bolam defence failed if it could be shown that the actions relied upon, although shown to be carried out by some responsible doctors, were nonetheless illogical.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for vestibular function (see EAR). It is performed by irrigating the external auditory meatus of the ear with alternate cold and hot water. This usually stimulates the vestibular apparatus, causing nystagmus (see DIABETES MELLITUS – Diabetic eye disease). If the vestibular apparatus is a?ected by disease, the response may be absent or reduced.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

In surveys, studying the process of interpretation of questions and the formation and reporting of responses by respondents to learn how to make the questions more accurately obtain the data the questionnaire is seeking.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

A sensitive test that detects ANTIBODIES to the body’s red cells (see ERYTHROCYTE). There are two methods: one – the direct method – identi?es those antibodies that are bound to the cells; the other, indirect, method identi?es those circulating unattached in the serum.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Skin test used to determine the immune s tatus to scarlet fever.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

(Indian) In mythology, a princess who blindfolded herself when she married a blind man

Gandharie, Gandhary, Gandharey, Gandharee, Gandharea, Gandhareah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The passage along which the food passes, in which it is digested (see DIGESTION), and from which it is absorbed by lymphatics and blood vessels into the circulation. The tract consists of the mouth, pharynx or throat, oesophagus or gullet, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in this order. For details, see articles under these headings. The total length in humans is about 9 metres.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See GENETIC SCREENING.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A way of assessing the body’s e?ciency at metabolising GLUCOSE. The test is used in the diagnosis of DIABETES MELLITUS. The patient is starved for up to 16 hours, after which he or she is fed glucose by mouth. The concentrations of glucose in the blood and urine are then measured at half-hour intervals over a period of two hours.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A skin test to ?nd out if a person is immune to TUBERCULOSIS. TUBERCULIN (a preparation derived from the TUBERCLE bacillus) is injected via punctures in the skin of the forearm, using a spring-loaded gunlike instrument with six very short needles set in circular form. A positive test is indicated by a red raised reaction of the skin: this means that the subject is immune. If the result is negative, the subject can be given BCG VACCINE.... Medical Dictionary


Herbal Medical

Having either low secretion levels of testosterone by the testes, having low functional effects because of poor circulation, having competition by less active testosterone metabolites, or having high levels of adipose-released estradiol (former testosterone) in obesity that ends up suppressing testosterone. There are, of course, organic diseases that can cause the condition.... Herbal Medical


Medical Dictionary

A standardised procedure of mental assessment to determine an individual’s intellectual ability. The result is produced as a score termed the INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ). The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and one for children, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WICS), are commonly used, as is the Stanford-Binet Scale. Assessments are made for educational purposes and to help in the diagnoses of people with possible mental retardation or intellectual deterioration.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

All the alimentary canal beyond below the stomach. In it, most DIGESTION is carried on, and through its walls all the food material is absorbed into the blood and lymph streams. The length of the intestine in humans is about 8·5–9 metres (28–30 feet), and it takes the form of one continuous tube suspended in loops in the abdominal cavity.

Divisions The intestine is divided into small intestine and large intestine. The former extends from the stomach onwards for 6·5 metres (22 feet) or thereabouts. The large intestine is the second part of the tube, and though shorter (about 1·8 metres [6 feet] long) is much wider than the small intestine. The latter is divided rather arbitrarily into three parts: the duodenum, consisting of the ?rst 25–30 cm (10–12 inches), into which the ducts of the liver and pancreas open; the jejunum, comprising the next 2·4–2·7 metres (8–9 feet); and ?nally the ileum, which at its lower end opens into the large intestine.

The large intestine begins in the lower part of the abdomen on the right side. The ?rst part is known as the caecum, and into this opens the appendix vermiformis. The appendix is a small tube, closed at one end and about the thickness of a pencil, anything from 2 to 20 cm (average 9 cm) in length, which has much the same structure as the rest of the intestine. (See APPENDICITIS.) The caecum continues into the colon. This is subdivided into: the ascending colon which ascends through the right ?ank to beneath the liver; the transverse colon which crosses the upper part of the abdomen to the left side; and the descending colon which bends downwards through the left ?ank into the pelvis where it becomes the sigmoid colon. The last part of the large intestine is known as the rectum, which passes straight down through the back part of the pelvis, to open to the exterior through the anus.

Structure The intestine, both small and large, consists of four coats, which vary slightly in structure and arrangement at di?erent points but are broadly the same throughout the entire length of the bowel. On the inner surface there is a mucous membrane; outside this is a loose submucous coat, in which blood vessels run; next comes a muscular coat in two layers; and ?nally a tough, thin peritoneal membrane. MUCOUS COAT The interior of the bowel is completely lined by a single layer of pillar-like cells placed side by side. The surface is increased by countless ridges with deep furrows thickly studded with short hair-like processes called villi. As blood and lymph vessels run up to the end of these villi, the digested food passing slowly down the intestine is brought into close relation with the blood circulation. Between the bases of the villi are little openings, each of which leads into a simple, tubular gland which produces a digestive ?uid. In the small and large intestines, many cells are devoted to the production of mucus for lubricating the passage of the food. A large number of minute masses, called lymph follicles, similar in structure to the tonsils are scattered over the inner surface of the intestine. The large intestine is bare both of ridges and of villi. SUBMUCOUS COAT Loose connective tissue which allows the mucous membrane to play freely over the muscular coat. The blood vessels and lymphatic vessels which absorb the food in the villi pour their contents into a network of large vessels lying in this coat. MUSCULAR COAT The muscle in the small intestine is arranged in two layers, in the outer of which all the ?bres run lengthwise with the bowel, whilst in the inner they pass circularly round it. PERITONEAL COAT This forms the outer covering for almost the whole intestine except parts of the duodenum and of the large intestine. It is a tough, ?brous membrane, covered upon its outer surface with a smooth layer of cells.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The principal signs of trouble which has its origin in the intestine consist of pain somewhere about the abdomen, sometimes vomiting, and irregular bowel movements: constipation, diarrhoea or alternating bouts of these.


In?ammation of the outer surface is called peritonitis, a serious disease. That of the inner surface is known generally as enteritis, in?ammation of special parts receiving the names of colitis, appendicitis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and in?ammatory bowel disease (IBD). Enteritis may form the chief symptom of certain infective diseases: for example in typhoid fever (see ENTERIC FEVER), cholera and dysentery. It may be acute, although not connected with any de?nite organism, when, if severe, it is a very serious condition, particularly in young children. Or it may be chronic, especially as the result of dysentery, and then constitutes a less serious if very troublesome complaint.

Perforation of the bowel may take place as the result either of injury or of disease. Stabs and other wounds which penetrate the abdomen may damage the bowel, and severe blows or crushes may tear it without any external wound. Ulceration, as in typhoid fever, or, more rarely, in TUBERCULOSIS, may cause an opening in the bowel-wall also. Again, when the bowel is greatly distended above an obstruction, faecal material may accumulate and produce ulcers, which rupture with the ordinary movements of the bowels. Whatever the cause, the symptoms are much the same.

Symptoms The contents of the bowel pass out through the perforation into the peritoneal cavity, and set up a general peritonitis. In consequence, the abdomen is painful, and after a few hours becomes extremely tender to the touch. The abdomen swells, particularly in its upper part, owing to gas having passed also into the cavity. Fever and vomiting develop and the person passes into a state of circulatory collapse or SHOCK. Such a condition may be fatal if not properly treated.

Treatment All food should be withheld and the patient given intravenous ?uids to resuscitate them and then to maintain their hydration and electrolyte balance. An operation is urgently necessary, the abdomen being opened in the middle line, the perforated portion of bowel found, the perforation stitched up, and appropriate antibiotics given.

Obstruction means a stoppage to the passage down the intestine of partially digested food. Obstruction may be acute, when it comes on suddenly with intense symptoms; or it may be chronic, when the obstructing cause gradually increases and the bowel becomes slowly more narrow until it closes altogether; or subacute, when obstruction comes and goes until it ends in an acute attack. In chronic cases the symptoms are milder in degree and more prolonged.

Causes Obstruction may be due to causes outside the bowel altogether, for example, the pressure of tumours in neighbouring organs, the twisting around the bowel of bands produced by former peritonitis, or even the twisting of a coil of intestine around itself so as to cause a kink in its wall. Chronic causes of the obstruction may exist in the wall of the bowel itself: for example, a tumour, or the contracting scar of an old ulcer. The condition of INTUSSUSCEPTION, where part of the bowel passes inside of the part beneath it, in the same way as one turns the ?nger of a glove outside in, causes obstruction and other symptoms. Bowel within a hernia may become obstructed when the hernia strangulates. Finally some body, such as a concretion, or the stone of some large fruit, or even a mass of hardened faeces, may become jammed within the bowel and stop up its passage.

Symptoms There are four chief symptoms: pain, vomiting, constipation and swelling of the abdomen.

Treatment As a rule the surgeon opens the abdomen, ?nds the obstruction and relieves it or if possible removes it altogether. It may be necessary to form a COLOSTOMY or ILEOSTOMY as a temporary or permanent measure in severe cases.

Tumours are rare in the small intestine and usually benign. They are relatively common in the large intestine and are usually cancerous. The most common site is the rectum. Cancer of the intestine is a disease of older people; it is the second most common cancer (after breast cancer) in women in the United Kingdom, and the third most common (after lung and prostate) in men. Around 25,000 cases of cancer of the large intestine occur in the UK annually, about 65 per cent of which are in the colon. A history of altered bowel habit, in the form of increasing constipation or diarrhoea, or an alternation of these, or of bleeding from the anus, in a middle-aged person is an indication for taking medical advice. If the condition is cancer, then the sooner it is investigated and treated, the better the result.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for colour vision, introduced by a Japanese doctor, comprising several plates with round dots of di?erent colours and sizes. It is also the name of a type of blood test for SYPHILIS.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The characteristic histological test used for the diagnosis of SARCOIDOSIS. The test involves an intradermal injection of sarcoid SPLEEN tissue. If positive, non-caseating granulomata (see GRANULOMA) are seen at the injection site in 4– 6 weeks. A positive test is highly speci?c for sarcoid, but if negative, this would not be excluded.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See under TESTICLE, DISEASES OF.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for TUBERCULOSIS. It consists in injecting into the super?cial layers of the skin (i.e. intradermally) a very small quantity of old TUBERCULIN which contains a protein ANTIGEN to TB. A positive reaction of the skin – swelling and redness – shows that the person so reacting has been infected at some time in the past with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, it does not mean that such a person is su?ering from active tuberculosis.... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

The determination of eligibility for a publicly financed programme on the basis of an applicant’s income and assets (means).... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

See CERVICAL SMEAR.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

This is used to identify possible substances that may be causing a patient’s ALLERGY. Small amounts of di?erent substances are placed on the skin – usually of the back or arm. If the patient is allergic then a red ?are and swelling will appear, usually within about 15 minutes. Sometimes the reaction may take longer – up to three days – to develop.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for MONONUCLEOSIS which is based upon the fact that patients with this disease develop ANTIBODIES which agglutinate sheep red blood cells.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test for INFERTILITY. A specimen of cervical mucus, taken up to 24 hours after coitus (during the post-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle), is examined microscopically to assess the motility of the sperms. If motility is above a certain level, then sperms and mucus are not interacting abnormally – thus eliminating one cause of sterility.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

There are several tests for pregnancy (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR) in its early stages, and these can be done on blood or urine; some of the urine tests may be carried out at home. Most tests are based on the detection of HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN (HCG) in the woman’s urine. They are nearly 100 per cent accurate and may show positive as early as 30 days after the ?rst day of the last normal period.

The haemagglutination inhibition test This, and the subsequent tests to be mentioned, are known as immunological tests. They are based upon the e?ect of the urine from a pregnant woman upon the interaction of red blood cells, which have been sensitised to human gonadotrophin, and anti-gonadotrophin serum. They have the great practical advantage of being performed in a test-tube or even on a slide. Because of their ease and speed of performance, a result can be obtained in two hours.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) This is the basis of many of the pregnancy-testing kits obtainable from pharmacies. It is a highly sensitive antibody test and can detect very low concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin. Positive results show up as early as ten days after fertilisation – namely, four days before the ?rst missed period.

Ultrasound The fetal sac can be detected by ULTRASOUND from ?ve weeks, and a fetal echo at around six or seven weeks (see also PRENATAL SCREENING OR DIAGNOSIS).... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Tests to assess how the LUNGS are functioning. They range from simple spirometry (measuring breathing capacity) to sophisticated physiological assessments.

Static lung volumes and capacities can be measured: these include vital capacity – the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled slowly and completely after a maximum deep breath; forced vital capacity is a similar manoeuvre using maximal forceful exhalation and can be measured along with expiratory ?ow rates using simple spirometry; total lung capacity is the total volume of air in the chest after a deep breath in; functional residual capacity is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration, with all respiratory muscles relaxed.

Dynamic lung volumes and ?ow rates re?ect the state of the airways. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) is the amount of air forcefully exhaled during the ?rst second after a full breath – it normally accounts for over 75 per cent of the vital capacity. Maximal voluntary ventilation is calculated by asking the patient to breathe as deeply and quickly as possible for 12 seconds; this test can be used to check the internal consistency of other tests and the extent of co-operation by the patient, important when assessing possible neuromuscular weakness a?ecting respiration. There are several other more sophisticated tests which may not be necessary when assessing most patients. Measurement of arterial blood gases is also an important part of any assessment of lung function.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A hearing test in which a vibrating tuning fork is placed on the mastoid process (see EAR). When the subject can no longer hear the ringing, it is placed beside the ear. Normal subjects can then hear the noise once more, but in people with conductive DEAFNESS, air conduction does not persist after bone conduction has ceased. It can help to distinguish between nerve (sensorineural) and conduction deafness.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A psychological test (see PSYCHOLOGY) for investigating personality and disorders of personality. Also called the ‘ink blot test’, it is now rarely used. It was devised by a Swiss psychiatrist, Hermann Rorschach (1884–1922), who determined individuals’ reactions to a series of symmetrical ink-blots, ten in number and standardised by him.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

(Hindi) Born at twilight; name of the daughter of the god Brahma Sandhiya, Sandhyah, Sandya, Sandyah... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The screening of apparently healthy people to identify those who may have treatable diseases. Cervical smears are done when screening women to detect if they have cancer or precancer of the neck of the womb (cervix). Newborn babies are screened for hip dislocation. Screening tests are not designed to diagnose individual persons, but rather to divide a population into a large number at low risk and a small number at high risk of a condition. This allows clinicians to concentrate on a sub-section of the population. All screening tests produce false negative and false positive results, a problem often misunderstood by those at the receiving end. Factors to be assessed when planning screening procedures include the severity, frequency and distribution of the disease, and the availability and e?ectiveness of treatment. Convenience, safety, sensitivity and cost should also be assessed. In the United Kingdom the government has supported the extension of screening procedures for breast cancer, cervical cancer, hypertension and diabetes. (See PREVENTIVE MEDICINE.)... Medical Dictionary


Community Health

A mathematical formula (or function) that is used to determine if the difference between outcomes of a treatment or intervention and a control group is great enough to conclude that the difference is statistically significant. Statistical tests generate a value that is associated with a particular P value. Among the variety of common statistical tests are: F, t, Z, and chi-square. The choice of a test depends upon the conditions of the study, e.g. what type of outcome variable is used, whether or not the subjects are randomly selected from a larger population, and whether it can be assumed that the outcome values of the population have a normal distribution or other type of distribution.... Community Health


Medical Dictionary

(1) The name given to a gastric-function test, involving injection of HISTAMINE – a powerful stimulator of gastric juice, or pentagastin. After the stimulant has been injected, the digestive juices are withdrawn through a stomach tube (inserted through the nose and throat) and their volume and chemistry measured. A similar test is used to assess the working of the PANCREAS.

(2) The second meaning (also called test feed) applies to a diagnostic procedure for congenital PYLORIC STENOSIS, whereby a paediatrician feels over the baby’s abdomen while he or she is feeding. The pyloric mass can be felt as a ?rm swelling with the consistency of a squash ball, which comes and goes under the examiner’s ?ngers.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A tube of thin glass closed at one end, which is used for observing chemical reactions or for bacterial culture.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See EMBRYO TRANSFER.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

Every man has two testicles or testes which are the sexual glands. In the fetus, they develop in the abdomen, but before birth they descend into a fold or pouch of skin known as the SCROTUM. Each testicle consists of up to 1,000 minute tubes lined by cells from which the spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON) are formed. Around 4·5 million spermatozoa are produced per gram of testicle per day. These tubes communicate with one another near the centre of the testicle, and are connected by a much coiled tube, the EPIDIDYMIS, with the ductus, or VAS DEFERENS, which enters the abdomen and passes on to the base of the bladder. This duct, after joining a reservoir known as the seminal vesicle, opens, close to the duct from the other side of the body, into the URETHRA where it passes through the PROSTATE GLAND. Owing to the convolutions of these ducts leading from the testicles to the urethra, and their indirect route, the passage from testicle to urethra is over 6 metres (20 feet) in length. In addition to producing spermotozoa, the testicle also forms the hormone TESTOSTERONE which is responsible for the development of male characteristics.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

The SCROTUM may be a?ected by various skin diseases, particularly eczema (see DERMATITIS) or fungal infection. A HERNIA may pass into the scrotum. Defective development of the testicles may lead to their retention within the abdomen, a condition called undescended testicle.

Hydrocoele is a collection of ?uid distending one or both sides of the scrotum with ?uid. Treatment is by withdrawal of the ?uid using a sterile syringe and aspiration needle.

Hypogonadism Reduced activity of the testes or ovaries (male and female gonads). The result is impaired development of the secondary sexual characteristics (growth of the genitals, breast and adult hair distribution). The cause may be hereditary or the result of a disorder of the PITUITARY GLAND which produces GONADOTROPHINS that stimulate development of the testes and ovaries.

Varicocoele is distension of the veins of the spermatic cord, especially on the left side, the causes being similar to varicose veins elsewhere (see VEINS, DISEASES OF). The chief symptom is a painful dragging sensation in the testicle, especially after exertion. Wearing a support provides relief; rarely, an operation may be advisable. Low sperm-count may accompany a varicocele, in which case surgical removal may be advisable.

Orchitis or acute in?ammation may arise from CYSTITIS, stone in the bladder, and in?ammation in the urinary organs, especially GONORRHOEA. It may also follow MUMPS. Intense pain, swelling and redness occur; treatment consists of rest, support of the scrotum, analgesics as appropriate, and the administration of antibiotics if a de?nitive microorganism can be identi?ed. In some patients the condition may develop and form an ABSCESS.

Torsion or twisting of the spermatic cord is relatively common in adolescents. About half the cases occur in the early hours of the morning during sleep. Typically felt as pain of varying severity in the lower abdomen or scrotum, the testis becomes hard and swollen. Treatment consists of immediate undoing of the torsion by manipulation. If done within a few hours, no harm should ensue; however, this should be followed within six hours by surgical operation to ensure that the torsion has been relieved and to ?x the testes. Late surgical attention may result in ATROPHY of the testis.

Tuberculosis may occur in the testicle, especially when the bladder is already a?ected. Causing little pain, the infection is often far advanced before attracting attention. The condition generally responds well to treatment with a combination of antituberculous drugs (see also main entry for TUBERCULOSIS).

Tumours of the testes occur in around 600 males annually in the United Kingdom, and are the second most common form of malignant growth in young males. There are two types: SEMINOMA and TERATOMA. When adequately treated the survival rate for the former is 95 per cent, while that for the latter is 50 per cent.

Injuries A severe blow may lead to SHOCK and symptoms of collapse, usually relieved by rest in bed; however, a HAEMATOMA may develop.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

See TESTICLE.... Medical Dictionary


Herbal Medical

The principal reproductive androgen of males, largely responsible for sexual maturation, some libido, and a range of metabolic reactions that, while supplying short-term strengths, creates a long-term fragility and brittleness if not in balance with less garish but more sustainable metabolic buffers. It is secreted by the Leydig cells of the testes, as well as smaller amounts in the adrenal cortices of both sexes. It is made under the direction of LH from the pituitary, and, if oversecreted, can be inhibited by sperm-producing cells, diminished pituitary support, and a rise in blood levels of its waste-product, stored in adipose tissues...estradiol... Herbal Medical


Medical Dictionary

The principal male sex hormone secreted by the testes. It has also been prepared synthetically and has the formula C19H28O2. In true male HYPOGONADISM it has the power of restoring male sexual characteristics. (See also ANDROGEN.)... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A positive tourniquet test with scattered fine petechiae is one of the earliest clinical signs in dengue haemorrhagic fever.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

See under TESTICLE, DISEASES OF.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test done on SERUM from patients with JAUNDICE to discover whether the excess BILIRUBIN in the blood – which causes the jaundice

– is conjugated or unconjugated. If conjugated, this indicates that HAEMOLYSIS is causing the jaundice; if unconjugated, disease of the LIVER or BILE DUCT is the likely diagnosis.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory Test. One of the non-treponemal reaginic tests for syphilis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Medical Dictionary

Most vision tests examine a person’s sharpness of VISION (visual acuity) and often of the ?eld of vision (see VISION, FIELD OF). Refraction tests assess whether a person has an error that can be corrected with glasses such as ASTIGMATISM, HYPERMETROPIA or MYOPIA. Visual acuity is tested using a Snellen chart when the patient tries to read letters of di?ering standard sizes from 6 metres away. The optician will prescribe lenses to correct any defects detected by vision tests.... Medical Dictionary


Medical Dictionary

A test with a tuning fork that is used to assess a person’s DEAFNESS.... Medical Dictionary


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

An agglutination test used in the laboratory to diagnose rickettsial diseases. It depends on a nonspecific cross reaction between antibodies produced by the rickettsial infection with the OX-2, OX-19 and OXK antigens of the Gram negative rod, Proteus.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A serological test used to detect antibodies in the diagnosis of typhoid. Antigens detected are the O (somatic), H (flagellar) and Vi (virulence) antigens.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine


Indian Medicinal Plants

Kaul (cultivated var.)

W somnífera (Linn.) Dunal (Chemo- type I, II, III: Israele.) Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the drier and subtropical parts of India.

English: Winter Cherry. (Physalis alkekengi is also known as Winter Cherry.)

Ayurvedic: Ashwagandhaa, Haya- gandhaa, Ashwakanda, Gandharva- gandhaa, Turaga, Turagagandhaa, Turangagandhaa, Vaajigandhaa, Gokarnaa, Vrishaa, Varaahakarni, Varadaa, Balyaa, Vaajikari. (A substitute for Kaakoli and Kshira- kaakoli.) Cultivated var.: Asgandh Naagori. (Indian botanists consider the cultivated plants distinct from the wild ones.)

Unani: Asgandh.

Siddha: Amukkuramkizhangu.

Action: Root—used as an antiinflammatory drug for swellings, tumours, scrofula and rheumatism; and as a sedative and hypnotic in anxiety neurosis. Leaf— anti-inflammatory, hepatopro- tective, antibacterial. Fruits and seeds—diuretic. Withanine— sedative, hypnotic. Withaferin A—major component of biologically active steroids; as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose. Antibacterial, antitumour, an- tiarthritic, significantly protective against hepatotoxicity in rats.

The root contains several alkaloids, including withanine, withananine, withananinine, pseudo-withanine, somnine, somniferine, somniferinine. The leaves of Indian chemotype contain 12 withanolides, including withaferin A. Steroidal lactones ofwithano- lide series have been isolated.

Withanine is sedative and hypnotic. Withaferin A is antitumour, an- tiarthritic and antibacterial. Anti-inflammatory activity has been attributed to biologically active steroids, of which withaferin A is a major component. The activity is comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate.

Withaferin A also showed significantly protective effect against CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. It was as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose.

The root extract contains an ingredient which has GABA mimetic activity

The free amino acids present in the root include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends Ashwagandha in im- potency. This claim could not be sustained in a recent experiment and raises a doubt about the equation of classical Ashwagandha with Withania somnifera. A methanolic extract of With- ania somnifera root induced a marked impairment in libido, sexual performance, sexual vigour and penile dysfunction in male rats. (Llayperuma et al, Asian J Androl, 2002, 295-298.)

The total alkaloids of the root exhibited prolonged hypotensive, brady- cardiac and depressant action of the higher cerebral centres in several experimental animals.

A withanolide-free aqueous fraction isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera exhibited antistress activity in a dose-dependent manner in mice. (Phytother Res 2003, 531-6.)

(See also Simon Mills; American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants