Keywords of this word: Car


ACARNANIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Woman from western Greece... Medical Dictionary

ACARUS

Medical Dictionary

The group of animal parasites which includes Sarcoptes scabiei, the cause of the skin disease known as itch, or SCABIES. This parasite used to be known as Acarus scabiei.... Medical Dictionary

ACHALASIA OF THE CARDIA

Medical Dictionary

A condition in which there is a failure to relax of the muscle ?bres around the opening of the gullet, or oesophagus, into the stomach. (See OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

ACUTE CARE / ACUTE HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Care that is generally provided for a short period of time to treat a new illness or a flare-up of an existing condition. This type of care may include treatment at home, short-term hospital stays, professional care, surgery, X-rays and scans, as well as emergency medical services.... Community Health

ADENOCARCINOMA

Medical Dictionary

Malignant tumour of glandular epithelium.... Medical Dictionary

ADENOCARCINOMA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A malignant growth of glandular tissue. This tissue is widespread throughout the body’s organs and the tumours may occur, for example, in the STOMACH, OVARIES and UTERUS. Adenocarcinomas may be subdivided into those that arise from mucous or serous secreting glandular tissue.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

ADULT CARE HOME / RESIDENTIAL FACILITY

Community Health

A residence which offers housing and personal care services to a number of residents. Services (such as meals, supervision and transportation) are usually provided by the owner or manager. Usually 24-hour professional health care is not provided on site. See also “assisted living facility”.... Community Health

ADULT DAY CARE

Community Health

See “day care centre”.... Community Health

ADVANCE CARE PLANNING

Community Health

Planning in advance for decisions that may have to be made prior to incapability or at the end of life. People may choose to do this planning formally, by means of advance directives, or informally, through discussions with family members, friends and health care and social service providers, or a combination of both methods.... Community Health

AFTER-CARE

Community Health

Care provided to individuals after their release from institutional care.... Community Health

AGED CARE

Community Health

Services provided to people deemed to be aged or elderly.... Community Health

AGED CARE ASSESSMENT TEAM

Community Health

Multidisciplinary team of health professionals that is responsible for comprehensive assessments of the needs of older persons, including their suitability for hospital, home or institutional care.... Community Health

ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY HEALTH CARE / MEDICINE / THERAPIES

Community Health

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... Community Health

AMANITA MUSCARIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Agaricaceae; Amanitaceae.

English: Fly Agaric (mushroom), Aga, Soma.

Ayurvedic: Identified as Soma of Rigveda (controversial). (Sushruta described 24 varieties of Soma and 18 other drugs as its substitutes.) Intensely poisonous; used for intoxication.

The fungus has been used in Russia for preparing an intoxicating drink.

Toxic principles arecholine, mus- carine and mycetoatropine (muscari- dine). Muscarine stimulates postgan- glionic, cholinergic and neuroeffector junctions. The isoxazole constituents are psychoactive.

2-4 Fly Agaric (more than 10 g fresh) are toxic; 20 (more than 100 g fresh) are lethal. (Francis Brinker.)

A. pantherina is used in Japan for intoxication.

Aga is not a true hallucinogen. The illusions are a misinterpretation of sensory stimuli due to isoxazole, ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscazone and traces of muscarine. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

AMAZING HEALTH BENEFITS OF CARROTS

Benefits of Vegetables, Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits

1. Beta carotene: Carrots are a rich source of this powerful antioxidant, which, among other vital uses, can be converted into vitamin A in the body to help maintain healthy skin. 2. Digestion: Carrots increase saliva and supply essential minerals, vitamins and enzymes that aid in digestion. Eating carrots regularly may help prevent gastric ulcers and other digestive disorders. 3. Alkaline elements: Carrots are rich in alkaline elements, which purify and revitalize the blood while balancing the acid/alkaline ratio of the body. 4. Potassium: Carrots are a good source of potassium, which can help maintain healthy sodium levels in the body, thereby helping to reduce elevated blood pressure levels. 5. Dental Health: Carrots kill harmful germs in the mouth and help prevent tooth decay. 6. Wounds: Raw or grated carrots can be used to help heal wounds, cuts and inflammation. 7. Phytonutrients: Among the many beneficial phytochemicals that carrots contain is a phytonutrient called falcarinol, which may reduce the risk of colon cancer and help promote overall colon health. 8. Carotenoids: Carrots are rich in carotenoids, which our bodies can use to help regulate blood sugar. 9. Fiber: Carrots are high in soluble fiber, which may reduce cholesterol by binding the LDL form (the kind we don’t want) and increasing the HDL form (the kind our body needs) to help reduce blood clots and prevent heart disease. 10. Eyes, hair, nails and more! The nutrients in carrots can improve the health of your eyes, skin, hair, nails and more through helping to detoxify your system and build new cells! 11. Improves vision There’s some truth in the old wisdom that carrots are good for your eyes. Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A in the liver. Vitamin A is transformed in the retina, to rhodopsin, a purple pigment necessary for night vision. Beta-carotene has also been shown to protect against macular degeneration and senile cataracts. A study found that people who eat large amounts of beta-carotene had a 40 percent lower risk of macular degeneration than those who consumed little. 12. Helps prevent cancer Studies have shown carrots reduce the risk of lung cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer. Falcarinol is a natural pesticide produced by the carrot that protects its roots from fungal diseases. Carrots are one of the only common sources of this compound. A study showed 1/3 lower cancer risk by carrot-eating rats. 13. Slows down aging The high level of beta-carotene in carrots acts as an antioxidant to cell damage done to the body through regular metabolism. It help slows down the aging of cells. 14. Promotes healthier skin Vitamin A and antioxidants protect the skin from sun damage. Deficiencies of vitamin A cause dryness to the skin, hair and nails. Vitamin A prevents premature wrinkling, acne, dry skin, pigmentation, blemishes and uneven skin tone. 15. Helps prevent infection Carrots are known by herbalists to prevent infection. They can be used on cuts—shredded raw or boiled and mashed. 16. Promotes healthier skin (from the outside) Carrots are used as an inexpensive and very convenient facial mask. Just mix grated carrot with a bit of honey. See the full recipe here: carrot face mask. 17. Prevents heart disease Studies show that diets high in carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Carrots have not only beta-carotene but also alpha-carotene and lutein. The regular consumption of carrots also reduces cholesterol levels because the soluble fibers in carrots bind with bile acids. 18. Cleanses the body Vitamin A assists the liver in flushing out the toxins from the body. It reduces the bile and fat in the liver. The fiber present in carrots helps clean out the colon and hasten waste movement. 19. Protects teeth and gums It’s all in the crunch! Carrots clean your teeth and mouth. They scrape off plaque and food particles just like toothbrushes or toothpaste. Carrots stimulate gums and trigger a lot of saliva, which, being alkaline, balances out the acid-forming, cavity-forming bacteria. The minerals in carrots prevent tooth damage. 20. Prevents stroke From all the above benefits it’s no surprise that in a Harvard University study, people who ate five or more carrots a week were less likely to suffer a stroke than those who ate only one carrot a month or less.... Benefits of Vegetables, Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits

AMBULATORY CARE

Community Health

Health services provided on an outpatient basis in contrast to services provided in the home or to persons who are inpatients. While many inpatients may be ambulatory, the term ambulatory care usually implies the patient travels to a location to receive services and no overnight stay in hospital is required. Many surgeries and treatments are now provided on an outpatient basis, while previously they were considered reason for inpatient hospitalization.... Community Health

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America, from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Cultivated largely in Malabar, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and to some extent in Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa and West Bengal.

English: Cashew Nut.

Unani: Kaaju.

Siddha/Tamil: Mindiri.

Action: Leaves and bark—fungi- cidal, vermicidal, protozoicidal, antimicrobial (used for toothache, sore gums). Karnel—eaten for its high protein content. Cashew apple—antiscorbutic. Resinous juice contained in the seeds—used in cases of mental derangement, memory disturbances, palpitation of heart, rheumatic pericarditis, sexual debility.

The nut contains 45% fat and 20% protein. Leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and hydroxybenzoic acid. The bark contains a balsam-containing anacardic acid, anacardol, cardol and ginkgol. The caustic liquid in the shell contains about 39% anacardic acid, a mixture of alkyl salicylic acid derivatives. The leaves are febrifuge. Anacardic acid is bactericidal, fungici- dal, vermicidal and protozoicidal. The leaves and bark exhibited hypotensive activity in rats.

The phenolics of the cashew-nut shell oil have inhibited the enzymic activity of alpha-glucosidase, invertase and aldose reductase (anacardic acids being the most potent). Cardols have also shown antifilarial activity in vitro. Anacardic acids, cardols and methyl cardols have been found to exhibit moderate cytotoxic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ANGIOCARDIOGRAPHY

Medical Dictionary

Radiography of the heart after injection into it of a radio-opaque substance.... Medical Dictionary

ANISOCHILUS CARNOSUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wall.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas, Central and southern India.

Folk: Karpuravalli (southern region).

Action: Stimulant, expectorant and diaphoretic. Juice of fresh leaves is used in urticaria and other allergic conditions; a domestic remedy for coughs and cold. Alcoholic extract of the whole plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antitubercular.

The oil exhibits antihistaminic property in vitro on smooth muscles of the uterus and the intestines. It also possesses muscle-relaxant action; bactericidal and fungicidal properties. The leaves contain glucosides of luteolin and apigenin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ANTENATAL CARE

Medical Dictionary

The protocol which doctors and midwives follow to ensure that the pregnant mother and her FETUS are kept in good health, and that the pregnancy and birth have a satisfactory outcome. The pregnant mother is seen regularly at a clinic where, for example, her blood pressure is checked, the growth and development of her child-to-be are carefully assessed, and any problem or potential problems dealt with. Most antenatal care deals with normal pregnancies and is supervised by general practitioners and midwives in primary-care clinics. If any serious problems are identi?ed, the mother can be referred to specialists’ clinics in hospitals. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

ANTIARIS TOXICARIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Lesch.

Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.

Synonym: A. indicus A. Rich. A. chinensis (Lam.) A. Rich. ex Walp.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bengal, southwards to Andhra Pradesh and western Ghats.

English: Kadam.

Ayurvedic: Kadamba, Priyaka, Vrtta-pushpa, Nipa, Halipriya. Kadambaka is equated with Adina cordifolia.

Siddha/Tamil: Venkadambu, Vellai Kadambam.

Action: Stembark—febrifugal, antidiuretic, anthelmintic, hypo- glycaemic. Fruit—cooling; anti- catarrhal, blood purifier, analgesic.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to Trivandrum, up to 600 m.

English: Sacking tree, Upas tree.

Ayurvedic: Valkala vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Aranthelli, Mara-uri, Nettavil.

Folk: Jangali Lakuch, Jasund, Chaandakudaa.

Action: Seed—febrifuge, antidysen- teric (in minute doses). Latex— circulatory stimulant (in minute doses.)

The latex contains a series of poisonous cardenolides, of which alpha- and/or beta-antiarin are the main components. The total amount of crystalline cardiac glycosides in the latex ranges from 0.1 to 2.5%; alpha-antiarin from 0.0 to 1.38% and beta-antiarin from 0.075 to 1.44%. Antiarins are said to act on the heart more powerfully than digitalin. Beta-antiarin is more potent than alpha-antiarin.

Latex, in small quantities, is a mild cardiac and circulatory stimulant, whereas in large quantities it acts as a myocardial poison. It stimulates intestinal and uterine contractions.

As many as 34 Kedde-positive substances were reported in the seed sample from Indonesia. The latex sample showed the presence of 29 Kedde- positive substances.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ANTIMUSCARINE

Medical Dictionary

A pharmacological e?ect where the action of ACETYLCHOLINE, a chemical neurotransmitter released at the junctions (synapses) of parasympathetic and ganglionic nerves, is inhibited. The junctions between nerves and skeletal muscles have nicotinic receptors. A wide range of drugs with antimuscarinic e?ects are in use for various disorders including PSYCHOSIS, BRONCHOSPASM, disorders of the eye (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), PARKINSONISM, and problems of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and URINARY TRACT. (See also ANTISPASMODICS.)... Medical Dictionary

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: A. heterophyllus Lam.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India.

English: Jackfruit, Jack tree.

Ayurvedic: Panasa, Kantakiphala, Ativrihatphala, Aamaashayaphala.

Siddha/Tamil: Murasabalam.

Folk: Katahal, Phanasa.

Action: Latex—bacteriolytic, promotes healing of abscesses. Juice of the plant—applied to glandular swellings and abscesses for promoting suppuration. Root— used for diarrhoea, asthma, skin diseases. Unripe fruit—acrid, astringent. Ripe fruit—cooling, laxative, difficult to digest. Seeds— diuretic. Lactin extraction showed potent and selective stimulation of distinct human T and B cells.

The seed extract stimulates the heart and causes a fall in arterial blood pressure of experimental animals pretreat- edwithphysostigmine. The seeds show equal inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin. (The activity is destroyed when the seeds are boiled or baked.)

The leaves and stems show presence of sapogenins, and exhibit estrogenic activity.

An aqueous extract of mature leaves exhibited hypoglycaemic activity in experimental animals. Leaves contain cycloartenone, cycloartenol and beta-sitosterol. Heartwood contains flavonoids, artocarpesin and norarto- carpetin and their structures.

Dosage: Fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ARTOCARPUS LACUCHA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Buch.-Ham.

Synonym: A. lakoocha Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and western Ghats.

English: Monkey Jack.

Ayurvedic: Lakuch, Kshudra Panas, Granthiphala, Pitanaasha.

Siddha/Tamil: Ilangu, Irapala, Ottipilu (Tamil).

Folk: Badhar.

Action: Bark—when applied externally, draws out purulent matter; heals boils, cracked skin and pimples. Seeds—purgative, haemagglutinating. Stems— vermifuge.

The stembark contains oxyresvera- trol, used for tapeworm.

A lectin, artocarpin, isolated from seeds, precipitates several galactoman- nans. It agglutinates rat lymphocytes and mouse ascites cells.

Dosage: Fruit—5-10 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ASCARIASIS

Medical Dictionary

Ascariasis is the disease produced by infestation with the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, also known as the maw-worm. Super?cially it resembles a large earthworm: the male measures about 17 cm (7 inches) and the female 23 cm (9 inches) in length. Ascariasis is a dirt disease, most prevalent where sanitation and cleanliness are lacking, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Consumption of food contaminated by the ova (eggs), especially salad vegetables, is the commonest cause of infection. In children, infection is commonly acquired by crawling or playing on contaminated earth, and then sucking their ?ngers. After a complicated life-cycle in the body the adult worms end up in the intestines, whence they may be passed in the stools. A light infection may cause no symptoms. A heavy infection may lead to colic, or even obstruction of the gut. Occasionally a worm may wander into the stomach and be vomited up.

Treatment Mebendazole is the drug of choice in the UK, being given as a single dose. It should be combined with hygienic measures to break the cycle of autoinfection. All members of the family require treatment. Other ANTHELMINTICS include piperazine and pyrantel.... Medical Dictionary

ASCARICIDES

Medical Dictionary

Drugs used to treat ASCARIASIS, a disease caused by an infestation with the parasitic worm Ascaris lumbricoides. LEVAMISOLE, MEBENDAZOLE and PIPERAZINE are all e?ective against this parasite.... Medical Dictionary

ASCARIS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A genus of nematodes which includes the intestinal roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

ASCARIS

Medical Dictionary

A worldwide genus of parasitic nematode worms (see ASCARIASIS).... Medical Dictionary

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITY / ASSISTED CARE LIVING FACILITY

Community Health

Establishment which provides accommodation and care for older or disabled persons who cannot live independently but do not need nursing care. Residents are also provided with domestic assistance (meals, laundry, personal care).... Community Health

ATTENDANT CARE

Community Health

Personal care for people with disabilities in non-institutionalized settings generally by paid, non-family carers.... Community Health

ATYLOSIA SCARABAEOIDES

Indian Medicinal Plants

(L.) Benth.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; up to 1,800 m in the western Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Vana-kulattha.

Folk: Jangli Tur, Kulthi.

Action: Antidysenteric, anticholerin, febrifuge; also used in anaemia, anasarca and hemiplegia. Seeds— taeniafuge.

A flavone glucoside, atyloside, has been isolated from the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Oxalidaceae; Averrhoaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia; cultivated throughout the warmer parts of India, especially in Kerala.

English: Carambola, Star Fruit, Chinese Gooseberry.

Ayurvedic: Karmaranga.

Unani: Khamraq, Karmal.

Siddha/Tamil: Tamarattai.

Folk: Kamarakh.

Action: Root—antidote in poisoning. Leaf and shoot—applied externally in ringworm, scabies, chickenpox. Flower—vermicidal. Fruit—laxative, antidysenteric, antiphlogistic, febrifuge, anti- inflammatory, antispasmodic (used in hepatic colic, bleeding piles). Seeds—galactogenic; in large doses act as an emmenagogue and cause abortion.

The fruits are a fairly good source of iron but deficient in calcium. They also contain oxalic acid and potassium oxalate. The presence of fluorine is also reported. A wide variation of vitamin-C content (0.3-23.0 mg/100 g) is recorded from different places in India. Sugar (3.19%) consists mainly of glucose (1.63%).... Indian Medicinal Plants

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A generally slow growing malignant epithelial tumour, which has potential to invade and metastasise, especially if untreated.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

Medical Dictionary

The most common form of skin cancer. Its main cause is cumulative exposure to ultraviolet light; most tumours develop on exposed sites, chie?y the face and neck. It grows very slowly, often enlarging with a raised, pearly edge, and the centre may ulcerate (rodent ulcer). It does not metastasise (see METASTASIS) and can be cured by surgical excision or RADIOTHERAPY. Small lesions can also be successfuly treated by curettage and cauterisation (see ELECTROCAUTERY), LASER treatment or CRYOSURGERY. If the diagnosis is uncertain, a biopsy and histological examination should be done.... Medical Dictionary

BICARBONATE OF SODA

Medical Dictionary

Also known as baking soda. Bicarbonate of soda is an alkali, sometimes used as a home remedy for indigestion or for soothing insect bites.... Medical Dictionary

BICARBONATO DE SODIO

Medicinal Plants

Baking soda; used as a gargle for sore throat and tonsillitis, sometimes combined with vinagre blanco (white vinegar) or with limón (lemon) and miel de abeja (honey); can be combined with other herbal remedies such as poultices that are applied externally.... Medicinal Plants

BOARD AND CARE HOME

Community Health

See “adult care home”.... Community Health

BRACHYCARDIAC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Making the heart beat slower... Medicinal Plants Glossary

BRADYCARDIA

Medical Dictionary

A distinctly slow heartbeat, which may be a normal idiosyncrasy or with causes ranging from regular strenuous exercise to abnormally slow heart stimulus to the side-effects of medication. Bradycardia is usually defined as a pulse below sixty beats a minute, or seventy in children.... Medical Dictionary

BRADYCARDIA

Herbal Medical

Slowness of the beating of the heart with corresponding slowness of the pulse (below 60 per minute). (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Herbal Medical

CARA

Medical Dictionary

(Italian / Gaelic) One who is dearly loved / a good friend

Carah, Caralee, Caralie, Caralyn, Caralynn, Carrah, Carra, Chara, Cahra, Caradoc, Caraf, Caraid, Carajean, Caralea, Caralisa, Carita, Carella, Carilla, Caraleigh, Caraleah... Medical Dictionary

CARALLIA BRACHIATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Lour.) Merr.

Synonym: C. integerrima DC. C. lucida Roxb. ex Kurz.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,300 m, and in the Andamans.

Folk: Karalli, Kierpa. Varanga (Malyalam).

Action: Leaves—used in the treatment of sapraemia. Bark—used for treating oral ulcers, stomatitis, inflammation of the throat.

The leaves contain alkaloids (0.2% dry basis), the major being (+)-hygro- line.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARAWAY TEA FOR FLATULENCE

Beneficial Teas

Caraway tea is well known for its carminative, antispasmodic and diuretic action, being consumed worldwide due to its pharmaceutical benefits. Caraway Tea description Caraway is a biennial plant which distinguishes itself through an erect branching stem. It grows wild in Europe, North Africa and Asia. Caraway is best known for its long, brownish and rib-shaped seeds, which are used as a condiment to add flavor to several types of food like soups, pasta, breads, cheeses, cakes, biscuits, rice and seafood. Caraway is also part of the Indian, Dutch, German, Russian, and Scandinavian dishes. Caraway is available in capsule form and through brewing it turns into Caraway tea. Caraway Tea brewing To prepare Caraway tea:
  • Infuse 1 teaspoon of crushed caraway seeds into a cup of boiling water.
  • Allow this mix to steep for 10 to 15 minutes.
Caraway tea can be drunk three times a day. Caraway Tea benefits Caraway tea is successfully used to:
  • soothe the digestive tract and relieve colic, cramps and flatulence
  • promote gastric secretion and improve the appetite
  • fight diarrhea
  • ease menstrual cramps, as well as gallbladder spasms
  • fight bronchitis and cough
  • increase the production of breast milk
  • freshen the breath
Caraway Tea side effects Pregnant and nursing women should ask their doctor before consuming Caraway tea. Caraway tea is a healthy beverage, efficient in dealing with cramps, colic and flatulence, but not only.... Beneficial Teas

CARAWY

Protection, Lust, Health, Anti-Theft, Mental Powers...

CARBACHOL

Medical Dictionary

A drug which stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, for example, for relieving GLAUCOMA and retention of urine due to ATONY.... Medical Dictionary

CARBAMAZEPINE

Medical Dictionary

An anticonvulsant drug used to treat most types of EPILEPSY, including simple and complex partial seizures and tonic-clonic seizures secondary to a focal discharge. Monitoring of concentrations in the blood may be of help in ?nding the most e?ective dose. Carbamazepine has generally fewer side-e?ects than other antiepileptic drugs; even so, it should be started at a low dose and increased incrementally. The drug is also used to treat TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA and other types of nerve pain, as well as pain from a PHANTOM LIMB. DEPRESSION resistant to LITHIUM CARBONATE may also bene?t from carbamazepine.... Medical Dictionary

CARBARYL

Medical Dictionary

A pesticide used to kill head and crab lice (see PEDICULOSIS). Available as a lotion, some of which contains alcohol (not recommended for use on crab lice), the substance may irritate skin and should not be used near damaged skin, eyes or ears.... Medical Dictionary

CARBIMAZOLE

Medical Dictionary

One of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of HYPERTHYROIDISM. It acts by interferring with the synthesis of thyroid hormone in the thyroid gland.... Medical Dictionary

CARBOHYDRATE

Medical Dictionary

The term applied to an organic substance in which the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water. Carbohydrates are all, chemically considered, derivatives of simple forms of sugar and are classi?ed as monosaccharides (e.g. glucose), disaccharides

(e.g. cane sugar), polysaccharides (e.g. starch). Many of the cheaper and most important foods are included in this group, which comprises sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. When one of these foods is digested, it is converted into a simple kind of sugar and absorbed in this form. Excess carbohydrates, not immediately needed by the body, are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. In DIABETES MELLITUS, the most marked feature consists of an inability on the part of the tissues to assimilate and utilise the carbohydrate material. Each gram of carbohydrate is capable of furnishing slightly over 4 Calories of energy. (See CALORIE; DIET.)... Medical Dictionary

CARBOLIC ACID

Medical Dictionary

Carbolic acid, or phenol, was the precursor of all ANTISEPTICS. It paralyses and then destroys most forms of life, particularly organisms such as bacteria. It has been superseded by less penetrative and harmful antiseptics.... Medical Dictionary

CARBON

Medical Dictionary

A non-metallic element, the compounds of which are found in all living tissues and which is a constituent (as carbon dioxide) of air exhaled from the LUNGS. Two isotopes of carbon, 11C and 14C, are used in medicine. Carbon-11 is used in positron-emission tomography (see PET SCANNING); carbon-14 is used as a tracer element in studying various aspects of METABOLISM.... Medical Dictionary

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)

Medical Dictionary

Formed by the body during metabolism and exhaled by the lungs. Seen in sparkling waters and wines, it is also used in baths as a stimulant to the skin. Combined with oxygen in cylinders, it is used to control breathing in ANAESTHESIA and in the treatment of victims of CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) poisoning.

Measuring the partial pressure of the gas by taking blood for blood gas estimation provides information on the adequacy of breathing. A high partial pressure may indicate impending or actual respiratory failure.... Medical Dictionary

CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)

Medical Dictionary

This is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, nonirritating gas formed on incomplete combustion of organic fuels. Exposure to CO is frequently due to defective gas, oil or solid-fuel heating appliances. CO is a component of car exhaust fumes and deliberate exposure to these is a common method of suicide. Victims of ?res often su?er from CO poisoning. CO combines reversibly with oxygen-carrying sites of HAEMOGLOBIN (Hb) molecules with an a?nity 200 to 300 times greater than oxygen itself. The carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) formed becomes unavailable for oxygen transportation. In addition the partial saturation of the Hb molecule results in tighter oxygen binding, impairing delivery to the tissues. CO also binds to MYOGLOBIN and respiratory cytochrome enzymes. Exposure to CO at levels of 500 parts per million (ppm) would be expected to cause mild symptoms only and exposure to levels of 4,000 ppm would be rapidly fatal.

Each year around 50 people in the United Kingdom are reported as dying from carbon monoxide poisoning, and experts have suggested that as many as 25,000 people a year are exposed to its e?ects within the home, but most cases are unrecognised, unreported and untreated, even though victims may su?er from long-term e?ects. This is regrettable, given that Napoleon’s surgeon, Larrey, recognised in the 18th century that soldiers were being poisoned by carbon monoxide when billeted in huts heated by woodburning stoves. In the USA it is estimated that 40,000 people a year attend emergency departments su?ering from carbon monoxide poisoning. So prevention is clearly an important element in dealing with what is sometimes termed the ‘silent killer’. Safer designs of houses and heating systems, as well as wider public education on the dangers of carbon monoxide and its sources, are important.

Clinical e?ects of acute exposure resemble those of atmospheric HYPOXIA. Tissues and organs with high oxygen consumption are a?ected to a great extent. Common e?ects include headaches, weakness, fatigue, ?ushing, nausea, vomiting, irritability, dizziness, drowsiness, disorientation, incoordination, visual disturbances, TACHYCARDIA and HYPERVENTILATION. In severe cases drowsiness may progress rapidly to COMA. There may also be metabolic ACIDOSIS, HYPOKALAEMIA, CONVULSIONS, HYPOTENSION, respiratory depression, ECG changes and cardiovascular collapse. Cerebral OEDEMA is common and will lead to severe brain damage and focal neurological signs. Signi?cant abnormalities on physical examination include impaired short-term memory, abnormal Rhomberg’s test (standing unsupported with eyes closed) and unsteadiness of gait including heel-toe walking. Any one of these signs would classify the episode as severe. Victims’ skin may be coloured pink, though this is very rarely seen even in severe incidents. The venous blood may look ‘arterial’. Patients recovering from acute CO poisoning may su?er neurological sequelae including TREMOR, personality changes, memory impairment, visual loss, inability to concentrate and PARKINSONISM. Chronic low-level exposures may result in nausea, fatigue, headache, confusion, VOMITING, DIARRHOEA, abdominal pain and general malaise. They are often misdiagnosed as in?uenza or food poisoning.

First-aid treatment is to remove the victim from the source of exposure, ensure an e?ective airway and give 100-per-cent oxygen by tight-?tting mask. In hospital, management is largely suppportive, with oxygen administration. A blood sample for COHb level determination should be taken as soon as practicable and, if possible, before oxygen is given. Ideally, oxygen therapy should continue until the COHb level falls below 5 per cent. Patients with any history of unconsciousness, a COHb level greater than 20 per cent on arrival, any neurological signs, any cardiac arrhythmias or anyone who is pregnant should be referred for an expert opinion about possible treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, though this remains a controversial therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy shortens the half-life of COHb, increases plasma oxygen transport and reverses the clinical e?ects resulting from acute exposures. Carbon monoxide is also an environmental poison and a component of cigarette smoke. Normal body COHb levels due to ENDOGENOUS CO production are 0.4 to

0.7 per cent. Non-smokers in urban areas may have level of 1–2 per cent as a result of environmental exposure. Smokers may have a COHb level of 5 to 6 per cent.... Medical Dictionary

CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITOR

Medical Dictionary

A drug that curbs the action of an ENZYME in the blood controlling the production of carbonic acid or bicarbonate from CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2). Called carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme is present in ERYTHROCYTES and it has a key part in maintaining the acid-base balance in the blood. Inhibiting drugs include ACETAZOLAMIDE and DORZOLAMIDE, and these are used as weak DIURETICS to reduce the increased intraocular pressure in ocular hypertension or open-angle GLAUCOMA (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

CARBOS

Herbal Medical

Carbohydrates, like starch or sugar.... Herbal Medical

CARBOXYHAEMOGLOBINAEMIA

Medical Dictionary

The term applied to the state of the blood in carbon monoxide poisoning, in which this gas combines with the haemoglobin, displacing oxygen from it. (See CARBON MONOXIDE (CO).)... Medical Dictionary

CARBUNCLE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

An infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by Staphylococcus aureus... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARBUNCLE

Medical Dictionary

See BOILS (FURUNCULOSIS).... Medical Dictionary

CARCINOGEN

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A chemical or other agent that has been implicated in causing cancer.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARCINOGENESIS

Medical Dictionary

Carcinogenesis is the means or method whereby the changes responsible for the induction of CANCER are brought about.... Medical Dictionary

CARCINOGENIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Causing cancer... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARCINOGENS

Medical Dictionary

Agents, such as tobacco smoke, certain chemicals, asbestos ?bres and high-dose radiation, that have the property of causing CANCER.... Medical Dictionary

CARCINOMA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A malignant epithelial tumour eventually becoming fatal... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARCINOMA

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cancer of the tissues which cover or line the body surfaces and internal organs.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARCINOMA

Medical Dictionary

A type of CANCER developing from cells found in the surface layer of an organ in the body.... Medical Dictionary

CARCINOMA IN SITU

Medical Dictionary

The ?rst stage of CARCINOMA in which the malignant tumour is present only in the EPITHELIUM, and when surgical excision of the local growth, with its pathological status con?rmed in the laboratory, should ensure a cure.... Medical Dictionary

CARCINOMA SIMPLEX

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARCINOMA-IN-SITU

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Malignant epithelial tumour showing no invasion.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARCINOMATOSIS

Medical Dictionary

The spread of cancer cells from their original site of growth to other tissues in the body. Such a spread of cancer, which takes place mainly via blood and lymph vessels, is usually fatal. CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOTHERAPY may, however, check the spread or sometimes destroy the cancerous growth.... Medical Dictionary

CARDAMOM TEA

Beneficial Teas

Cardamom is an evergreen plant that’s grown mainly in India and Guatemala. Both dried white cardamom flowers and the sweetly aromatic seeds are used to make tea. Cardamom tea has a pungent, sweet and aromatic flavor. Cardamom tea helps treat indigestion, prevents stomach pain, and relieves flatulence. It’s also helpful to drink a glass of cardamom tea if you are feeling nauseous. Cardamom tea fights pulmonary disease where lots of phlegm is present. It also works as a good expectorant and relieves coughs. If you have drunk too many cups of coffee, drink a couple of cups of cardamom tea to help detoxify the caffeine from your system. Drinking a cup of cardamom tea is helpful for women who experience mood swings during their menstrual period.... Beneficial Teas

CARDAMOMS

Herbal Manual

Elettaria cardamomum. N.O. Zingiberaceae.

Synonym: Mysore Cardamoms, Malabar Cardamoms. Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Ceylon.

Features ? Fruits ovoid or oblong, longitudinally furrowed, about half-inch long. Fruits yield approximately 75 per cent seeds.

Part used ? Seeds.

Action: Carminative, stomachic.

As a warm, grateful aromatic in flatulence. The seeds should be crushed, and an infusion of 2 ounces to 1 pint of water taken in wineglassful doses.... Herbal Manual

CARDAMON

Lust, Love...

CARDEA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) In mythology, the goddess of thresholds

Cardeah, Cardia, Cardiah... Medical Dictionary

CARDIA

Medical Dictionary

Cardia is a term applied to the upper opening of the stomach into which the oesophagus empties. The cardia lies immediately behind the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Relating to the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIAC ARREST

Medical Dictionary

Absence of a palpable pulse, and thus of circula tion of blood around the body by the heart contraction. The cause may be asystole or ventricular fibrillation.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC ARREST

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cardiac arrest occurs when the pumping action of the heart stops. This may be because the heart stops beating (see ASYSTOLE) or because the heart muscle starts contracting too fast to pump e?ectively (ventricular systole, the period when the heart contracts). Coronary thrombosis is the most frequent cause of arrest. Irreversible brain damage and death result without prompt treatment. Heart massage, de?brillation and arti?cial respiration are customary treatment. Other causes of cardiac arrest are respiratory arrest, anaphylactic shock and electrocution. Up to one-third of patients treated in hospital whose heart rhythm is restored recover to an extent that enables them to return home. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID – Cardiac/respiratory arrest.)... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA

Medical Dictionary

Abnormal rhythm of the heartbeat. Most commonly seen after someone has had a myocardial infarction, but also present in some normal individuals – especially if they have taken a lot of co?ee or other stimulant – and in those with a congenital abnormality of the heart-muscle conducting system. The cause is interference in the generation or transmission of electrical impulses through the heart’s conducting system. Occasional isolated irregular beats (ectopic beats) do not necessarily mean that conduction is faulty. Arrhythmias can be classi?ed as tachycardias (more than 100 beats a minute) or bradycardias (slower than 60 beats a minute). Heartbeats may be regular or irregular. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC CATHETERISATION

Medical Dictionary

A diagnostic procedure in which a tube is inserted into a blood vessel under local anaesthetic and threaded through to the chambers of the heart to monitor blood ?ow, blood pressure, blood chemistry and the output of the heart, and to take a sample of heart tissue. The technique is used to diagnose congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease. Another application is in the diagnosis and treatment of valvular disease in the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC CYCLE

Medical Dictionary

The various sequential movements of the heart that comprise the rhythmic relaxation and expansion of the heart muscles as ?rst the atria contract and force the blood into the ventricles (diastole), which then contract (systole) to pump the blood round the body. (See ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG).)

Cardiac Disease

See HEART, DISEASES OF.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC DEPRESSANT

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Slowing the action of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES

Medical Dictionary

Drugs whose main actions are to increase the force of myocardial contraction and reduce the conductivity of the nerve ?bres in the atrioventricular node of the heart. They are useful in treating supraventricular tachycardias (rapid heart rhythm) and some forms of heart failure. Glycosides are a traditional group of cardiac drugs, originally derived from the leaves of foxglove plants and used as digitalis. The active principle has long been synthesised and used as DIGOXIN. They are potentaially toxic and their use, especially during initial treatment, should be monitored. Side-e?ects include ANOREXIA, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain; drowsiness, confusion and DEPRESSION may occur. An abnormally slow heart rate may develop. The glycosides should be used with special care in the elderly who are sometimes particularly susceptible to their toxic e?ects.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC MASSAGE

Medical Dictionary

The procedure used to restart the action of the heart if it is suddenly arrested. In many cases the arrested heart can be made to start beating again by rhythmic compression of the chest wall. This is done by placing the patient on a hard surface – a table or the ?oor – and then placing the heel of the hand over the lower part of the sternum and compressing the chest wall ?rmly, but not too forcibly, at the rate of 60–80 times a minute. At the same time arti?cial respiration must be started by the mouth-tomouth method. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.) Open heart massage is sometimes undertaken if an arrest occurs during a chest operation – the heart being directly handled by the resuscitator.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC MUSCLE

Medical Dictionary

The muscle, unique to the heart, which comprises the walls of the atria and ventricles. It consists of long broadening cells (?bres) with special physiological characteristics which enable them to keep contracting and expanding inde?nitely.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC NEUROSIS

Medical Dictionary

Obsessional fear about the state of the heart. It tends to occur after a heart attack and may result in the patient’s experiencing the symptoms of another attack.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC OUTPUT

Medical Dictionary

The volume of blood pumped out per minute by the ventricles of the heart. It is one measure of the heart’s e?ciency. At rest, the heart of a healthy adult will pump between 2.5 and 4.5 litres of blood every minute. Exercise will raise this to as much as 30 litres a minute but, if this ?gure is low, it suggests that the heart muscle may be diseased or that the person has su?ered severe blood loss.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC PACEMAKER

Medical Dictionary

The natural pacemaker is the sinuatrial node, found at the base of the heart. The heart normally controls its rate and rhythm; heart block occurs when impulses cannot reach all parts of the heart. This may lead to ARRHYTHMIA, or even cause the heart to stop (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Arti?cial pacemakers may then be used; in the United Kingdom these are required for around one person in every 2,000 of the population. Usually powered by mercury or lithium batteries, and lasting up to 15 years, they are either ?xed to the outside of the chest or implanted in the armpit, and connected by a wire passing through a vein in the neck to the heart. Normally adjusted to deliver 65–75 impulses a minute, they also ensure a regular cardiac rhythm. Patients with pacemakers may be given a driving licence provided that their vehicle is not likely to be a source of danger to the public, and that they are receiving adequate and regular medical supervision from a cardiologist.

Although there are numerous possible sources of electrical interference with pacemakers, the overall risks are slight. Potential sources include anti-theft devices, airport weapon detectors, surgical diathermy, ultrasound, and short-wave heat treatment. Nevertheless, many pacemaker patients lead active and ful?lling lives.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC PUMP

Medical Dictionary

See HEART, ARTIFICIAL.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIAC TAMPONADE

Medical Dictionary

Compression of the heart due to abnormal accumulation of ?uid within the ?brous covering of the heart (PERICARDIUM). The result is irregular rhythm and death if the ?uid is not removed.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A combination of mouth to mouth resuscitation (E.A.R.) to oxygenate the blood, and external chest compression (E.C.C.) to compress the heart to help pump this artificially oxygenated blood around the body to maintain tissue oxygen concentration and prevent death.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARDIOANGIOGRAPHY

Medical Dictionary

Rendering the outline of the heart visible on an X-ray ?lm by injecting a radio-opaque substance into it.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIODYNIA

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Pain in the region of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIOGLYCOSIDES

Herbal Medical

Sugar-containing plant substances that, in proper doses. act as heart stimulants. Examples; digitoxin, strophanthin.... Herbal Medical

CARDIOKINETIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Regulating or strengthening the heartbeat ... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIOLOGY

Medical Dictionary

That branch of medical science devoted to the study of the diseases of the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOMEGALY

Medical Dictionary

Enlargement of the heart (see HEART, DISEASES OF).... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOMYOPATHY

Medical Dictionary

A general term covering primary disease of the heart muscle. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOPALMUS

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Palpitation of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIOPATHIES

Herbal Medical

Heart diseases, usually needing medical intervention.... Herbal Medical

CARDIOPATHY

Medicinal Plants Glossary

A morbid condition of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIOPLEGIA

Medical Dictionary

A procedure whereby the heart is stopped by reducing its temperature (hypothermia), by injecting the muscle with a solution of salts or by electrostimulation. This enables surgeons to operate safely on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

Medical Dictionary

A procedure in which the body’s circulation of blood is kept going when the heart is intentionally stopped to enable heart surgery to be carried out. A HEART-LUNG MACHINE substitutes for the heart’s pumping action and the blood is oxygenated at the same time.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)

Medical Dictionary

The use of life-saving measures of mouth-tomouth resuscitation and external cardiac compression massage in a person who has collapsed with CARDIAC ARREST. Speedy restoration of the circulation of oxygenated blood to the brain is essential to prevent damage to brain tissues from oxygen starvation. The brain is irreversibly damaged if it is starved of oxygen for more than 4–5 minutes. Someone whose heart has stopped will be very pale or blue-grey (in particular, round the lips) and unresponsive; he or she will not be breathing and will have no pulse. It is important to determine that the collapsed person has not simply fainted before starting CPR. The procedure is described under car-diac/respiratory arrest in APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID. In hospital, or when paramedical sta? are attending an emergency, CPR may include the use of a DEFIBRILLATOR to apply a controlled electric shock to the heart via the chest wall.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOSPASM

Medical Dictionary

The spasmodic contraction of the muscle surrounding the opening of the oesophagus into the stomach: also termed achalasia of the cardia. (See OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a wild climber.

English: Ballon Vine, Winter Cherry, Heartseed.

Ayurvedic: Kaakatiktaa, Kaakaadani, Karnsphotaa, Shatakratulataa.

Unani: Habb-e-Qilqil.

Siddha/Tamil: Mudukottan, Kottavan.

Folk: Kanphotaa, Kanphuti, Lataaphatakari. Used as Jyotishmati in Bengal.

Action: Used in rheumatism, lumbago, skeletal fractures, nervous diseases, amenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, erysipelas. The herb is used in hairoils for treating dandruff, alopecia and for darkening hair.

The plant extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and sedative effect on CNS. The drug also showed (transient) vasode- pressant activity.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and its D-glucoside, an alkaloid, oxalic acid and amino acids. The presence of a saponin and quebrachitol is reported in the plant.

The leaves and stem are used in preparations used against common cold. Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits antisickling and antiarthritic activity. Seeds have positive anabolic activity and increase body weight by inducing a positive nitrogen balance.

The alkaloid fraction from the seeds showed hypotensive activities and cardiac inhibition in anaesthetized dogs; blocked spasmogenic effects of acetyl- choline, histamine and 5-HT on guinea pig ileum, biphasic effort on frog rec- tus abdominis muscle. The seeds also showed antibacterial activity.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARDIOTONIC

Herbal Medical

Keeping the heart functioning normally... Herbal Medical

CARDIOTONIC

Medicinal Plants Glossary

A substance that strengthens or regulates heart metabolism without overt stimulation or depression. It may increase coronary blood supply, normalize enervation, relax peripheral arteries (decreasing back-pressure on the valves), or decrease adrenergic stimulation. Examples: Crataegus, Selenicereus.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Medical Dictionary

This refers to the whole circulatory system: the heart, the systemic circulation (the arteries and veins of the body) and the pulmonary circulation (the arteries and veins of the lungs). Blood circulates throughout the cardiovascular system bringing oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products.... Medical Dictionary

CARDIOVERSION

Medical Dictionary

Cardioversion, or DEFIBRILLATION, is indicated in patients with ventricular ?brillation or tachycardia, fast or irregular heartbeat, if other treatments have failed. A general anaesthetic is given if the patient is conscious, following which a carefully timed direct-current shock is applied to the patient’s chest wall using a DEFIBRILLATOR. The patient’s ECG rhythm should then be monitored and anticoagulants considered, as the risk of EMBOLISM is increased.... Medical Dictionary

CARDO SANTO

Medicinal Plants

Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, flower, root and stem.Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf/whole herb: prepared as a tea for blood-cleansing, cancer, stomach ulcers, delayed menstruation, vaginal infection, menopause symptoms; prepared as a douche for vaginal infection and inflammation; as a multi-herb mixture for ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids and tumors; root: boiled tea for stomach pain.Safety: Entire plant shown to be hepatotoxic due to sanguinarine and alkaloid content, especially concentrated in the seeds; internal use strongly cautioned against.Contraindications: Pregnancy, lactation, children.Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-tumor, morphine-withdrawal alleviation, uterine stimulant (organic plant extracts).* See entry for Cardo santo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.

... Medicinal Plants

CARE

Community Health

The application of knowledge to the benefit of a community or individual. There are various levels of care:... Community Health

CARE CHAIN / CHAIN OF CARE

Community Health

1 A well planned entity of inter- and intra-organizational care processes to solve the complexity of problems of an individual, and accompanied by systematic follow-up actions. Care chains are integrated to the extent that there are no gaps, barriers or breaks in the process leaving the older person without proper care. 2 A description of the different parts of care.... Community Health

CARE HOME

Community Health

A residential facility that provides accommodation and offers a range of care and support services. Care homes may provide a limited number of services to support low dependency or may provide a wide range of services to cater for the continuum from low to high dependency care. See “assisted living facility”; “high dependency care facility”.... Community Health

CARE IN COMMUNITY

Medical Dictionary

See COMMUNITY CARE.... Medical Dictionary

CARE MANAGEMENT

Community Health

See “case management”.... Community Health

CARE NEED

Community Health

Some state of deficiency decreasing quality of life and affecting a demand for certain goods and services. For the older population, lowered functional and mental abilities are decisive factors that lead to the need for external help.... Community Health

CARE PACKAGE

Community Health

A combination of services designed to meet a person’s assessed needs.... Community Health

CARE PATHWAY

Community Health

An agreed and explicit route an individual takes through health and social care services. Agreements between the various providers involved will typically cover the type of care and treatment, which professional will be involved and their level of skills, and where treatment or care will take place. See also “care plan”; “care programme”.... Community Health

CARE PLAN

Community Health

A dynamic document based on an assessment which outlines the types and frequency of care services that a client receives. It may include strategies, interventions, continued evaluation and actions intended to help an older person to achieve or maintain goals.... Community Health

CARE PROGRAMME

Community Health

A documented arrangement of integrated care, based on the analysed needs of a specific group of people, from intake to supply of care and services, as well as the intended outcomes, and including a description of the way the arrangement should be applied in order to match the needs of individual persons.... Community Health

CARE STANDARDS ACT

Medical Dictionary

Legislation (approved by the UK parliament in 2001) that sets up a new, independent regulatory body for social care and private and voluntary health-care services. The new body is called the National Care Standards Commission and covers England and Wales, but in the latter the National Assembly is the regulatory body. Independent councils register social-care workers, set social-care work standards and regulate the education and training of social workers in England and Wales. The Act also gives the Secretary of State for Health the authority to keep a list of individuals considered unsuitable to work with vulnerable adults. In addition, the legislation reforms the regulation of childminders and day-care provision for young children, responsibility for overseeing these services having been transferred from local authorities to the Chief Inspector of Schools. Services covered by the Act range from residential care homes and nursing homes, children’s homes, domiciliary-care agencies, fostering agencies and voluntary adoption agencies through to private and voluntary health-care services. This includes private hospitals and clinics and private primary-care premises. For the ?rst time, local authorities will have to meet the same standards as independent-sector providers.... Medical Dictionary

CARE SUPPLY

Community Health

The types and volumes of services available.... Community Health

CARE-DEPENDENT

Community Health

Persons with chronic illnesses and/or impairments which lead to long-lasting disabilities in functioning and reliance on care (personal care, domestic life, mobility, self direction).... Community Health

CAREGIVER

Community Health

A person who provides support and assistance, formal or informal, with various activities to persons with disabilities or long-term conditions, or persons who are elderly. This person may provide emotional or financial support, as well as hands-on help with different tasks. Caregiving may also be done from long distance. See also “formal assistance”; “informal assistance”.... Community Health

CAREGIVER BURDEN

Community Health

The emotional, physical and financial demands and responsibilities of an individual’s illness that are placed on family members, friends or other individuals involved with the individual outside the health care system.... Community Health

CAREGIVER BURNOUT

Community Health

A severe reaction to the caregiving burden, requiring intervention to enable care to continue.... Community Health

CARER

Community Health

See “caregiver”; “formal assistance”; “informal assistance”.... Community Health

CARESSE

Medical Dictionary

(French) A woman with a tender touch

Caress, Caressa, Carressa... Medical Dictionary

CAREW

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) One who rides a chariot Carewe, Crewe, Crew... Medical Dictionary

CAREYA ARBOREA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Barringtoniaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, from Jammu eastwards to West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Kumbi, Slow-Match tree.

Ayurvedic: Katabhi, Kumbhi- ka, Kumbhi, Kumbi, Kaitrya, Kumudikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kumbi, Ayma.

Action: Bark—demulcent (in coughs and colds), antipyretic and antipruritic (in eruptive fevers), anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. An infusion of flowers is given after child birth.

Seeds contain triterpenoid sapo- genols, sterols; leaves contain a tri- terpene ester, beta-amyrin, hexaco- sanol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol, quer- cetin and taraxeryl acetate.

Careya herbacea Roxb., a related species, is known as Kumbhaadu-lataa in Bengal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARICA PAPAYA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Caricaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Indies and Central America; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and South India.

English: Papaya, Papaw.

Ayurvedic: Erand-karkati, Papitaa.

Unani: Papitaa Desi.

Siddha/Tamil: Pappaali, Pappayi.

Action: Ripe fruit—stomachic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, galactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Seeds— emmengagogue, abortifacient, vermifuge. Juice of seeds is administered in enlarged liver and spleen, and in bleeding piles.

Key application: Papain, the enzyme mixture extracted from raw papain (latex of Carica papaya), has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Experiment-based as well as clinical research indicate that papain may be effective (in the treatment of inflammations) in high doses (daily dose 1500 mg corresponding to 2520 FIP units).

Unripe fruit—emmengagogue and abortifacient. Latex—applied topically on eczema, ringworm, psoriasis, corns, warts, sloughing wounds, carbuncles and eschar of burns.

Green parts of the plant and seed contain an alkaloid carpaine. Seeds also contain carpasemine.

Latex contain enzymes—papain and chymopapain and alkaloids carpaine and pseudocarpaine. A proteinaceous material from latex showed anticoagulant activity; in higher doses it is heart depressant and as a spasmogen on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum. An alkaloid solution showed depressant action on heart, blood pressure and intestine.

The anthelmintic action of seeds against Ascaris lumbricoides is due to carpasemine.

Papain, an enzyme mixture prepared from the fruit, seeds and leaf, hydrolyses polypeptides, amides and esters, particularly when used in an alkaline environment, and is used in digestive disorders.

Papain inhibits platelet aggregation, which may further increase the risk of bleeding in patients also taking anticoagulants. Concurrent administration of cyclophosphamide with papain caused sever damage to lung tissues in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Chymopapin C is an immunosup- pressive enzyme from plant extract. Carpaine, extracted from the plant, exhibited anti-tubercular activity, also antitumour in vitro, and hypotensive.

Dosage: Leaf—40-80 ml infusion; latex—3-6 g (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARIES

Medical Dictionary

See TEETH, DISORDERS OF.... Medical Dictionary

CARINA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Little darling Carena, Carinna, Carrina, Cariana, Carin, Carine, Caren, Carinen, Caron, Carren, Carron, Carrin, Caryn, Caryna, Carynn, Careena, Cariena, Careina, Careana... Medical Dictionary

CARINTHIA

Medical Dictionary

(English) From the city in Austria Carinthiah, Carinthea, Carintheah, Carynthia, Carynthiah, Carynthea, Caryntheah... Medical Dictionary

CARISSA

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) A woman of grace Carisa, Carrisa, Carrissa, Carissima... Medical Dictionary

CARISSA CARANDAS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. var. congesta (Wt.) Bedd.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Christ's Thorn, Bengal Currant.

Ayurvedic: Karinkaara, Karamarda, Krishnapaakphal, Kshirphena, Sushena, (Karamardakaa is equated with C. spinarum Linn.)

Unani: Karondaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalakke.

Action: Used for acidity, flatulence, poor digestion, as a slimming diet. Juice of the fresh plant is used for infected wounds that refuse to heal. Root—paste used for diabetic ulcer.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the stem bark in obstinate skin diseases, and the root in urinary disorders.

Alcoholic extract of roots exhibit hypotensive activity. Roots yield car- dioactive compounds; cardiotonic activity is due to glucoside of odoroside H. Fresh fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (105 g/100 g fruit juice). The seeds are rich in potassium (360 mg/100 g fresh matter).

Dosage: Stem bark—48 g for decoction. (API Vol. II); root— 1-3 g (API Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARISSA OPACA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Stapf. Ex Haines.

Synonym: C. spinarum auct. non L.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country in dry regions, especially in Punjab and Kashmir.

Ayurvedic: Karamardikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Chirukila Chiru.

Folk: Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa (Punjab).

Action: Plant—cardiotonic. Root— purgative.

The root contains caffeic acid, cardiac glycosides—odorosides B, C, G and H, and evomonoside.

Carissa paucinervia A. DC. is also equated with the wild var. ofKarondaa.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARLA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Feminine form of Carl; a free woman

Carlah, Carlana, Carlee, Carleen, Carleigh, Carlena, Carlene, Carletta, Carlette, Carley, Carli, Carlia, Carlie, Carlina, Carlisa, Carlita, Carlla, Carly, Carlyn, Carlen, Carlin, Carling, Carlea, Carleah... Medical Dictionary

CARLANDA

Medical Dictionary

(American) Our darling daughter Carland, Carlande, Carlandia, Carlandiah, Carlandea, Carlandeah... Medical Dictionary

CARLESSA

Medical Dictionary

(American) One who is restless Carlessah, Carlesa, Carlesah... Medical Dictionary

CARLISA

Medical Dictionary

(Italian) A friendly woman Carlisah, Carlissa, Carlissah, Carlysa, Carlysah, Carlyssa, Carlyssah... Medical Dictionary

CARLISLE

Medical Dictionary

(English) From the fort at Luguvalium Carlysle, Carlyle, Carlile... Medical Dictionary

CARMEL

Medical Dictionary

(Hebrew) Of the fruitful orchard Carmela, Carmella, Carmila, Carmilla, Carmel, Carmelle, Carmelita, Carmelina, Carmeline, Carmelia... Medical Dictionary

CARMEN

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) A beautiful song Carma, Carmelita, Carmencita, Carmia, Carmie, Carmina, Carmine, Carmita, Carmyna, Carmyta, Carmea, Carman, Carmin, Carminda, Carmya... Medical Dictionary

CARMENSITA

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) One who is dear Carmensyta, Carmensitah, Carmensytah, Carmens, Carmense... Medical Dictionary

CARMENTA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) In mythology, the goddess of childbirth Carminta, Carmynta... Medical Dictionary

CARMINATIVE

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Drug causing the release of stomach or intestinal gas... Medicinal Plants Glossary

CARMINATIVES

Medical Dictionary

Preparations to relieve FLATULENCE, and any resulting griping, by the bringing up of wind, or ERUCTATION. Their essential constituent is an aromatic volatile oil, usually of vegetable extraction.... Medical Dictionary

CARNA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) In mythology, a goddess who ruled the heart... Medical Dictionary

CARNATION

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Resembling the flower; becoming flesh... Medical Dictionary

CARNATION

Protection, Strength, Healing...

CARNELIAN

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Resembling the deep-red gem

Carnelyan, Carneliann, Carnelianne, Carnela, Carnelia... Medical Dictionary

CARNEOUS MOLE

Medical Dictionary

An ovum which has died in the early months of pregnancy. It usually requires no treatment and evacuates itself.... Medical Dictionary

CARNI

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) One who is vocal Carnie, Carny, Carney, Carnee, Carnea, Carneah, Carnia, Carniah, Carnea, Carneah, Carniya, Carniyah, Carnielle, Carniele, Carniell, Carniella, Carniela... Medical Dictionary

CAROB

A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: Niacin Major mineral contribution: Calcium About the Nutrients in This Food Carob flour, which is milled from the dried pod of a Mediterranean ever- green tree, Ceratonia siliqua, looks like cocoa but has a starchy, beanlike flavor. It can be mixed with sweeteners to make a cocoalike powder or combined with fats and sweeteners to produce a candy that looks like and has the same rich mouthfeel as milk chocolate but tastes more like honey. Ounce for ounce, carob, which is also known as locust bean gum, has more fiber and calcium but fewer calories than cocoa. Its carbohydrates include the sugars sucrose, D-mannose, and D-galactose. (D-galactose is a simple sugar that links up with other sugars to form the complex indigest- ible sugars raffinose and stachyose.) Carob also contains gums and pectins, the indigestible food fibers commonly found in seeds. The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food As a substitute for cocoa or chocolate for people who are sensitive to chocolate. Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-carbohydrate diet Buying This Food Look for: Tightly sealed containers that will protect the flour from moisture and insects. Storing This Food Store carob flour in a cool, dark place in a container that protects it from air, moisture, and insects. Keep carob candy cool and dry. Preparing This Food Measure out carob flour by filling a cup or tablespoon and leveling it off with a knife. To substitute carob for regular flour, use ¼ cup carob flour plus ¾ cup regular flour for each cup ordinary flour. To substitute for chocolate, use three tablespoons of carob flour plus two tablespoons of water for each ounce of unsweetened chocolate. Carob flour is sweeter than unsweetened chocolate. What Happens When You Cook This Food Unlike cocoa powder, carob flour contains virtually no fat. It will burn, not melt, if you heat it in a saucepan. When the flour is heated with water, its starch granules absorb moisture and rupture, releasing a gum that can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or binder in processed foods and cosmetics. In cake batters, it performs just like other flours (see flour). Medical uses and/or Benefits Adsorbent and demulcent. Medically, carob flour has been used as a soothing skin powder. As a chocolate substitute. People who are sensitive to chocolate can usually use carob instead. Like cocoa beans, carob is free of cholesterol. Unlike cocoa, which contains the cen- tral-nervous-system stimulant caffeine and the muscle stimulant theobromine, carob does not contain any stimulating methylxanthines. Lower cholesterol levels. In 2001, a team of German nutrition researchers from the Institute for Nutritional Science at the University of Potsdam, the German Institute of Human Nutri- tion, Center for Conventional Medicine and Alternative Therapies (Berlin) Nutrinova Nutri- tion Specialties and Food Ingredients GmbH, and PhytoPharm Consulting, Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals GmbH conducted a study to evaluate carob’s effectiveness in lower- ing cholesterol. For a period of eight weeks, 47 volunteers with moderately high cholesterol levels (232– 302 mg/dL) were fed 15 g of carob per day in breakfast cereal, fruit grain bars, and a drink made from powdered carob pulp as supplements to their normal diet. After four weeks, the volunteers’ total cholesterol levels fell an average of 7 percent and their LDL (low density lipoprotein—“bad” cholesterol) levels fell an average 10.6 percent. At six weeks, the numbers were 7.8 percent and 10.6 percent. There was no effect on HDLs (high density lipoproteins, a.k.a. “good” cholesterol).... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

CAROB

Protection, Health...

CAROB TREE

Medicinal Plants

Ceratonia siliqua

Description: This large tree has a spreading crown. Its leaves are compound and alternate. Its seedpods, also known as Saint John’s bread, are up to 45 centimeters long and are filled with round, hard seeds and a thick pulp.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and parts of North Africa.

Edible Parts: The young tender pods are edible raw or boiled. You can pulverize the seeds in mature pods and cook as porridge.... Medicinal Plants

CARODY

Medical Dictionary

(American) A humorous woman Carodi, Carodey, Carodie, Carodee, Carodea, Carodeah... Medical Dictionary

CAROL

Medical Dictionary

(English) Form of Caroline, meaning “a joyous song; a small, strong woman” Carola, Carole, Carolle, Carolla, Caroly, Caroli, Carolie, Carolee, Caroleigh, Carel, Caral, Caril, Carroll, Caryl... Medical Dictionary

CAROLINE

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Feminine form of Charles; a joyous song; a small, strong woman Carolina, Carolan, Carolann, Carolanne, Carolena, Carolene, Carolena, Caroliana, Carolyn, Carolyne, Carolynn, Carrie, Carri, Carry, Caro, Carrey, Carree, Caree, Carrieann, Carilyn, Carilynne, Cary... Medical Dictionary

CAROTENE

Medical Dictionary

A colouring matter of carrots, other plants, butter and yolk of egg, carotene is the precursor of vitamin A, which is formed from carotene in the liver. (See VITAMIN and APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... Medical Dictionary

CAROTID BODY

Medical Dictionary

A small reddish-brown structure measuring 5–7 × 2·5–4 millimetres, situated one on each side of the neck, where the carotid artery divides into the internal and external carotid arteries. Its main function is in controlling breathing so that an adequate supply of oxygen is maintained to the tissues of the body. Oxygen levels are controlled by a re?ex operating between the carotid body and the respiratory centre in the brain.... Medical Dictionary

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

Medical Dictionary

A condition characterised by attacks of pain and tingling in the ?rst three or four ?ngers of one or both hands. The attacks usually occur at night. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes under the strong ligament that lies across the front of the wrist. The condition may respond to use of a night splint on the hand; otherwise a corticosteroid injection under the ligament may help. If not, pressure is relieved by surgical division of the compressing ligament.... Medical Dictionary

CARPEL

Herbal Medical

A simple pistil or modified leaflets forming a compound pistil.... Herbal Medical

CARPUS

Medical Dictionary

The Latin term for the WRIST, composed of eight small bones ?rmly joined together with ligaments, but capable of a certain amount of sliding movement over one another.... Medical Dictionary

CARRELLE

Medical Dictionary

(American) A lively woman Carrell, Carrel, Carrele, Carrella, Carrela... Medical Dictionary

CARRIER

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

An insurer; an underwriter of risk, who finances health care. Also refers to any organization which underwrites or administers life, health or other insurance programmes.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARRIER

Community Health

A carrier is an infected person (or animal) that harbours a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and thus serve as a potential source of infection for human.... Community Health

CARRIERS OF DISEASE

Medical Dictionary

See INFECTION.... Medical Dictionary

CARRINGTON

Medical Dictionary

(English) A beautiful woman; a woman of Carrington Carington, Carryngton, Caryngton... Medical Dictionary

CARROT

Medicinal Plants

See Zanahoria.... Medicinal Plants

CARROT

Fertility, Lust...

CARROTS

A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Moderate Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A Major mineral contribution: Potassium About the Nutrients in This Food Carrots are high-fiber food, roots whose crispness comes from cell walls stiffened with the insoluble dietary fibers cellulose and lignin. Carrots also contain soluble pectins, plus appreciable amounts of sugar (mostly sucrose) and a little starch. They are an extraordinary source of vitamin A derived from deep yellow carotenoids (including beta-carotene). One raw carrot, about seven inches long, has two grams of dietary fiber and 20,250 IU vitamin A (nine times the R DA for a woman, seven times the R DA for a man). The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Cooked, so that the cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls of the carrot have partially dissolved and the nutrients inside are more readily available. Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Disaccharide-intolerance diet (for people who are sucrase- and /or invertase-deficient) Low-fiber diet Low-sodium diet (fresh and canned carrots) Buying This Food Look for: Firm, bright orange yellow carrots with fresh, crisp green tops. Avoid: Wilted or shriveled carrots, pale carrots, or carrots with brown spots on the skin. Storing This Food Trim off the green tops before you store carrots. The leaf y tops will wilt and rot long before the sturdy root. Keep carrots cool. They will actually gain vitamin A during their first five months in storage. Protected from heat and light, they can hold to their vitamins at least another two and a half months. Store carrots in perforated plastic bags or containers. Circulating air prevents the for- mation of the terpenoids that make the carrots taste bitter. Do not store carrots near apples or other fruits that manufacture ethylene gas as they continue to ripen; this gas encourages the development of terpenoids. Store peeled carrots in ice water in the refrigerator to keep them crisp for as long as 48 hours. Preparing This Food Scrape the carrots. Ver y young, tender carrots can be cleaned by scrubbing with a veg- etable brush. Soak carrots that are slightly limp in ice water to firm them up. Don’t discard slightly wilted intact carrots; use them in soups or stews where texture doesn’t matter. What Happens When You Cook This Food Since carotenes do not dissolve in water and are not affected by the normal heat of cooking, carrots stay yellow and retain their vitamin A when you heat them. But cooking will dissolve some of the hemicellulose in the carrot’s stiff cell walls, changing the vegetable’s texture and making it easier for digestive juices to penetrate the cells and reach the nutrients inside. How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Freezing. The characteristic crunchy texture of fresh carrots depends on the integrity of its cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls. Freezing cooked carrots creates ice crystals that rupture these membranes so that the carrots usually seem mushy when defrosted. If possible, remove the carrots before freezing a soup or stew and add fresh or canned carrots when you defrost the dish. Medical Uses and/or Benefits A reduced risk of some kinds of cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, carrots and other foods rich in beta-carotene, a deep yellow pigment that your body converts to a form of vitamin A, may lower the risk of cancers of the larynx, esophagus and lungs. There is no such benefit from beta-carotene supplements; indeed, one controversial study actually showed a higher rate of lung cancer among smokers taking the supplement. Protection against vitamin A-deficiency blindness. In the body, the vitamin A from carrots becomes 11-cis retinol, the essential element in rhodopsin, a protein found in the rods (the cells inside your eyes that let you see in dim light). R hodopsin absorbs light, triggering the chain of chemical reactions known as vision. One raw carrot a day provides more than enough vitamin A to maintain vision in a normal healthy adult. Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Oddly pigmented skin. The carotenoids in carrots are fat-soluble. If you eat large amounts of carrots day after day, these carotenoids will be stored in your fatty tissues, including the fat just under your skin, and eventually your skin will look yellow. If you eat large amounts of carrots and large amounts of tomatoes (which contain the red pigment lycopene), your skin may be tinted orange. This effect has been seen in people who ate two cups of carrots and two tomatoes a day for several months; when the excessive amounts of these vegetables were eliminated from the diet, skin color returned to normal. False-positive test for occult blood in the stool. The active ingredient in the guaiac slide test for hidden blood in feces is alphaguaiaconic acid, a chemical that turns blue in the presence of blood. Carrots contain peroxidase, a natural chemical that also turns alphaguaiaconic acid blue and may produce a positive test in people who do not actually have blood in the stool.... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

CARSON

Medical Dictionary

(Scottish) From the swamp Carsan, Carsen, Carsin... Medical Dictionary

CARTER

Medical Dictionary

(English) A transporter of merchandise

Cartar, Cartrell, Cartier... Medical Dictionary

CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly as an oil-seed crop in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.

English: Safflower.

Ayurvedic: Kusumbha, Vahin- shikhaa, Vastraranjaka, Kusum.

Unani: Qurtum.

Siddha/Tamil: Chendurakam.

Action: Oil—aids prevention of arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and kidney disorders as a polyunsaturated fat. Flowers— stimulant, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue; used in fevers and eruptive skin conditions, measles.

Charred safflower oil is used in rheumatism and for healing sores.

Key application: Dried flowers— in cardiovascular diseases, amen- orrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and retention of lochia; also in wounds and sores with pain and swelling. (Pharmocopoeia of the People's Republic of China, 1997.)

Safflower contains carthamone, lig- nans and a polysaccharide. The polysaccharide, composed of xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid residues, stimulates immune function in mice. It induced antibody formation in mice following peritoneal injection. Extracts of flowers have also been tested in China on blood coagulation, where a prolongation of clothing time was observed and platelet aggregation inhibited. Chinese research indicates that Safflower flowers can reduce coronary artery disease, and lower cholesterol levels. Flowers and seeds exhibit lipase activity. The flower extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect and inhibitory effect on spontaneous motor activity.

The plant contains a propanetriol derivative, which can be used for the treatment of circulatory disorders.

Recent research suggests that improving the lipid profile might not be as important to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease as suggested. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Safflower is contraindicated in pregnancy, gastric disorders, excessive menstruation, haemorrhagic diseases.

Wild and thorny Safflower, growing in the arid tract of Haryana and Punjab (locally known as Kantiaari, Poli, Poiyan) is equated with C. oxy- cantha Bieb. The plant is diuretic. Seed oil is applied topically to ulcers. The plant contains a sesquiterpene gly- coside. Aerial parts contain hinesol- beta-D-fucopyranoside. The plant also contains luteolin-7-glucoside.

Dosage: Leaf—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARTILAGE

Medical Dictionary

A hard but pliant substance forming parts of the skeleton – for example, the cartilages of the ribs, of the larynx and of the ears. Microscopically, cartilage is found to consist of cells arranged in twos or in rows, and embedded in a ground-glass-like material devoid of blood vessels and nerves. The end of every long bone has a smooth layer of hyaline cartilage on it where it forms a joint with other bones (articular cartilage), and in young persons up to about the age of 16 there is a plate of cartilage (epiphyseal cartilage) running right across the bone about 12 mm (half an inch) from each end. The latter, by constantly thickening and changing into bone, causes the increase in length of the bone. (See also BONE.) In some situations there is found a combination of cartilage and ?brous tissue, as in the discs between the vertebrae of the spine. This ?bro-cartilage, as it is known, combines the pliability of ?brous tissue with the elasticity of cartilage. (For cartilages of the knee, see KNEE.)... Medical Dictionary

CARTÍLAGO DE TIBURÓN

Medicinal Plants

Shark cartilage; reported for use in preventing or treating cancer, tumors and uterine fibroids, sometimes combined with medicinal plants in home remedies; it is also taken for nourishing brain function.... Medicinal Plants

CARTIMANDUA

Medical Dictionary

(Anglo-Saxon) A powerful queen... Medical Dictionary

CARUKIA BARNESI

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Also known as the Irukandji, Carukia is a small, virtually invisible, box-jellyfish with a single tentacle in each corner (carybdeid). The sting may be quite mild, and is sometimes not visible on the skin. However, some 30 minutes after the sting a number of severe systemic symptoms called the Irukandji syndrome occur. The symptoms include severe low back pain, muscle cramps in all 4 limbs and the chest wall, restlessness, anxiety, and a “feeling of potential doom” (often shared by the first aider!). Severe hypertension and pulmonary oedema may occur, which may become life-threatening, although no deaths have been reported to date. The effects are believed to be due to the excess release of catecholamines.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARUM BULBOCASTANUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

W. Koch.

Synonym: Buniumpersicum (Boiss.) Fedts.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Habitat: Cultivated in the hills and plains of North India and in the hills of South India.

English: Black Caraway.

Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Kaash- mira jirak.

Unani: Jiraa Siyaah, Kamoon- armani.

Siddha/Tamil: Shemai-shiragam, Pilappu-shiragam.

Action: See C. carvi.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARUM CARVI

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia. Now cultivated in Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Kashmir and Chamba.

Also found wild in the North Himalayan regions.

English: Caraway.

Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Jiraa, Kaaravi, Asita Jiraka, Kaashmira- jiraka, Prithvikaa, Upakunchikaa, Sugandha Udgaar, Shodhana.

Unani: Zeeraa Siyaah, Kamoon, Kamoon-roomi.

Siddha/Tamil: Shimai-shembu, Semai Seearagam, Karamjiragam.

Action: Carminative, antispas- modic, antimicrobial, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.

Key application: Seed oil—in dyspeptic problems, such as mild, sapstic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and fullness. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommended the seed in chronic fevers.

The fruit contains a volatile oil consisting of carvone (40-60%) and limoline with other constituents; flavonoids, mainly quercetin derivatives, polysac- charides and a fixed oil; also calcium oxalate.

The antispasmodic and carminative effects have been confirmed experimentally. The caraway has shown to reduce gastrointestinal foam.

Both the seeds and the essential oil are classed as carminative in I.P.

The essential oil shows moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity against several bacteria and fungi. Mixed with alcohol and castor oil, it is used for scabies.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

CARUNCLE

Medical Dictionary

Any small ?eshy eminence, whether normal or abnormal.... Medical Dictionary

CARYATIS

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, goddess of the walnut tree

Carya, Cariatis, Caryatiss, Cariatiss, Caryatys, Cariatys, Caryatyss, Cariatyss... Medical Dictionary

CARYBDEA RASTONI

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A small box-jellyfish with a single tentacle in each corner. Common in non-tropical areas such as Western Australia and South Australia, the sting is usually mild, but occasionally may cause severe skin pain. Commonly known as the Jimble.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARYBDEIDS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Jellyfish members of the Class Cubozoa with a single tentacle in each of the four corners (except in certain rare species).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CARYS

Medical Dictionary

(Welsh) One who loves and is loved Caryss, Carysse, Caris, Cariss, Carisse, Cerys, Ceryss, Cerysse, Ceris, Ceriss, Cerisse... Medical Dictionary

CÁSCARA DE

Medicinal Plants

Typically means “bark or fruit rind of (plant name)”; look up the plant name which follows this description of the plant part used.... Medicinal Plants

CASCARA SAGRADA

Herbal Manual

Rhamnus purshiana. N.O. Rhamnaceae.

Synonym: Sacred Bark, Chittem Bark. Habitat: California and British Columbia. Features ? Bark in quills about three-quarter inch wide by one-sixteenth inch thick,

furrowed-longitudinally, purplish-brown in colour. Inner surface longitudinally

striated, transversely wrinkled. Fracture pale brown, or dark brown when older.

Persistently bitter taste, leather-like odour.

Older bark is preferred, younger sometimes griping. Part used ? Bark.

Action: Tonic laxative.

In habitual constipation due to sluggishness and atony of the lower bowel, and for digestive disorders generally. Doses for chronic constipation, firstly 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful at bedtime, afterwards 5-10 drops before each meal, of the fluid extract.... Herbal Manual

CASCARA SAGRADA

Legal Matters, Money, Protection, ...

CASCARA SAGRADA TEA - A POWERFUL LAXATIVE

Beneficial Teas

Cascara Sagrada Tea has been known since ancient times as a great stimulant and laxative agent. In fact, the ones to discover its medical benefits were the American. The first proofs of this fact date from the 17th century, when American practitioners used Cascara Sagrada bark to treat many bacterial ailments of the digestive system. Cascara is a small shrub that grows mainly in the North America, in states like Idaho, California or Montana. Cascara never grows taller than 50 centimeters and has pale yellow greenish leaves and deep green leaves. Also known as rhamnus purshiana, Cascara has purple fruits or black berries that hide usually three hard seeds. Cascara Sagrada is harvested in the fall and can only be used dried (one year apart from the harvesting time) in order to release its curative benefits. Many people in Northern America specialize in Cascara Sagrada harvesting and herb processing (the plant needs to be properly dried and according to a list of specifications). Cascara Sagrada Tea Properties Cascara Sagrada Tea is known for its strong, stimulant and laxative properties. The main substances of this tea are very efficient in cases of nervous system failures and intestinal tract ailments. Cascara Sagrada Tea has a very bitter and therefore unpleasant taste. That’s why most people prefer to take it as capsules or extracts. Cascara Sagrada Tea Benefits Aside from its use as a constipation treatment, Cascara Sagrada Tea can also cure a variety of diseases involving the digestive tract, such as intestinal parasites or bacterial infections. However, make sure that you take this tea responsibly and don’t forget that this is a medical treatment wich only should be taking while you’re sick. Don’t try to replace your morning coffee with Cascara Sagrada Tea or you’ll face a series of complications! How to make Cascara Sagrada Tea Infusion When preparing Cascara Sagrada Tea, you have to make sure that you only use ingredients from a trusted provider. Nowadays, there are many illegal substances on the market sold as tea. Also, the herb you bought may be exactly what the label says it is, but not properly dried, in which case you’ll suffer from unwanted complications as well. Once you have the right ingredients, use a teaspoon of dried herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 20 minutes for the wonderful benefits to be released. Strain the decoction and drink it hot or cold. You may also add honey or even sugar if the taste feels a bit unpleasant. Cascara Sagrada Tea Side Effects When taken in small amounts, Cascara Sagrada Tea is a safe treatment. However, high dosages may lead to various problems, such as urine discoloration, blood in stools, pain and vomiting. Make sure the dosage you’re using is the appropriate one or ask your doctor before making any moves: it’s better to be safe than sorry! Cascara Sagrada Contraindications Cascara Sagrada Tea is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, patients suffering from appendicitis or ulcerative colitis. Also, if you are on blood thinners or anticoagulants, avoid taking a treatment based on Cascara Sagrada Tea. To gather more information, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor! If he gives you the green light and you happen to be in a teashop, add Cascara Sagrada Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy its wonderful benefits responsibly!... Beneficial Teas

CAYRATIA CARNOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Wall.) Gagnep.

Synonym: C. trifolia (L.) Domin. Vitis carnosa Wall. V.trifolia Linn.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India, from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam and up to 300 m.

Ayurvedic: Gandira.

Siddha/Tamil: Tumans.

Action: Leaves, seeds, roots— astringent, applied to ulcers and boils. Leaves—diaphoretic (recommended in high fever). Root- given in anaemic conditions. Aerial parts—CNS active, hypothermic. The stems, leaves and roots contain hydrocyanic acid. Presence of delphinidin and cyanidin is reported in the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CERCARIAE

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

The infective stages of the Schistosomes and other trema todes, which are free living in water. In some trematodes (e.g. Fasciola), the cercariae develope into metacercariae for infection.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A cancer in the bile ducts of the liver associated with opisthorchiasis. See Opisthorchiasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

CHORIOCARCINOMA

Medical Dictionary

A form of cancer a?ecting the CHORION, in the treatment of which particularly impressive results are being obtained from the use of methotrexate.... Medical Dictionary

CHRONIC CARE

Community Health

The ongoing provision of medical, functional, psychological, social, environmental and spiritual care services that enable people with serious and persistent health and/or mental conditions to optimize their functional independence and well-being, from the time of condition onset until problem resolution or death. Chronic care conditions are multidimensional, interdependent, complex and ongoing.... Community Health

CLEOME BRACHYCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Vahl ex DC.

Synonym: C. vahliana Farsen.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Northwestern Rajasthan, Punjab plains and Delhi.

Unani: Panwaar.

Folk: Madhio (Rajasthan).

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antidermatosis (used in scabies, also in leucoderma).

The plant contains trinortriterpe- noids and cabralealactone, besides ur- solic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CLINICAL CARE

Community Health

Professional specialized or therapeutic care that requires ongoing assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation by health care professionals.... Community Health

COMMUNAL CARE

Community Health

Assistance provided free of charge or at reduced rates to members of a group or society. Other members of the group or society generally provide care on a voluntary basis.... Community Health

COMMUNITY CARE

Community Health

Services and support to help people with care needs to live as independently as possible in their communities.... Community Health

COMMUNITY CARE

Medical Dictionary

Community care is intended to enable people to lead independent lives at home or in local residential units for as long as they are able to do so. For many years there has been a trend in Britain for care of elderly people and those with mental or physical problems to be shifted from hospitals and into community settings. In 1988 Sir Roy Gri?ths’s report to the Secretaries of State for Social Services, Community Care: Agenda for Action, advised on the best use of public funds to provide e?ective community care. The White Paper Caring for People, published in 1989, outlined the government’s ideas for developing these proposals further. The plans were then enshrined in law with the National Health Service and Community Care Act of 1990.

Since April 1993, local social-services departments have been responsible for assessing what help people need from community-care services: these can include home helps, meals on wheels, sheltered housing, etc. Recipients of such services are means-tested and make variable contributions towards the costs. Policies on charging vary from one area to another and there are wide geographical variations in the range of services provided free and the charges levied for others.

People with complex needs may be assigned a case manager to coordinate the care package and ensure that appropriate responses are made to changing circumstances. The success of community care hinges on e?ective coordination of the services of an often large number of providers from the health and social-services sectors. Poor communication between sectors and inadequate coordination of services have been among the most common complaints about the community-care reforms.

Health care for people being cared for in the community remains largely free under the NHS arrangements, although there are regular debates about where the boundaries should be drawn between free health services and means-tested social care. A distinction has been made between necessary nursing care (funded by the state) and normal personal care (the responsibility of the patient), but the dividing line often proves hard to de?ne.

As care has shifted increasingly into the community, previous hospital facilities have become redundant. Vast numbers of beds in long-stay geriatric hospitals and in-patient psychiatric wards have been closed. There is now concern that too few beds remain to provide essential emergency and respite services. In some areas, patients ?t for discharge are kept in hospital because of delay in setting up community services for the elderly, or because of the inability of the local authority to fund appropriate care in a nursing home or at home with community-care support for other patients; the resulting BED-BLOCKING has an adverse e?ect on acutely ill patients needing hospital admission.

Community care, if correctly funded and coordinated, is an excellent way of caring for people with long-term needs, but considerable work is still needed in Britain to ensure that all patients have access to high-quality community care when they need it. Problems in providing such are are not con?ned to the UK.... Medical Dictionary

COMMUNITY HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Includes health services and integrates social care. It promotes self care, independence and family support networks.... Community Health

COMMUNITY-BASED CARE / COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICES / PROGRAMMES

Community Health

The blend of health and social services provided to an individual or family in his/her place of residence for the purpose of promoting, maintaining or restoring health or minimizing the effects of illness and disability. These services are usually designed to help older people remain independent and in their own homes. They can include senior centres, transportation, delivered meals or congregate meals sites, visiting nurses or home health aides, adult day care and homemaker services.... Community Health

COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Provision of a complete range of health services, from diagnosis to rehabilitation.... Community Health

CONTINUING CARE

Community Health

The provision of one or more elements of care (nursing, medical, health-related services, protection or supervision, or assistance with personal daily living activities) to an older person for the rest of his or her life.... Community Health

CONTINUING CARE FACILITY

Community Health

A facility which provides continuing care.... Community Health

CONTINUING CARE RETIREMENT COMMUNITY

Community Health

A community which provides several levels of housing and services for older people, ranging from independent living units to nursing homes, on one site but generally in separate buildings.... Community Health

CONTINUITY OF CARE

Community Health

The provision of barrier-free access to the necessary range of health care services over any given period of time, with the level of care varying according to individual needs.... Community Health

CONTINUITY OF CARE

Medical Dictionary

A term describing a system of medical care in which individuals requiring advice on their health consult a named primary care physician (GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP)) or partnership of practitioners. The availability of an individual’s medical records, and the doctor’s knowledge of his or her medical, family and social history, should facilitate prompt, appropriate decisions about investigations, treatment or referral to specialists. What the doctor(s) know(s) about the patient can, for example, save time, alert hospitals to allergies, avoid the duplication of investigations and provide hospitals with practical domestic information when a patient is ready for discharge. The traditional 24-hours-aday, 365-days-a-year care by a personal physician is now a rarity: continuity of care has evolved and is now commonly based on a multi-disciplinary health team working from common premises. Changing social structures, population mobility and the complexity and cost of health care have driven this evolution. Some experts have argued that the changes are so great as to make continuity of care an unrealistic concept in the 21st century. Nevertheless, support inside and outside conventional medical practice for HOLISTIC medicine – a related concept for treating the whole person, body and mind – and the fact that many people still appreciate the facility to see their own doctors suggest that continuity of care is still a valid objective of value to the community.... Medical Dictionary

CONTINUUM OF CARE

Community Health

The entire spectrum of specialized health, rehabilitative and residential services available to the frail and chronically ill. The services focus on the social, residential, rehabilitative and supportive needs of individuals, as well as needs that are essentially medical in nature.... Community Health

COORDINATED CARE

Community Health

A collaborative process that promotes quality care, continuity of care and cost-effective outcomes which enhance the physical, psychosocial and vocational health of individuals. It includes assessing, planning, implementing, coordinating, monitoring and evaluating health-related service options. It may also include advocating for the older person.... Community Health

CORALLOCARPUS EPIGAEUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Benth. ex Hook. f.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Shukanaasaa, Nahikaa, Katunaahi, Paataala-garudaa.

(Cocculus hirsutus is used as Paataala-garudi).

Siddha/Tamil: Kollankovai, Aaakaasagarudam.

Action: Laxative. Root used during later stages of dysentery and chronic mucous enteritis; also in syphilitic rheumatism. The herb shows no apparent effect on acute dysentery.

The root contains a bitter principle allied to bryonin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CORONARY CARE UNIT (CCU)

Medical Dictionary

A specialised hospital unit equipped and sta?ed to provide intensive care (see INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU)) for patients who have had severe heart attacks or undergone surgery on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

COUNCIL FOR HEALTHCARE REGULATORY EXCELLENCE

Medical Dictionary

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary

CURATIVE CARE

Community Health

Medical treatment and care that cures a disease or relieves pain and promotes recovery.... Community Health

CUSTODIAL CARE

Community Health

Board, room and other personal assistance services generally provided on a long-term basis. It excludes regular medical care.... Community Health

CYPERUS SCARIOSUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

R.Br.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Damp situations in Uttar Pradesh and eastern and southern parts of India.

English: Nut grass.

Ayurvedic: Bhadramustaa, Musta, Amoda, Naagaramustaka. (Naagara is a different drug, equated with Zingiber officinale Rosc.)

Siddha: Korai-kilangu (Tamil).

Folk: Naagara-mothaa.

Action: Essential oil—hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, CNS stimulant, antimicrobial. Rhizome—stomachic, cordial, antidiarrhoeal and diuretic.

See C. rotundus.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DAUCUS CAROTA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. var. sativa DC.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; extensively cultivated in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh for its fleshy tap roots which are eaten raw or cooked. Wild Carrot: Native to Europe, Africa and Asia. Grows at 3,000-3,600 m in the Himalayas.

English: Carrot, Cultivated Carrot. Wild carrot (D. carota Linn.wild var.: the root, small and white), Queen Anne's Lace, Bird's Nest. Bees' Nest Plant.

Ayurvedic: Gaajara, Garjara, Granjana.

Unani: Gaajar.

Action: Roasted roots—prescribed in palpitation, burning micturation, cough and bronchitis. Carrot increases the quantity of urine and helps the elimination of uric acid; also lowers blood sugar. Juice—a rich source of carotene. Seeds—diuretic, emmenagogue, spasmolytic (prescribed in anuria and sexual debility). Wild carrot— diuretic and antilithic (used for kidney stones, cystitis and in gout). Seeds—emmenagogue. Also used for hot flushes of the menopause.

In cooked (orange) carrots beta- carotene content (1890 mcg) was found much higher than in raw carrots- (1045 mcg/100 g). Heat processing of carrots affected alpha- and beta-carotene contents; their value decreased (3.7; 5.3) in water blanching, whereas increased (5.8; 8.2) in steam blanching compared to that in fresh carrots (5.2; 8.1 mg/100 g) respectively.

An interferon inducer has been isolated from carrot. It stimulates cells to produce the protein that increases human resistance to virus infections.

Aqueous extract of carrots showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4- induced hepatic damage in mice liver.

The ethanolic extract exhibits direct relaxant action on cardiac and smooth muscle preparation and this action may be responsible for its hypotensive action. (Gently heated peeled roots, mixed with sugar candy, are given as a hypotensive drug.)

The ethanolic extract of seeds exhibited diuretic effect in dogs.

The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recommends Daucus carota Linn. (wild carrot) for its diuretic activity. Wild carrot contains flavones including apigenin, chypsin, luteolin; flavonols including kaempferol, quer- cetin and various glycosides. The fura- nocoumarins, 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen are found in the plant. The seed oil contains terpinen- 4-ol, a renal irritant. It is believed to cause diuretic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DAY CARE CENTRE

Community Health

A facility, operated by a local authority, voluntary organization, geriatric centre or acute hospital, providing activities for older people. These activities, usually during the day for a determined period, are intended to promote independence and enhance living skills, and can include the provision of personal care and preparation of meals.... Community Health

DENTAL CARIES

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Decay of teeth... Medicinal Plants Glossary

DEXTROCARDIA

Medical Dictionary

A condition in which a person’s heart is situated on the right of the chest in a mirror image of its usual position. This may be associated with similar inversion of the abdominal organs – situs inversus.... Medical Dictionary

DIANTHUS CAROPHYLLUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir; commonly grown in gardens, especially on the hills.

English: Carnation, Clove Pink.

Action: Flowers—diaphoretic, alexiteric, cardiac tonic. whole plant—vermifuge. Juice of plant antiviral.

Leaves contain glucoproteins.

A related species, Dicentra anatoli- cus Boiss, found in the Western Himalayas, is used as an antiperiodic in intermittent fevers.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIDYMOCARPUS PEDICELLATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

R.Br.

Synonym: D. macrophylla auct. non-Wall. ex D. Don.

Family: Gesneriaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya from Himachal Pradesh to Aruna- chal Pradesh at 500-2,500 m.

Ayurvedic: Kshudra-Paashaana- bheda, Shilaa-valkaa, Shilaa- pushpa.

Action: Leaf—antilithic. Used for stones in kidney and bladder.

The leaves contain a number of chal- cones, quinochalcones and flavanones. Pediflavone has also been isolated from young leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE CITRATE

Medical Dictionary

A FILARICIDE derived from PIPERAZINE used to treat FILARIASIS – a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms called nematode ?lariae.... Medical Dictionary

DIPTEROCARPUS ALATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Synonym: D. incanus Roxb.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans.

English: Gurjun.

Ayurvedic: Ashwakarna, Garjan, Shveta-Garjan, Jarandruma.

Action: Decoction of the bark is prescribed in rheumatism. Oil— applied to ulcerated wounds. Balsam—applied externally in gonorrhoea.

Dipterocarpus resin gave sesquiter- penoids. The essential oil contains 2 sesquiterpenoids of eudesmane series.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIPTEROCARPUS TURBINATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Gaertn. f.

Synonym: D. indicus Bedd.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans and Assam.

English: Common Gurjun tree, Wood Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Ajakarna, Chhaagakar- na, Ashwakarna.

Siddha/Tamil: Enney, Saara.

Folk: Gurjan.

Action: Oleo-resin (known as Gurjan Oil or Gurjan Balsam)— stimulant to genitourinary system, diuretic, spasmolytic; used externally on ulcers, ringworm and other cutaneous affections. Bark—a decoction is prescribed rheumatism.

Essential oil from oleo-resin contained humulene, beta-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and a sesquiterpene alcohol.

The twig bark contains 9% tannin and 7.3% soluble non-tans.

Dosage: Oil—3-5 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIRECT PATIENT CARE

Community Health

Any activities by a health professional involving direct interaction, treatment, administration of medications or other therapy or involvement with a patient.... Community Health

DOMICILIARY CARE

Community Health

Care provided in an individual’s own home.... Community Health

DUTY OF CARE

Community Health

A legal requirement that a person act towards others and the public with the watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person would use in the circumstance. If a person’s actions do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence.... Community Health

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

Medical Dictionary

The use of ultrasonics (see ULTRASOUND) for the purpose of examining the HEART. By thus recording the echo (hence the name) from the heart of ultrasound waves, it is possible to study, for example, the movements of the heart valves as well as the state of the interior of the heart. Safe, reliable and painless, the procedure cuts the need for the physically interventionist procedure of CARDIAC CATHETERISATION.... Medical Dictionary

ECONOMY OF CARE

Community Health

Costs are the measure of the economic function of care. Total costs and unit costs are the basic indicators.... Community Health

ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb. ex G. Don.

Synonym: E. sphaericus K. Schum. Ganitrus sphaericus Gaertn.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Western Ghats.

English: Utrasum Bead tree.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha, Panch- mukhi.

Siddha/Tamil: Rudraaksham.

Action: Fruit—used for epileptic fits and headache. Powdered fruits (0.5 g) mixed with warm water are given two/three times daily in asthma. Stem bark— hypoglycaemic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the seed in hypertension, insomnia, psychoneurosis and mental diseases.

The fruits contain palmitic, iso- palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Leaves gave alkaloids—rudrakine, (+)- elacocarpine and (+)-iso-elacocarpine; phenolics—quercetin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. EtOH (50%) extract of stem bark—hypoglycaemic. Aqueous extract of fruits—sedative, hy- potensive, spasmolytic, anticonvul- sant, choleretic, bronchodilatory and cardiostimulant.

The fruit of E. oblongus Mast. non- Gaertn., synonym E. glandulosus Wall. ex Merrill (Western Ghats) is used in mental disorders and tetanus.

Dosage: Seed—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)

Siddha/Tamil: Ruthracham, Pagumbar.

Folk: Rudirak, Bhutali.

Action: Bark—stomachic, antibil- ious. Used in haematemesis. Nut— antiepileptic, antirheumatic.

The leaves gave quercetin, kaempfer- ol, gallic acid and ethylgallate.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ELAEOCARPUS SERRATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Synonym: E. cuneatus Wt.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae. Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats up to 1,000 m. English: Wild Olive tree, Ceylon Olive.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Uttraccham, Ulankarei. Action: Leaf—antirheumatic. Fruit—antidysenteric. Aerial parts—CVS and CNS active.

The leaves gave ellagic acid, myric- itrin, myricetin and mearnsetin. Fruit pulp gave citric acid and D-galactose. It contains pectin (2.57% fresh weight basis).... Indian Medicinal Plants

ELAEOCARPUS TUBERCULATUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also planted as an ornamental.

Ayurvedic: Krishnamokshaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Selluppaimaram.

Folk: Kaalaa-mokhaa, Ratangaruur. Jamrasi (gum).

Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, emetic.

The bark and the leaves contain 813.5 and 8-15% tannin respectively.

Powdered leaves have a sternutatory action and are used as snuff to relieve headache and as a fumigatory in hysteria (in folk medicine it is believed that the smoke wards off ghosts.)

Fresh root bark is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to swellings. A cold water extract of the crushed roots is used as an emetic (fatal in overdoses).

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Kanara southwards. Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.).... Indian Medicinal Plants

ELDER CARE

Community Health

See “aged care”.... Community Health

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG)

Medical Dictionary

A record of the variations in electric potential which occur in the HEART as it contracts and relaxes. Any muscle in use produces an electric current, but when an individual is at rest, the main muscular current in the body is that produced by the heart. This can be recorded by connecting the outside of the body by electrodes with an instrument known as an electrocardiograph. The patient is connected to the electrocardiograph by leads from either the arms and legs or di?erent points on the chest. The normal electrocardiogram of each heartbeat shows one wave corresponding to the activity of the atria and four waves corresponding to the phases of each ventricular beat. Various readily recognisable changes are seen in cases in which the heart is acting in an abnormal manner, or in which one or other side of the heart is enlarged. This record therefore forms a useful aid in many cases of heart disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF). The main applications of the electrocardiogram are in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and of cardiac ARRHYTHMIA.

Electrocardiography

A method of recording the electrical activity of the heart muscles. Electrodes from a recording machine (electrocardiograph) are placed on the skin of the chest wall, arms and legs. The record of the electrical changes is called an ECG (electrocardiogram). The number of electrodes used depends on the complexity of the heart disorder being monitored. The procedure can be done in hospital, doctors’ surgeries and the patient’s home, and should not cause any discomfort.

In certain circumstances – for example, where a person has had bouts of chest pain – an exercise ECG may be performed under medical supervision. The patient walks on a treadmill while the ECG is recorded continuously.... Medical Dictionary

ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Maton.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Mayura-shikhaa, Gojihvaa. (Actinopteris dichotoma Bedd. and Celosia cristata Linn. are also used as Mayura-shikhaa. Anchusa strigosa Lebill., and other Boraginaecae sp. are used as Gojihvaa.)

Siddha/Tamil: Yaanaichhuvadi.

Folk: Mayurjuti, Maaraajuti.

Action: Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves—

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated either as pure plantation crop, or as subsidiary to coffee and arecanut in hilly forests regions of Western Ghats in Karnataka and Kerala, and in parts of Madurai, the Nilgiris and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu.

English: Lesser Cardamom.

Ayurvedic: Elaa, Sukshmailaa, Kshudrailaa, Bhrngaparnikaa, Tutthaa, Draavidi, Prithvikaa, Triputaa, Truti, Upkunchikaa.

Unani: Heel Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil: Yelakkai, Ilam.

Action: Carminative antiemetic, stomachic, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, Oil— antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma. Paste used as balm for headache, husk for rheumatism.

Key application: In dyspepsia; also as cholagogue. (German Commission E.)

The seeds yield an essential oil (611% dry basis). The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylace- tate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.

The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output.

Terpineol and acetylterpineol, the active principles of cardamom seeds, showed greater penetration enhancing capacities than Azone which was used as a comparative penetration enhancer for the diffusion of Pred- nisolone through mouse skin in vitro.

Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil inhibits afla- toxin synthesis.

The cardamom seed can trigger gallstone colic (spasmodic pain) and is not recommended for self-medication in patients with gallstone. (German Commission E, PDR, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Seed of dried fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

ENCARNACION

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) Refers to the Incarnation festival... Medical Dictionary

END-OF-LIFE CARE

Community Health

Care of older persons who are dying.... Community Health

ENDOCARDITIS

Medical Dictionary

In?ammation of the lining, valves and muscle of the HEART. The main causes are bacterial and virus infections and rheumatic fever, and the condition occurs most often in patients whose ENDOCARDIUM is already damaged by congenital deformities or whose immune system has been suppressed by drugs. Infection may be introduced into the bloodstream during dental treatment or surgical procedures, especially on the heart or on the gastrointestinal system. The condition is potentially very serious and treatment is with large doses of antibiotic drugs. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

ENDOCARDIUM

Medical Dictionary

A thin membrane consisting of ?at endothelial cells; it lines the four chambers of the HEART and is continuous with the lining of arteries and veins. The endocardium has a smooth surface which helps the blood to ?ow easily. The valves at the openings of the heart’s chambers are made from folded-up membranes. In?ammation of the endocardium is called ENDOCARDITIS.... Medical Dictionary

EPIDERMOID CARCINOMA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Squamous cell carcin oma; cancer of squamous epithelium.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

EPISODE OF CARE

Community Health

The description and measurement of the various health care services and encounters rendered in connection with an identified injury or period of illness.... Community Health

EQUITY OF CARE

Community Health

Fair treatment of needs, regarding both the distribution of services and allocation of resources.... Community Health

ETHICS (OF CARE)

Community Health

The basic evaluative principles which (should) guide “good” care. Principles typically refer to respect for, and the dignity of, human beings. Basic dimensions are “autonomy” (respect for self determination), “well-being” (respect for happiness, health and mental integrity) and “social justice” (justifiable distribution of scarce goods and services). More specifically, ethics of care refer to ethical standards developed for the care professions which are designed to implement ethical principles in the practice of care provision.... Community Health

EVIDENCE-BASED CARE

Community Health

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individuals. This approach must balance the best external evidence with the desires of the individual and the clinical expertise of health care providers.... Community Health

EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The coastal and tidal forests of India.

English: Blinding tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Kampetti, Tillai, Agil, Ambala-vrksham.

Folk: Gevaa, Huraa (Maharashtra). Gangawaa.

Action: Latex—antileprotic. The latex blisters the skin and is reported to cause blindness if it enters the eye. The juice, boiled in oil, is applied in rheumatism, paralysis and leprosy.

The leaves are toxic and contain gallo tannins (0.616 mg/g dry weight). Fresh twigs and bark contain a piscici- dal component. The latex is biocidal.... Indian Medicinal Plants

EXTENDED CARE FACILITY (ECF)

Community Health

A facility that offers sub-acute care, providing treatment services for people requiring inpatient care who do not currently require continuous acute care services, and admitting people who require convalescent or restorative services or rehabilitative services or people with terminal disease requiring maximal nursing care.... Community Health

EXTERNAL CARDIAC COMPRESSION

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Compression of the outside of the sternum and ribs, effectively emptying and filling the heart to push blood through arteries to supply oxygen to the body - particularly to the brain.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

EXTRA CARE SHELTERED HOUSING

Community Health

Housing where there is additional support (such as the provision of meals and extra communal facilities) to that usually found in sheltered housing. Sometimes called ‘very sheltered housing’.... Community Health

FACTITIOUS URTICARIA

Medical Dictionary

See DERMOGRAPHISM.... Medical Dictionary

FICUS CARICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Common Fig.

Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Manjul, Raajodumbara, Bhadrodumbara.

Unani: Anjeer, Teen.

Siddha/Tamil: Semaiatti.

Action: Fruit—gentle laxative and expectorant. Syrup of figs— a remedy for mild constipation. Fruit pulp-analgesic and anti- inflammatory, used for treating tumours, swellings and gum abscesses. Latex—analgesic and toxic. Used for treating warts, insect bites and stings. Leaf—used in lucoderma. Bark—used for eczema and other skin diseases.

Key application: As a laxative. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen, taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lep- eol acetate and oleanolic acid have been identified in the leaves.

Three peptides which exhibit action against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) have been isolated from the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity is similar to that of ACE inhibitors derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes both the production of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and the inactivation of the vasodilator bradykinin.)

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; 510 g paste. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

FICUS MICROCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. retusa auct. non Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Central and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Grown in gardens, and as an avenue tree. Quite common in New Delhi.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related sp.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Ichi.

Folk: Itti.

Action: Bark—antibilious. Leaf— antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf— used in preparations of oils and ointments for ulcers, skin diseases, oedema and inflammations.... Indian Medicinal Plants

FORMAL CARE

Community Health

See “formal assistance”.... Community Health

FOSTER CARE

Community Health

A form of assisted housing, usually provided in private homes owned and occupied by individuals or families, offering a place of residence, meals, housekeeping services, minimum supervision, and personal care for a fee to non-family members who do not require supervision by skilled medical personnel.... Community Health

GERIATRIC CARE

Community Health

Care of older persons that encompasses a wide range of treatments from intensive care to palliative care.... Community Health

GLOSSOCARDIA BOSVALLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

DC.

Synonym: G. linearifolia Cass.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Plains of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute). (Fumaria parvifolora Linn., Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam synonym Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn., Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser., Justicia procumbens Linn., Polycarpea corymbosa Lam are also used as Parpata for fevers.)

Siddha: Parapalanamu.

Action: Used as emmenagogue.

The essential oil from the plant is antimicrobial, that from flowers an- thelmintic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

GYNOCARDIA ODORATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

R.Br.

Synonym: Hydnocarpus odorata Landl.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)

Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.

Folk: Chaaval-mungari.

Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.

A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

HAEMOPERICARDIUM

Medical Dictionary

The presence of blood in the PERICARDIUM, the membranous sac which surrounds the heart. The condition may result from a myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF), leaking ANEURYSM, injury, or tumour. Because the pericardial blood compresses the heart, the latter’s pumping action is impeded, reducing the blood pressure and causing cardiac failure. Urgent surgical drainage of the blood may be required.... Medical Dictionary

HEALTH CARE

Community Health

Services provided to individuals or communities by health service providers for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health.... Community Health

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM

Community Health

See “health system”.... Community Health

HEALTH CARE INSTITUTION / FACILITY

Community Health

Any establishment that is engaged in direct patient care on site.... Community Health

HEALTH CARE TEAM

Community Health

A group comprising a variety of professionals (medical practitioners, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, pharmacists, spiritual counsellors), as well as family members, who are involved in providing coordinated and comprehensive care. There are three types of health care team, defined by the degree of interaction among members and the sharing of responsibility for care:... Community Health

HEALTH CARE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT (HCTA)

Community Health

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... Community Health

HEALTH-CARE PRIORITIES

Medical Dictionary

As the needs and demands of patients, and the costs of health care of populations, have risen sharply in recent years, governments and health-care providers – whether tax-funded, insurance-based, employer-provided or a mix of these – have had increasingly to face the dilemma of what services a country or a community can a?ord to provide. As a result, various techniques for deciding priorities of care and treatment are evolving. In the United Kingdom, priorities were for many years based on the decisions of individual clinicians who had wide freedom to prescribe the most appropriate care. Increasingly, this clinical freedom is being circumscribed by managerial, community and political decisions driven in part by the availability of resources and by what people want. Rationing services, however, is not popular and as yet no broadly agreed consensus has emerged, either in western Europe or in North America, as to how priorities can be decided that have broad community support and which can be a?orded. (See CLINICAL GOVERNANCE; EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.)... Medical Dictionary

HEALTHCARE COMMISSION (COMMISSION FOR HEALTH IMPROVEMENT)

Medical Dictionary

Launched in 1999 in England and Wales as CHI, this is an inspectorate charged with protecting patients from ‘unacceptable failings in the National Health Service’. A statutory body under the 1999 Health Act, it evaluates and re?nes local systems designed to safeguard standards of clinical quality. Working separately from the NHS and the health departments, it o?ers an independent safeguard that provides systems to monitor and improve clinical quality in primary care, community services and hospitals. As of 2004 it became responsible for dealing with patients’ complaints if they could not be settled by the trust concerned. The board members include health professionals, academics and eight lay members. Scotland has set up a similar statutory body. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... Medical Dictionary

HIGH DEPENDENCY CARE FACILITY

Community Health

An establishment primarily engaged in providing inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services to individuals requiring nursing care.... Community Health

HOME HEALTH AGENCY (HHA) / HOME HEALTH CARE AGENCY

Community Health

A public or private organization that provides home health services supervised by a licensed health professional in a person’s home, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations.... Community Health

HOME HEALTH CARE / HOME CARE

Community Health

See “domiciliary care”.... Community Health

HOME-FROM-HOSPITAL / HOSPITAL AFTER-CARE SCHEMES

Community Health

Schemes providing nursing care, personal care or practical help for older people who have returned home after a stay in hospital.... Community Health

HOSPICE CARE

Community Health

A cluster of comprehensive services that address the needs of dying persons and their families, including medical, spiritual, legal, financial and family support services.... Community Health

HOUSING WITH CARE

Community Health

A range of housing schemes providing high levels of care.... Community Health

HYDNOCARPUS KURZII

Indian Medicinal Plants

(King) Warb.

Synonym: H. heterophylla auct. non-Bl. Taractogenos Kurzii King.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Assam and Tripura.

English: Chalmogra.

Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka (related species, substitute for H. laurifolia.)

Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.

Siddha/Tamil: Niradi-muttu.

Action: Antileprotic, dermatic, febrifuge, sedative. Used parenter- ally for leprosy; also for psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis.

The plant is a source of chaulmoogra oil (Oleum Chaulmoograe which contains hydnocarpic, chaulmoogric, gor- lic, oleic, palmitic acids and lower homologues of hydnocarpic acid. The oil mixed with neem oil or oil of Psoralea corylifolia is used in leprosy.

In mice, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of chaul- moogra fatty acids demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobac- terium leprae. (PDR.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Dennst.) Sleumer.

Synonym: H. wightiana Blume.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

English: Soorty Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka, Katu- Kapittha, Kushtavairi, Garudaphala, Chaalmograa.

Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravattai, Niradi- muttu.

Action: Seed oil—antileprotic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic.

The seed oil gave chemical constituents similar to Hydnocarpus kuzii, and contain the flavonolignan, hyd- nowightin, hydnocarpin and neohyd- nocarpin.

Hydnocarpin showed good anti- inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activity in mice, in vivo. Cytotoxicity against the growth of murine and human tissue cultured cells was also observed.

The stem bark and leaves contain triterpenes, acelylbetulinic, betulinic, ursolic and acetylursolic acids.

Dosage: Seed—3-5 g powder; oil— 5-10 drops. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

HYDROCARBAMIDE

Medical Dictionary

A drug used to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia (see MYELOID; LEUKAEMIA).... Medical Dictionary

HYPECOUM LEPTOCARPUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f. & Thoms.

Family: Papaveraceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region and temperate Asia. (Allied species: H. pendulum Linn. and H. procumbens Linn., found in Peshavar, Multan, Waziristan and Baluchistan). Occurs in Sikkim.

Folk: Zirgulaki, Waziri.

Action: Used in stomachache. Juice of the plant has the same effect as opium. Leaves diaphoretic. Plant— narcotic.

The whole plant contains protopine (0.19) as the major alkaloid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS

Indian Medicinal Plants

R. Br.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and the Sunderbans.

English: Black Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Gopavalli, Krishna Saarivaa (var.), Krishna-muuli, Shyaamalataa.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunannari, Makalikilanzhu.

Folk: Kaalisar, Karantaa.

Action: Root—demulcent, diuretic, alterative, diaphoretic; used in fevers, dyspepsia and cutaneous affections. The roots of the plant are used as a substitute for Indian sarsaparilla and are often mixed with the roots of Hemidesmus indicus (their therapeutic properties for use as sarsaparilla have bot been established).

The root gave 2-hydroxy-4-meth- oxybenzaldehyde.

Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in the roots but not in the leaves and fruits. Saponins were absent in these parts. The whole plant gave n-butyl sorboside, kaempferol and its gluco- side.... Indian Medicinal Plants

INFORMAL CARE

Community Health

See “informal assistance”.... Community Health

INSTITUTIONAL (CARE) HEALTH SERVICES

Community Health

Health services delivered on an inpatient basis in hospitals, nursing homes or other inpatient institutions. The term may also refer to services delivered on an outpatient basis by departments or other organizational units of such institutions, or sponsored by them.... Community Health

INTEGRATED CARE

Community Health

The methods and strategies for linking and coordinating the various aspects of care delivered by different care systems, such as the work of general practitioners, primary and specialty care, preventive and curative services, and acute and long-term care, as well as physical and mental health services and social care, to meet the multiple needs/problems of an individual client or category of persons with similar needs/problems.... Community Health

INTENSIVE CARE

Community Health

Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in a specially equipped unit of a health care facility. It can also be administered at home under certain circumstances (dialysis, respirators, etc.).... Community Health

INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE

Medical Dictionary

The origin of this important branch of medicine lies in the e?ective use of positive-pressure VENTILATION of the lungs to treat respiratory breathing failure in patients a?ected by POLIOMYELITIS in an outbreak of this potentially fatal disease in Denmark in 1952. Doctors reduced to 40 per cent, the 90 per cent mortality in patients receiving respiratory support with the traditional cuirass ventilator by using the new technique. They achieved this with a combination of manual positive-pressure ventilation provided through a TRACHEOSTOMY by medical students, and by looking after the patients in a speci?c area of the hospital, allowing the necessary sta?ng and equipment resources to be concentrated in one place.

The principle of one-to-one, 24-hours-a-day care for seriously ill patients has been widely adopted and developed for the initial treatment of many patients with life-threatening conditions. Thus, severely injured patients – those with serious medical conditions such as coronary thrombosis or who have undergone major surgery, and individuals su?ering from potentially lethal toxic a?ects of poisons – are treated in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU). Patients whose respiratory or circulatory systems have failed bene?t especially by being intensively treated. Most patients, especially post-operative ones, leave intensive care when their condition has been stabilised, usually after 24 or 48 hours. Some, however, need support for several weeks or even months. Since 1952, intensive medicine has become a valued specialty and a demanding one because of the range of skills needed by the doctors and nurses manning the ITUs.... Medical Dictionary

INTERIM NURSING HOME CARE

Community Health

Care provided in geriatric centres and acute hospitals to older persons who are in need of limited medical care and who are awaiting nursing home placement.... Community Health

INTERMEDIATE CARE

Community Health

A short period of intensive rehabilitation and treatment to enable people to return home following hospitalization or to prevent admission to hospital or residential care.... Community Health

INTERMEDIATE CARE

Medical Dictionary

See “care”.... Medical Dictionary

INTERMEDIATE CARE

Community Health

Described by the UK government as ‘a bridge between hospital and home’ to speed discharge from acute care and provide recovery and rehabilitation services, this concept was a key element in the NHS Plan: plan for investment; a plan for reform, published in 2000. The government sees cottage hospitals, private nursing homes, and domiciliary and community settings as providing the heart of the proposed intermediate-care sector. Also in the plan, however, is the warning that the NHS would meet the costs only of nursing care for nursing-home residents: personal care would in future be charged for. (In Scotland the NHS funds personal-care costs.) The change in England would alter the principles on which the NHS was founded in 1948 – that all citizens would receive a universal, comprehensive service funded by the government. New care trusts will commission and deliver both primary and community health care as well as social care. The trusts will hold uni?ed, capped budgets and they will de?ne what is NHS care and what is social care. The social-care elements will be subject to the charging policies of local authorities. Of the 160,000 or so nursing-home residents in England, under 10 per cent have their care fully funded by the NHS. The funding future of this 10 per cent is uncertain, as will be the personal-care funding of 270,000 NHS patients expected to transfer from hospital into intermediate care each year. It is too early to say what e?ect these changes will have on a vulnerable section of the population. While the principle of using intermediate care to free expensive hospital beds is sensible, the uncertainties over funding and the grey area between the need for nursing and/or residential care will be a worry for elderly people, especially those of limited means. (Legislation to implement the government’s planned changes to the NHS was going through Parliament as this text was going to press, so modi?cations to them are possible.)... Community Health

INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITY (ICF)

Community Health

An institution which is licensed to provide, on a regular basis, health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care or treatment which a hospital or skilled nursing facility is designed to provide.... Community Health

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF HEALTH PROBLEMS IN PRIMARY CARE (ICHPPC)

Community Health

A classification of diseases, conditions and other reasons for attendance for primary care. This classification is an adaptation of the ICD but makes allowance for the diagnostic uncertainty that prevails in primary care.... Community Health

INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF PRIMARY CARE (ICPC)

Community Health

The official classification of the World Organisation of Family Doctors. It includes three elements of the doctor-patient encounter: the reason for the encounter; the diagnosis; and the treatment or other action or intervention.... Community Health

IPOMOEA ERIOCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

R. Br.

Synonym: I. hispida Roem. & Schult.

I. sessiliflora Roth.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Aakhukarni (related species), Sheetavalli (provisional synonym).

Folk: Nikhari, Bhanwar (Punjab).

Action: Antirheumatic, anticepha- lalgic, antiepileptic and antileprotic.

The plant is boiled in oil and used as an application for rheumatism, headache, epilepsy, fevers, ulcers, leprosy. The seeds are reported to contain a resin similar to that present in the seeds of Ipomoea nil.... Indian Medicinal Plants

JACARANDA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Resembling the tree with purple flowers

Jacarannda, Jacarranda, Jacarandah, Jacarandia, Jacarandea, Jakaranda, Jackaranda... Medical Dictionary

LEONURUS CARDIACA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Leonotis nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Granthiparni, Kaaka- puchha.

Folk: Gathivan, Deepamaal (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—spasmolytic. Ash of flower head—applied to burns and scalds, in ringworm and other skin diseases.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the root in cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea.

The root contains n-octacosanol, n-octacosanoic acid, quercetin, 4,6,7- trimethoxy-5-methylchromene-2-one, campesterol and beta-sitosterol-beta- D-glucopyranoside.

The plant contains 4,6,7-trimethoxy- 5-methyl-chromene-2-one.

The leaves contain neptaefolin, nep- taefuran, neptaefuranol, neptaefolinol, leonitin, neptaefolinin and (-)-55, 6- octadecadienoic acid.

The seed oil contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The fatty

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; also distributed in Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Common Motherwort, Lion's Tail.

Unani: Baranjaasif. (Also equated with Artemesia vulgaris Linn; and Achillea millifolium Linn.)

Action: Stomachic, laxative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, em- menagogue (used in absent or painful menstruation, premenstrual tension, menopausal flushes). Hypnotic, sedative. Used as a cardiac tonic. (Studies in China have shown that Motherwort extracts show antiplatelet aggregation actions and decrease the levels of blood lipids.)

Key application: In nervous cardiac disorders and as adjuvant for thyroid hyperfunction. (German Commission E.) As antispasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The British Herbal Compendium indicated its use for patients who have neuropathic cardiac disorders and cardiac complaints of nervous origin.

The plant contains diterpene bitter principles, iridoid monoterpenes, flavonoids including rutin and querci- trin, leonurin, betaine, caffeic acid derivatives, tannins and traces of a volatile oil.

The herb is a slow acting adjuvant in functional and neurogenic heart diseases. Its sedative and spasmolytic properties combine well with Valeriana officinalis or other cardioactive substances.

The herb contains several components with sedative effects—alpha- pinene, benzaldehyde, caryophyllene, limonene and oleanolic acid. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Habitat: Western Europe. Seeds are imported into India from Persia.

English: Pepper-Grass.

Unani: Bazr-ul-khumkhum, Todari (white var.).

Action: Seeds—blood purifier; prescribed in bronchitis.

The fatty acid of the oil are: oleic 12.9, linoleic 47.87, linolenic 5.43, erucic 31.97, stearic 0.54 and palmitic 1.22%.

The seed mucilage on hydrolysis gave galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid.

Flowering tops and seeds contain a bitter principle, lepidin.

The plant yield a sulphur-containing volatile oil.... Indian Medicinal Plants

LITHIUM CARBONATE

Medical Dictionary

A drug widely used in the PROPHYLAXIS treatment of certain forms of MENTAL ILLNESS. The drug should be given only on specialist advice. The major indication for its use is acute MANIA; it induces improvement or remission in over 70 per cent of such patients. In addition, it is e?ective in the treatment of manic-depressive patients (see MANIC DEPRESSION), preventing both the manic and the depressive episodes. There is also evidence that it lessens aggression in prisoners who behave antisocially and in patients with learning di?culties who mutilate themselves and have temper tantrums.

Because of its possible toxic e?ects – including kidney damage – lithium must only be administered under medical supervision and with monitoring of the blood levels, as the gap between therapeutic and toxic concentrations is narrow. Due to the risk of its damaging the unborn child, it should not be prescribed, unless absolutely necessary, during pregnancy – particularly not in the ?rst three months. Mothers should not take it while breast feeding, as it is excreted in the milk in high concentrations. The drug should not be taken with DIURETICS.... Medical Dictionary

LONG-TERM CARE (LTC) / LONG-TERM AGED CARE

Community Health

A range of health care, personal care and social services provided to individuals who, due to frailty or level of physical or intellectual disability, are no longer able to live independently. Services may be for varying periods of time and may be provided in a person’s home, in the community or in residential facilities (e.g. nursing homes or assisted living facilities). These people have relatively stable medical conditions and are unlikely to greatly improve their level of functioning through medical intervention.... Community Health

LONG-TERM CARE FACILITY

Community Health

See “high dependency care facility”.... Community Health

LONG-TERM CARE INSURANCE

Community Health

Insurance policies which pay for long-term care services (such as nursing home and home care) that are generally not covered by other health insurance.... Community Health

LYTOCARPUS PHILIPPINUS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Commonly known as fireweed, Lytocarpus is a stinging hydroid (hydrozoan) that grows on pilings, rocks and overhangs in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Skin contact causes an itchy vesicular rash.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

MACARIA

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) One who is blessed Macarisa, Macarria, Maccaria, Makaria, Makarria, Macarea, Macareah... Medical Dictionary

MANAGED CARE

Community Health

A health care delivery system which entails interventions to control the price, volume, delivery site and intensity of health services provided, the goal of which is to maximize the value of health benefits and the coordination of health care management for a covered population.... Community Health

MANAGED CARE PLAN

Community Health

A health plan that uses managed care arrangements and has a defined system of selected providers who contract with the plan. Those enrolled have a financial incentive to use participating providers who agree to furnish a broad range of services to them. Providers may be paid on a pre-negotiated basis.... Community Health

MANAGED HEALTH CARE

Medical Dictionary

This process aims to reduce the costs of health care while maintaining its quality. The concept originated in the United States but has attracted interest in the United Kingdom and Europe, where the spiralling costs of health care have been causing widespread concern. Managed care works through changing clinical practice, but it is not a discrete entity: the American I. J. Iglehart has de?ned it as ‘a variety of methods of ?nancing and organising the delivery of comprehensive health care in which an attempt is made to control costs by controlling the provision of services’. Managed care has three facets: health policy; how that policy is managed; and how individuals needing health care are dealt with. The process and its applications are still evolving and it is likely that di?erent health-care systems will adapt it to suit their own particular circumstances.... Medical Dictionary

MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native of Europe; grown in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

English: German Chamomile, Chamomile. German chamomile flower is equated with Matricaria recutita L. (synonym Chamomilla recutita L.) and Roman Chamomile flower with Anthemis nobilis L. (synonym Chamamaelum nobilis L.)

Unani: Baabunaa.

Action: Sedative, anticonvulsant, carminative, antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. See also Anthemis nobilis.

Key application (German Chamomile) ? In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal spasm. Externally, in skin, mucous membrane and ano-genital inflammation and bacterial skin diseases. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Compendium.) As anti-inflammatory and anti- spasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The flowers of German chamomile gave volatile oil up to about 2%, containing alpha-bisabolol up to 50%, azu- lenes including chamazulene, guiazu- line and matricine; flavonoids including apigenin and luteolin and their glycosides, patuletin and quercetin; spiroethers; coumarins; polysaccha- rides.

The flowers are used as herbal tea for cough and cold and for promoting the flow of gastric secretion and bile. In chamomlile extracts, chamazulene has been found responsible for anti- inflammatory activity. Matricine and (-)-alpha-bisabolol also show anti- inflammatory and analgesic activity. Bisabolol exhibits ulceroprotective effect. Natural (-)-alpha-bisabolol has been shown to be significantly effective in healing burns; (-)-alpha-bisabolol, spiroethers and apigenin exhibit spasmolytic effect comparable with that of papaverine.

The polysaccharides are immunos- timulating and activate macrophages and B lymphocytes; play an important role in wound healing.

Crude aqueous extract of the plant has been reported to significantly delay the onset of convulsions and reduce mortality rate produced by picrotoxin experimentally.... Indian Medicinal Plants

MEDICARE

Medical Dictionary

A health insurance scheme in the United States, managed by the federal government, that provides cover for Americans over the age of 65 who have certain disabilities.... Medical Dictionary

METACARPAL BONES

Medical Dictionary

The ?ve long bones which occupy the HAND between the carpal bones at the wrist and the phalanges of the ?ngers. The large rounded ‘knuckles’ at the root of the ?ngers are formed by the heads of these bones.... Medical Dictionary

MISCARRIAGE

Medical Dictionary

See ABORTION.... Medical Dictionary

MORETON BAY CARYBDEID

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A morbakka that is often caught in the Moreton Bay area, just north of Brisbane, Queensland. See also Fire jelly.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

MUCOPOLYSACCARIDHOSIS

Medical Dictionary

A collection of familial metabolic disorders, the best known of which is Hurler’s syndrome (see GARGOYLISM). Others include Hunter’s, Maroteaux-Lamy and Scheie’s syndromes. The disorders, which result from a faulty gene-producing abnormality in a speci?c ENZYME, a?ect one child in 10,000. Those a?ected usually die before reaching adulthood.... Medical Dictionary

MUSCARINE

Medical Dictionary

The poisonous principle found in some toadstools (see FUNGUS POISONING). It is a cholinergic substance with pharmacological properties resembling those of ACETYLCHOLINE, a chemical neurotransmitter released at the junctions (synapses) of parasympathetic nerves and at the junctions where nerves enter muscles.... Medical Dictionary

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

Medical Dictionary

See HEART, DISEASES OF – Coronary thrombosis.... Medical Dictionary

MYOCARDITIS

Medical Dictionary

In?ammation of the muscular wall of the HEART.... Medical Dictionary

MYOCARDIUM

Medical Dictionary

The middle, muscular layer of the heart.... Medical Dictionary

MYOCARDIUM

Herbal Medical

Myocardium is the muscular substance of the HEART. (See also MUSCLE.)... Herbal Medical

NATIONAL CARE STANDARDS COMMISSION

Medical Dictionary

This was set up under the CARE STANDARDS ACT 2000 as an independent regulator in respect of homes for the elderly, the disabled and children in the state and private sectors in the UK.... Medical Dictionary

NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE

Medical Dictionary

The provision of a dedicated unit with special facilities, including one-to-one nursing and appropriate technology, for caring for premature and seriously ill newborn babies. Paediatricians and neonatologists are involved in the running of such units. Not every maternity unit can provide intensive care: for example, the provision of arti?cial ventilation, other than as a holding procedure until a baby can be transferred to a better-equipped and better-serviced unit. Such hospitals tend to have special-care baby units, which are capable of looking after the needs of most, but not all, premature or ill babies.... Medical Dictionary

OCHROCARPUS LONGIFOLIUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Bentb. & Hook. f.

Synonym: Mammea longifolia Planch. & Triana.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western India from Khandala southwards to Malabar and Coim- batore.

Ayurvedic: Surapunnaaga (Naa- gakeshara is equated with Mesua ferrea.)

Siddha/Tamil: Nagappu, Nagesarpu.

Folk: Laal-Naagakeshar. Surangi (Maharashtra).

Action: Flowerbuds—cooling, stomachic, analgesic, antibacterial; used for gastritis, haemorrhoids, blood diseases, leprosy, leucoder- ma.

Flower buds are popularly known as Naagakeshar.

Flowers exhibited potent hypoten- sive, anti-inflammatory and antispas- modic activity attributed to vitexin.

Leaves gave amentoflavone, querce- tin and vitexin as major constituents.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PALLIATIVE CARE

Community Health

The active total care offered to a person and that person’s family when it is recognized that the illness is no longer curable, in order to concentrate on the person’s quality of life and the alleviation of distressing symptoms. The focus of palliative care is neither to hasten nor postpone death. It provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms and integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of care. It offers a support system to help relatives and friends cope during an individual’s illness and with their bereavement.... Community Health

PALLIATIVE CARE

Medical Dictionary

This is de?ned as comprehensive care of patients and families facing terminal illness. The care focuses primarily on comfort and support. Such care includes:

careful control of symptoms, especially PAIN.

psychosocial and spiritual care.

a personalised management plan centred on the patient’s needs and wishes.

care that takes into account the family’s needs and that is carried into the bereavement period.

provision of coordinated services in the home, hospital, day-care centre and other facilities used by the patient. Palliative care should include: managing

chronic cancer pain with planned use of common ANALGESICS including opioids (see SYRINGE DRIVERS); planning ahead to preserve as far as possible the patient’s autonomy and choice as death approaches and the ability to make decisions may decline; and an understanding and use of arti?cial feeding and hydration. Palliative care seeks to improve the satisfaction of both patient and family, to identify their needs and, if possible, to reduce the overall cost because the patient can often be looked after at home or in a HOSPICE instead of in hospital.

A well-publicised question that may arise in the context of palliative care is physician-assisted suicide. This subject is referred to in the entry on ETHICS. A request by a patient for accelerated death may suggest that he or she is depressed – a treatable condition – or that the palliative care is inadequate and needs reviewing and, if possible, improving.... Medical Dictionary

PANCARDITIS

Medical Dictionary

In?ammation of the pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium at the same time (see HEART – Structure).... Medical Dictionary

PASSIFLORA INCARNATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Passifloraceae.

Habitat: Native of South-east America; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Wild Passion Flower, Maypop.

Action: Flowering and fruiting dried herb—mild sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer, hypotensive, vasodilator, antispasmodic, anodyne, anti-inflammatory,

Key application: In nervous restlessness, irritability and difficulty in falling asleep. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Compendium, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, WHO.) The British Herbal Compendium also indicated it in neuralgia, dysmenorrhoea, and nervous tachycardia.

The herb contains flavonoids (up to 2.5%), in particular C-glycosylflavones; cyanogenic glycoside, gynocardine.

The alkaloid harman has been isolated, but the presence of harmine, har- maline, harmol and harmalol has been disputed. The alkaloid and flavonoids are reported to have sedative activity in animals. Apigenin exhibits antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity.

Passion Flower was formerly approved as an OTC sedative in the USA, but it was taken off the market in 1978 because safety and effectiveness had not been proven. An animal study in 1977 suggested that apigenin binds to central benzodi-zepine receptors (possibly causing anxiolytic effects). (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The drug is used in homoeopathic medicine for epilepsy.

The herb exhibits a motility-inhi- biting effect in animal experiments.

Passion Flower, used as an adjunct to clonidine, was superior to clonidine for mental symptoms of opiate withdrawal. (Sharon M. Herr.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PATIENT CARE PLANNING

Community Health

See “care plan”.... Community Health

PATIENT-CENTRED CARE

Community Health

An approach to care that consciously adopts a patient’s perspective. This perspective can be characterized around dimensions such as respect for patients’ values, preferences and expressed needs; coordination and integration of care; information, communication and education; physical comfort, emotional support and alleviation of fear and anxiety; involvement of family and friends; or transition and continuity.... Community Health

PELTOPHORUM PTEROCARPUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Backer ex K. Heyne.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Coastal forests of the Andaman Islands.

English: Copper Pod, Rusty Shield-Bearer.

Siddha/Tamil: Ivalvagai, Perun- gondrai.

Action: Bark—used for dysentery; also used as a constituent of gargles, tooth-powders and lotions for sores and muscular pains.

The bark contains 20.8% of a catechol type of tannin and 9.5% non-tans. The wood and leaves also contain tannin.

The pods contain bergenin which exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and is found to be equipotent to phenylbutazone.

Aqueous extract of leaves and etha- nolic extract of flower exhibit antifun- gal activity.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Gujarat and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Kaakanaasaa, Kaakanaasikaa, Kaakaangi, Kaak- tundphalaa, Shringiritti.

Siddha/Tamil: Uppilankodi.

Folk: Singarauti (Gujarat). Amarvel.

Action: Plant—antifungal, antiseptic, keratolytic; used in various skin conditions.

The plant gave n-octacosanol, alpha- amyrin, friedelin, beta-sitosterol. An appreciable amount of salicyclic acid has been isolated from the plant. The plant also yields a cardiac glycoside.

Dosage: Plant—50-100 ml. decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PERICARDITIS

Medical Dictionary

Acute or chronic in?ammation of the PERICARDIUM, the membranous sac that surrounds the HEART. It may occur on its own or as part of PANCARDITIS, when in?ammation also a?ects the MYOCARDIUM and ENDOCARDIUM (membranous lining of the inside of the heart). Various causes include virus infection, cancer and URAEMIA. (See also HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

PERICARDIUM

Medical Dictionary

The smooth membrane that surrounds the HEART.... Medical Dictionary

PERSONAL CARE

Community Health

Assistance with those functions and activities normally associated with body hygiene, nutrition, elimination, rest and ambulation, which enables an individual to live at home or in the community.... Community Health

PERSONAL CARE PLAN

Community Health

See “care plan”.... Community Health

PHONOCARDIOGRAPH

Medical Dictionary

An instrument for the graphic recording of heart sounds and murmurs.... Medical Dictionary

PILOCARPINE

Medical Dictionary

A plant alkaloid and the primary bioactive substance reducible from Pilocarpus spp. (Jaborandi leaves). It is an almost pure parasympathomimetic (cholinergic), inducing lowered blood pressure and stimulating glandular secretions...EVERYWHERE. It stimulates sweating as well, a sympathetic cholinergic response. Anyway, it is used in eye drops these days to contract the pupil, lower ocular fluid pressure and take some of the stress off glaucoma. The refined alkaloid is better in the eyes, but the dried leaves are the usual complex agents of herb use and have some therapeutic values in low doses. Good Lobelia or Asclepias will work similarly and are both safer, fresher and more predictable as botanicals.... Medical Dictionary

PILOCARPINE

Herbal Medical

An alkaloid (see ALKALOIDS) derived from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (jaborandi). It produces the same e?ects as stimulation of the PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: i.e. it has exactly the opposite e?ect to ATROPINE, but cannot be used in the treatment of atropine poisoning as it does not antagonise the action of poisonous doses of atropine on the brain. Its main use today is in the form of eye drops to decrease the pressure inside the eyeball in GLAUCOMA.... Herbal Medical

PILOCARPUS MICROPHYLLUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Stapf.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated in Indian gardens.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated in Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Assam and Orissa.

English: Anise, Aniseed.

Unani: Anisoon, Baadiyaan-roomi.

Action: Carminative, diuretic, anticholerin, antispasmodic, expectorant. Used for flatulence, dry coughs, whooping cough, bronchitis.

Key application: Internally in dyspeptic complaints; internally and externally in catarrhs of the respiratory tract. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The fruit gave volatile oil consisting mainly of trans-anethole (70-90%), with estragole, anise ketone, anisic acid, beta-caryophyllene, anisaldehyde, linalool. The fruit contained traces of furocoumarins; seeds gave benzoic acid, caffeic acid, containing protein and myristicin. Roots afforded sterols, coumarins and flavone glyco- sides. Aniseed has been demonstrated to increase the mucociliary transport in vitro and to significantly increase liver-regeneration in rats.

Aniseed is also used as a galacta- gogue. This property is thought due to the presence of polymers of anethole, dianethole and photoanethole.

Aqueous extract of roasted aniseed is reported to show cholinomimetic effect on rat blood pressure, rat jejunum and frog rectus abdominis preparations.

Alcoholic extract of aniseeds possesses antimicrobial and fungicidal activity.

Anethole has a structure similar to catecholamines including adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine and to the hallucinogenic compound myris- ticin as well. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PIMPERNEL, SCARLET

Herbal Manual

Anagallis arvensis. N.O. Primulaceae.

Synonym: Poor Man's Weatherglass, Shepherd's Barometer (these names because the flowers close some hours before rain). Red Pimpernel.

Habitat: Cornfields, waste places and in gardens.

Features ? Stem square, weak, much branched, trailing with tendency to ascend, between six inches and one foot long. Leaves small, opposite, ovoid, sessile, entire at edges, black dots underneath. Flowers scarlet, corolla rotate, on long, slender, axillary stalk.

Part used ? Leaves.

Action: Diuretic, hepatic, diaphoretic.

The properties of this herb, although very active, are not yet fully known, and care should be exercised in using it. It has been successful in the treatment of liver irregularities, forms of rheumatism and dropsy. The pulverised leaves are administered in doses of from 15 to 60 grains.... Herbal Manual

PLAN OF CARE

Community Health

See “care plan”.... Community Health

PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A fungus, formally believed to be a protozoan, which may cause an atypical pneumonia in severely malnourished or immunologically compromised patients, e.g. AIDS patients.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

POLYCARPAEA CORYMBOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Lam.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, ascending up to 2,100 m in the Himalaya.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute).

Siddha/Tamil: Nilaisedachi.

Folk: Pittapaaparaa (Uttar Pradesh), Rupaaphuli (Gujarat).

Action: Leaves—anti-inflammatory, applied as poultice. Also prescribed in jaundice in the form of pills with molasses. Flowering head, along with stem and leaves—astringent, demulcent. Plant—spermicidal.

The plant gave camelliagenins (bar- rigenol) and stigmasterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

POLYCARPON PROSTRATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Forsk.) Alschers & Schweinf.

Synonym: P. loeflingii Benth. & Hook. f.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India in fields and waste places.

Folk: Ghima, Suretaa.

Action: Leaves—an infusion of roasted leaves is given for cough following fever, particularly in measles.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits spasmolytic activity. The aerial parts contain tetrahydroxy triterpenes. Presence ofa triterpenoid saponin, and hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, beta- amyrin and its acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported.... Indian Medicinal Plants

POST-ACUTE CARE

Community Health

See “transitional care”.... Community Health

PREVENTIVE CARE

Community Health

Care that has the aim of preventing disease or its consequences. It includes health care programmes aimed at warding off illnesses, early detection of disease, and inhibiting further deterioration of the body.... Community Health

PRIMARY CARE

Community Health

Basic or general health care focused on the point at which a patient ideally first seeks assistance from the medical care system. It is the basis for referrals to secondary and tertiary level care.... Community Health

PRIMARY CARE

Community Health

See “care”.... Community Health

PRIMARY CARE TRUST

Medical Dictionary

See GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP)... Medical Dictionary

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

Medical Dictionary

Sometimes called primary medical care, this is the care provided by a GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP) – traditionally entitled the family doctor – or other health professionals who have ?rst contact with a patient needing or wanting medical attention. In the NHS, the primary health-care services include those provided by the general, dental, ophthalmic and pharmaceutical services as well as the family doctor service. Community health services provided outside the hospitals also o?er some primary health care.... Medical Dictionary

PRIVATE HEALTH CARE

Medical Dictionary

The provision of medical and dental care to patients who pay for the care either directly, through private medical insurance, or through employer-funded private insurance. In the UK, most patients are treated and cared for by the community- or hospital-based NHS. Although not forbidden to do so, few NHS general practitioners see private patients. NHS consultants are – within certain prescribed circumstances – allowed to treat private patients and many, especially surgeons, do so; but consultations and treatment are usually done on private-health premises. Some NHS hospitals have private facilities attached, but most private care is carried out in separate, privately run clinics and hospitals.

Certain specialties – for example, orthopaedic and reconstructive/cosmetic surgery and mental health – attract more private patients than others, such as paediatrics or medicine for the elderly. The standards of clinical care are generally the same in the two systems, but private patients can see the specialist of their choice at a time convenient to them. Waiting times for consultations and treatment are short and, when in hospital, private patients usually have their own room, telephone, TV, open visiting hours, etc.

A substantial proportion of private medical-care services are those provided for elderly people requiring regular nursing care and some medical supervision. The distinction between residential care and nursing care for the elderly is often blurred, but the government policy of providing means-tested state funding only for people genuinely needing regular nursing care – a system operated by local-authority social-service departments in England and Wales – has necessitated clearer de?nitions of the facilities provided for the elderly by private organisations. The strict criteria for state support (especially in England), the budget-conscious approach of local authorities when negotiating fees with private nursing homes, and the fact that NHS hospital trusts also have to pay for some patients discharged to such homes (to free-up hospital beds for new admissions) have led to intense ?nancial pressures on private facilities for the elderly. This has caused the closure of many homes, which, in turn, is worsening the level of BED-BLOCKING by elderly patients who do not require hospital-intensity nursing but who lack family support in the community and cannot a?ord private care.... Medical Dictionary

PROCARBAZINE

Medical Dictionary

An antineoplastic drug used mainly to treat Hodgkin’s disease (see under LYMPHOMA). It acts by interfering with the process of MITOSIS, the method by which the cells of the body, including tumours, reproduce themselves.... Medical Dictionary

PTEROCARPUS DALBERGIOIDES

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans, sparingly cultivated in West Bengal.

English: Andaman Padauk, Andaman Redwood.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-chandana (var.).

Siddha: Vengai (Tamil), Yerravegisa (Telugu).

Folk: Chalangada (Andamans). Action: See Pterocarpus santalinus.

The wood contains a red pigment santalin and a yellow flavonoid santal, both of which also occur in Pterocarpus santalinus. The bark and the heartwood contain pterostilbene. The heartwood yields pterocarpin, liquirit- igenin and isoliquiritigenin. The sapwood gave homopterocarpin additionally.

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. non-Baker, Malay Padauk, is also known as Vengai in Tamil and Yerravegisa in Telugu. A decoction of the wood is given in dropsy and for stone in the bladder. The bark-kino is used as an application for sores and a decoction of the bark or kino is used for diarrhoea.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the tropical zones of India in the hilly regions.

English: Indian Kino tree, Malabar Kino tree.

Ayurvedic: Asana, Bijaka, Priyaka, Pitashaala.

Unani: Bijaysaar.

Siddha/Tamil: Vengai.

Action: Bark-kino—astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal. Flowers—febrifuge. Leaves—used externally for skin diseases.

Key application: Heartwood— in anaemia, worm infestation, skin diseases, urinary disorders, lipid disorders and obesity. Stem bark—in diabetes. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The heartwood and roots contain isoflavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Tannins include the hypoglycaemic principle (-)-epicatechin. Stilbenes, such as pterostilbene; flavonoids, including liquiritigenin, isoliquiritige- nin, 7-hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihy- droxyflavanone, 5-deoxykaempferol and pterosupin; a benzofuranone mar- supsin and propterol, p-hydroxy-ben- zaldehyde are active principles of therapeutic importance.

The gum-kino from the bark provides a non-glucosidal tannin, Kino tannic acid (25-80%).

The (-)-epi-catechin increases the cAMP content of the islets which is associated with the increased insulin release, conversion of proinsulin to insulin and cathepsin B activity.

Oral administration of ethylacetate extract of the heartwood and its fla- vonoid constituents, marsupin, ptero- supin and liquiritigenin, for 14 consecutive days to rats exhibited a significant reduction of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels, but it did not exert any significant effect on HDL- cholesterol.

The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the heartwood exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and some strains of fungi.

Kino is powerfully astringent. The therapeutic value of kino is due to Kino tannic acid.

Dosage: Heartwood—50-100 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I); stem bark—32-50 g for decoction (API, Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants

PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Found in Cuddaph district of Andhra Pradesh, neighbouring areas of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

English: Red Sandalwood, Red Sanders.

Ayurvedic: Raktachandana, Raktasaara.

Unani: Sandal Surkh.

Siddha/Tamil: Shivappu chandanam.

Folk: Laal-chandan.

Action: Heartwood—antibilious, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge.

A paste of wood is used externally for inflammations and headache. Fruit—antidysenteric

The heartwood contains terpeno- ids—eudesmol, iso-pterocarpolone, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol, ptero- carptriol and pterocarpdiolone; pigments santalins A and B. The bark contains triterp enoids—b eta- ampyrone, lupenone and lupeol derivatives. The sapwood gave acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, acetyl oleanolic acid and ery- throdiol.

An ethanolic extract (95%) of the wood powder was found effective in lowering blood sugar levels in fasting, fed, glucose-loaded and streptozotocin diabetic models in rats.

A cream prepared from the metha- nolic extract of the heartwood of Red Sandalwood and rhizomes of Curcuma longa showed 95.46% inhibition of oedema in combination (Curcuma lon- ga and red sandalwood showed 65.62 and 64.14% inhibition respectively, when used individually).

A decoction of the heartwood produced potentiation of pentobarbitone- induced hypnosis in albino mice; blocked conditioned avoidance response in rats and showed anticonvul- sant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Dosage: Heartwood—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

PULICARIA DYSENTERICA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Bernh.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Kashmir at 1,500-1,800 m.

Action: Plant—astringent, diuretic. Root—antidiarrhoeal. Leaf— antiasthmatic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

QUALITY OF CARE

Community Health

The degree to which delivered health services meet established professional standards and are judged to be of value to the consumer. Quality may also be seen as the degree to which actions taken or not taken maximize the probability of beneficial health outcomes and minimize risk and other outcomes, given the existing state of medical science and art.... Community Health

RADERMACHERA XYLOCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Roxb.) K. Schum.

Synonym: Bignonia xylocarpa Roxb. Stereospermum xylocarpum (Roxb.) Wt.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.

English: Padri tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Vedanguruni, Pathiri.

Folk: Paadiri. Kharsing, Kadashing, Bairsinge (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—antiseptic. Resin— used for the treatment of skin diseases. Rootbark—bitter, astringent; used as substitute for Stereospermumpersonatum (Hassk.) D. Chatterjee and S. suaveolens DC. (Trumpet-Flower, Yellow Snake tree, also known as Padri).

The leaves gave flavonoids, dinatin and its glycoside. Roots yielded O- acetyl oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and a red pigment, radermachol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

Medical Dictionary

See HYPERNEPHROMA.... Medical Dictionary

RESIDENTIAL AGED CARE FACILITY

Community Health

See “residential care”; “assisted living facility”.... Community Health

RESIDENTIAL CARE

Community Health

Provides accommodation and other care, such as domestic services (laundry, cleaning), help with performing daily tasks (moving around, dressing, personal hygiene, eating) and medical care (various levels of nursing care and therapy services). Residential care is for older people with physical, medical, psychological or social care needs which cannot be met in the community.... Community Health

RESIDENTIAL CARE SERVICES

Community Health

Accommodation and support for people who can no longer live at home.... Community Health

RESPITE CARE

Community Health

Services provided in the home, at a day care centre or by temporary placement in a nursing home or residential home to functionally disabled or frail individuals to provide occasional or systematic relief to informal caregivers.... Community Health

RESTORATIVE CARE

Community Health

Services provided to older people on a short-term basis to restore their physical condition to a level which would allow them to return home with appropriate support. See “rehabilitation”.... Community Health

RICARDA

Medical Dictionary

(German) Feminine form of Richard; a brave and strong ruler Richanda, Richarda, Richardella, Richardene, Richardette, Richardina, Richardyne, Richenda, Richenza, Richette, Richia, Richilene, Richina, Richmal, Richmalle, Ricadonna, Ricadona... Medical Dictionary

RUMEX VESICARIUS

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Native to South-west Asia and North Africa; cultivated all over India, especially in Tripura, West Bengal and Bihar.

English: Bladder-Dock, Country Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chukra, Chuko, Chakravarti.

Unani: Hammaaz.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SAPONARIA VACCARIA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India as a weed of cultivated fields of wheat and barley. Also cultivated in gardens for ornament.

Folk: Musna, Saabuni.

Action: See S. officinalis. The mucilaginous sap of the plant is febrifugal and used in chronic fevers. It is a mild depurative and used in the treatment of furuncles and scabies.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SCAR

Medical Dictionary

The name applied to a healed wound, ulcer or breach of tissue. A scar consists essentially of ?brous tissue, covered by an imperfect formation of epidermis in the case of scars on the surface of the skin. The ?brous tissue is produced by the connective tissue that migrates to the wound in the course of its repair (see WOUNDS). Gradually this ?brous tissue contracts, becomes more dense, and loses its blood vessels, leaving a hard white scar. (See also KELOID.)... Medical Dictionary

SCARLET

Medical Dictionary

(English) Vibrant red color; a vivacious woman

Scarlett, Scarlette, Skarlet, Skarlette, Skarlett... Medical Dictionary

SCARLET FEVER

Medical Dictionary

This disorder is caused by the erythrogenic toxin of the STREPTOCOCCUS. The symptoms of PYREXIA, headache, vomiting and a punctate erythematous rash (see ERYTHEMA) follow a streptococcal infection of the throat or even a wound. The rash is symmetrical and does not itch. The skin subsequently peels.

Symptoms The period of incubation (i.e. the time elapsing between the reception of infection and the development of symptoms) varies somewhat. In most cases it lasts only two to three days, but in occasional cases the patient may take a week to develop his or her ?rst symptoms. The occurrence of fever is usually short and sharp, with rapid rise of temperature to 40 °C (104 °F), shivering, vomiting, headache, sore throat and marked increase in the rate of the pulse. In young children, CONVULSIONS or DELIRIUM may precede the fever. The rash usually appears within 24 hours of the onset of fever and lasts about a week.

Complications The most common and serious of these is glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), which may arise during any period in the course of the fever, but particularly when DESQUAMATION occurs. Occasionally the patient develops chronic glomerulonephritis. Another complication is infection of the middle ear (otitis media – see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Other disorders a?ecting the heart and lungs occasionally arise in connection with scarlet fever, the chief of these being ENDOCARDITIS, which may lay the foundation of valvular disease of the heart later in life. ARTHRITIS may produce swelling and pain in the smaller rather than in the larger joints; this complication usually occurs in the second week of illness. Scarlet fever, which is now a mild disease in most patients, should be treated with PENICILLIN.... Medical Dictionary

SCHWEINFURTHIA SPHAEROCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

A. Br.

Synonym: S. papilionacea (Burm. f.) Boiss.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: The arid regions of Gujarat and in Rajasthan.

Ayurvedic: Nepaal-Nimba.

Folk: Saannipaat (Maharashtra).

Action: Broken pieces of dried fruits, stems and leaves—used in enteric fever. Leaf—antidiabetic. Fruit, leaf, stem—diuretic.

An alkaloid, schweinfurthin, a hydrocarbon and an unsaturated ketone were reported from the leaves. Recently, two macrocylic alkaloids, 11- epi-ephedradine and schweinine, have been isolated from the whole plant, along with (-)-ephedradine A. Experimentally, 11-epi-ephedradine A was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium.... Indian Medicinal Plants

SECONDARY CARE

Community Health

Specialist care provided on an ambulatory or inpatient basis, usually following a referral from primary care.... Community Health

SECONDARY CARE

Community Health

See “care”.... Community Health

SELF CARE

Community Health

Health activities, including promotion, maintenance, treatment, care and health related decision-making, carried out by individuals and families.... Community Health

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. f.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Assam, Khasi Hills, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.

English: Marking-Nut.

Ayurvedic: Bhallaataka, Bhallata, Arushkara, Agnik, Agnimukha, Sophkrit, Viravrksha.

Unani: Balaadur, Bhilaayan, Bhilaavaan.

Siddha/Tamil: Shenkottei, Erimugi. (Kattu shen-kottai is equated with S. travancorica Bedd., found in evergreen forests of Tinnevelly and Travancore.)

Folk: Bhilaavaa.

Action: Toxic drug, used only after curing. Fruit—caustic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antitumour. Used in rheumatoid arthritis and for the treatment of tumours and malignant growths.

A decoction, mixed with milk or butter fat, is prescribed in asthma, neuralgia, sciatica, gout, hemiplegia, epilepsy. Kernel oil—antiseptic; used externally in gout, leucoderma, psoriasis and leprosy. Bark gum—used for nervous debility; in leprous, scrofulous and venereal affections.

Bigger var. is equated with S. kurzii Engler.

The nut shells contain biflavonoids, including tetrahydrobustaflavone, tet- rahydroamentoflavone and anacardu- flavanone; nallaflavone; anacardic acid; aromatic amines and bhilawanol. Bhi- lawanol is a mixture of phenolic compounds, including cis and trans isomers of urushenol (3-pentadecenyl-8' catechol), monohydroxy phenol and semicarpol. These are the major constituents of the shell liquid, isolated from the nuts (about 46% of the weight of extract).

A mixture of closely related pentade- cyl catechols exhibits anticancer activity. Extracts of the fruit was found effective against human epidermoid carcinoma of the naso-pharynx in tissue culture.

Milk extract of the nut showed anti-inflammatory activity against car- rageenin, 5-HT and formaldehyde- induced rat paw oedema in acute anti- inflammatory studies. (About 20% animals developed gangrene of limbs, tail and ears.)

Dosage: Detoxified fruit—1-2 g in milk confection. (API, Vol. II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

SEMILUNAR CARTILAGES

Medical Dictionary

Two crescentic layers of ?bro-cartilage on the outer and inner edges of the knee-joint, which form hollows on the upper surface of the tibia in which the condyles at the lower end of the femur rest. The inner cartilage is especially liable to be displaced by a sudden and violent movement at the KNEE.... Medical Dictionary

SHORT-TERM AGED CARE

Community Health

Involves care designed to improve the physical wellbeing and restore the health of older people to an optimum level following a serious illness.... Community Health

SINUS TACHYCARDIA

Medical Dictionary

A regular heart rate of 100 or more beats a minute, caused by increased electrical activity in the SINOATRIAL NODE (see also HEART). This level of tachycardia is normal during and just after exercise, and may also be caused by stress or anxiety. If tachycardia persists when the person is resting, it may be due to underlying disease such as thyrotoxicosis (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF) and investigation is advisable.... Medical Dictionary

SKILLED CARE

Community Health

“Higher level” of care (such as injections, catheterization and dressing changes) provided by trained health professionals, including nurses, doctors and therapists.... Community Health

SKILLED NURSING CARE

Community Health

Daily nursing and rehabilitative care that can only be performed by, or under the supervision of, skilled nursing personnel.... Community Health

SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA

Medical Dictionary

See OAT CELL.... Medical Dictionary

SOCIAL CARE SERVICE

Community Health

Assistance with the activities of daily life (personal care, domestic maintenance, self-direction) delivered by a personal care helper, home helper or social worker and aimed at supporting older people who experience disabilities in functioning.... Community Health

SOCIAL NETWORK CARE

Community Health

See “informal care”.... Community Health

SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

S. & W.

Synonym: S. surattense Burm.f. S. virginianum Linn. S. maccanni Sant.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Wild Eggplant, Yellow- Berried Nightshade.

Ayurvedic: Kantakaari, Kan- takaarikaa, Vyaaghri, Nidigdhikaa, Nidigdhaa, Duhsparshaa, Dhaa- vani, Kshudraa, Keteri (Smallar var.), Bhatakataiyaa. Used as Lakshmanaa.

Unani: Kataai Khurd, Hadaq.

Action: Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, laxative, febrifuge. Used in the treatment of cough, bronchitis, asthma, for dislodging tenacious phlegm; also used against rheumatism, enlargement of liver and spleen, vomiting, difficult urination, bladder stones, skin diseases. Fruit—used as an adjuvant for promoting conception.

Fruits gave solasonine, solamargine, beta-solamargine and solasodine; petals yielded apigenin; stamens gave quercetin diglycoside and sitosterol. The glycoalkaloid content of fruits collected from Jammu and Kashmir is reported to be 3.5% (total alkaloids, 1.1%). The presence of diosgenin in the plant has been reported.

Both glycoalkaloid and fatty acid fractions of the plants extracts cause liberation of histamine from chopped lung tissue. The beneficial effect of the drug on bronchial asthma may be attributed to the depletion of histamine from bronchial and lung tissue.

Dosage: Whole plant—20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

SPECIAL CARE UNIT

Community Health

A long-term care facility unit with services specifically for persons with particular diseases, disorders or injuries.... Community Health

SPECIALIZED NURSING CARE NEEDS

Community Health

Nursing care needs that require the advanced and specialized clinical skills and knowledge of a registered nurse.... Community Health

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium of skin, which generally spreads and metastasises.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

STAKEHOLDERS (IN AGED CARE)

Community Health

People or groups who have an involvement or interest in the aged care system, including beneficiaries, providers and funders.... Community Health

STATE MEDICINE (HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS)

Community Health

Major government schemes to ensure adequate health services to substantial sectors of the community through direct provision of services.... Community Health

SUB-ACUTE CARE

Community Health

Sub-acute care is a bridge between acute care and home care. It is medical and skilled nursing services provided to persons who are not in the acute phase of an illness but who require a level of care higher than that provided in a long-term care setting.... Community Health

SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

Medical Dictionary

An unusually fast but regular beating of the HEART occurring for periods that may last several hours or days. In most people with this abnormality the heart rate is between 140 and 180 beats a minute; rarely, the rate may rise as high as 250–300 beats. The condition occurs when abnormal electrical impulses that arise in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart override the normal control centre – the sinoatrial node – for the heartbeat. Symptoms usually include breathlessness, palpitations, pain in the chest and fainting. An ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) is taken to help make the diagnosis. An acute episode can sometimes be stopped by VALSAVA’S MANOEUVRE or by drinking cold water. Anti-arrhythmic drugs (see ARRHYTHMIA) such as adenosine and digoxin are used to treat recurrent attacks. Occasionally, a severe attack may need to be treated with an electric shock to the heart: this is known as DEFIBRILLATION.... Medical Dictionary

TACHYCARDIA

Herbal Medical

Abnormally fast heartbeat.... Herbal Medical

TACHYCARDIA

Medical Dictionary

Excessively above normal rate of heat beat.... Medical Dictionary

TACHYCARDIA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

A rise in the heart rate above the normal range at rest – 60–100 beats a minute – sometimes accompanied by irregularities in rhythm (ARRHYTHMIA). Sinus tachycardia may occur with exercise or emotional excitement, but it may be the result of a feverish illness. (See also HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

TERMINAL CARE

Community Health

Medical and nursing care of persons in the terminal stage of an illness. See also “palliative care”.... Community Health

TERMINALIA MYRIOCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Heurck & Muell.-Arg.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, from North Bengal eastwards to Assam, Khasi Hills and Arunachal Pradesh.

English: Hollock.

Ayurvedic: Kakubha (also a synonym of Arjuna tree).

Action: Bark—cardiac stimulant, mild diuretic.

The bark gave beta-sitosterol, and about 18% tannins. Ellagic, gallic, che- bulinic and chebulagic acids—main constituents of ellagitannins, and leu- co-cyanidin, an important precursor to flavonoid tannins, have been isolated.... Indian Medicinal Plants

TERTIARY CARE

Community Health

The provision of highly specialized services in ambulatory and hospital settings.... Community Health

TERTIARY CARE

Community Health

See “care”.... Community Health

THYROID CARTILAGE

Medical Dictionary

The largest cartilage in the LARYNX and forms the prominence of the Adam’s apple in front of the neck.... Medical Dictionary

TOXOCARIASIS

Medical Dictionary

A disease acquired by swallowing the ova (eggs) of a roundworm which lives in the intestine of cats (Toxocara cati) or dogs (Toxocara canis). In humans, the small larval worms produced by these ova migrate to various parts of the body, including the retina of the EYE, where they then die, producing a small GRANULOMA which in turn may produce allergic reactions. In the eye it may cause choroidretinitis. It is said that 2 per cent of apparently healthy people in Britain have been infected in this way. A course of treatment with thiabendazole is recommended, though the drug has side-e?ects and should be used with caution in the elderly.... Medical Dictionary

TRANSITIONAL CARE

Community Health

A type of short-term care provided by some long-term care facilities and hospitals, which may include rehabilitation services, specialized care for certain conditions (such as stroke and diabetes) and/or post-surgical care and other services associated with the transition between hospital and home.... Community Health

TROCAR

Medical Dictionary

An instrument provided with a sharp three-sided point ?tted inside a tube or cannula, and used for puncturing cavities of the body in which ?uid has collected.... Medical Dictionary

UNCARIA GAMBIER

Indian Medicinal Plants

Roxb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

English: Pale Catechu, Gambier.

Ayurvedic: Khadira (related species).

Folk: Chinai Katthaa.

Action: Intestinal astringent. Uses similar to Black Catechu (Acacia catechu). The extract of the leaves and shoots contains tannins, mainly catechins up to 35% and catechu tannic acid up to 50%; indole alkaloids including gambirine, gambiridine; flavonoids such as quercetin; pigments and gambirfluorescin.

Gambirine is reported to be hypotensive; d-catechu constricts blood vessels. Catechins protect the liver from infection.

A related species, U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for eclampsia, headache, dizziness, convulsions, high fever and hypertension. (WHO.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

URTICARIA

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Itching, inflamed skin caused by an allergic reaction to a drug, food, or substance in the environment; also called hives... Medicinal Plants Glossary

URTICARIA

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Local itching of the skin – often results from an allergic reaction.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

URTICARIA

Medical Dictionary

The rash produced by the sudden release of HISTAMINE in the skin. It is characterised by acute itching, redness and wealing which subsides within a few minutes or may persist for a day or more. Depending upon the cause, it may be localised or widespread and transient or constantly recurrent over years. It has many causes.

External injuries to the skin such as the sting of a nettle (‘nettle-rash’) or an insect bite cause histamine release from MAST CELLS in the skin directly. Certain drugs, especially MORPHINE, CODEINE and ASPIRIN, can have the same e?ect. In other cases, histamine release is caused by an allergic mechanism, mediated by ANTIBODIES of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) class – see IMMUNOGLOBULINS. Thus many foods, food additives and drugs (such as PENICILLIN) can cause urticaria. Massive release of histamine may a?ect mucous membranes – namely the tongue or throat – and can cause HYPOTENSION and anaphylactic shock (see ANAPHYLAXIS) which can occasionally be fatal.

Physical factors can cause urticaria. Heat, exercise and emotional stress may induce a singular pattern with small pinhead weals, but widespread ?ares of ERYTHEMA, activated via the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (CHOLINERGIC urticaria) may also occur.

Rarely, exposure to cold may have a smiilar e?ect (‘cold urticaria’) and anaphylactic shock following a dive into cold water in winter is occasionally fatal. The diagnosis of cold urticaria can be con?rmed by applying a block of ice to the arm which quickly induces a local weal.

Transient urticaria due to rubbing or even stroking the skin is common in young adults (DERMOGRAPHISM or factitious urticaria). More prolonged deep pressure induces delayed urticaria in other subjects. IgE-mediated urticaria is part of the atopic spectrum (see ATOPY, and SKIN, DISEASES OF – Dermatitis and eczema). Allergy to peanuts is particularly dangerous in young atopic subjects. Notwithstanding the many known causes, chronic urticaria of unknown cause is common and may have an autoimmune basis (see AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS).

Treatment Causative factors must be removed. Topical therapy is ine?ective except for the use of calamine lotion, which reduces itching by cooling the skin. Oral ANTIHISTAMINES are the mainstay of treatment and are remarkably safe. Rarely, injection of ADRENALINE is needed as emergency treatment of massive urticaria, especially if the tongue and throat are involved, following by a short course of the oral steroid, prednisolone.

Angio-oedema is a variant of urticaria where massive OEDEMA involves subcutaneous tissues rather than the skin. It may have many causes but bee and wasp stings in sensitised subjects are particularly dangerous. There is also a rare hereditary form of angio-oedema. Acute airway obstruction due to submucosal oedema of the tongue or larynx is best treated with immediate intramuscular adrenaline and antihistamine. Rarely, TRACHEOSTOMY may be life-saving. Patients who have had two or more episodes can be taught self-injection with a preloaded adrenaline syringe.... Medical Dictionary

VACCARIA PYRAMIDATA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(L.) Medik.

Synonym: Saponaria vaccaria L.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a weed.

English: Soapwort, Cow Herb.

Folk: Musna, Saabuni.

Action: Roots—used for cough, asthma and other respiratory disorders; for jaundice, liver and spleen diseases (increases bile flow). Mucilaginous sap—used in scabies.

Saponins of the root showed haemo- lytic activity. Lanostenol, stigmas- terol, beta-sitosterol and diosgenin have been isolated from the plant. Xanthones, vaccaxanthone and sapx- anthone, and a oligosaccharide, vac- carose, have also been isolated.... Indian Medicinal Plants

WIGANDIA CARACASANA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Kunth.

Family: Hydrophyllaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into Indian gardens.

Action: Leaves and branch tips— a decoction is used in rheumatism; also for whooping cough and respiratory problems.

Solvent extracts of the leaves (etha- nol, acetone and M-hexane) were found active against Gram-positive bacteria.

Synonym: W. viridiflora Meissn. W. indica var. virdiflora Hook. f.

Family: Thymelaeaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Assam; as a weed in Tamil Nadu.

English: Small-Leaf Salago.

Folk: Salago.

Action: Root bark—diuretic, vesicant, purgative and piscicidal.

The root bark is reported to contain a flavone glycoside, wikstroemin, which exhibited diuretic activity.

In Chinese folk medicine, the bark is used for schistosomiasis.

The stem contains wikstromol, a lig- nin prototype which exhibited anti- neoplastic activity. Daphnoretin, isolated from the plant, caused platelet aggregation in the blood of rabbits. A polysaccharide, comprising glucose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and xylose, protected mice against radiation and enhanced the formation of macrophages.... Indian Medicinal Plants

WILD CARROT

Herbal Manual

Daucus carota. N.O. Umbelliferae.

Synonym: Bird's Nest.

Habitat: Wastes, pastures and field borders.

Features ? The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. The whole plant is hairy, and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate, with acute segments. Blossoming in June and July, the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. The root tapers, is yellowish-white, sweetish, and faintly aromatic. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot, but the root is small and white, not large." Ferrier, however, says of this root, "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is.

Part used ? The whole plant.

Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action, as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.

Wild Carrot naturally, therefore, takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy, gravel, retention of urine, and bladder trouble generally. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions, and doses of 2 fl. ounces taken three or four times daily.

Culpeper comments ? "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury, and therefore breaketh wind, and removeth stitches in the sides, provoketh urine and women's courses, and helpeth to break and expel the stone."... Herbal Manual

XIPHOID CARTILAGE

Medical Dictionary

See XIPHOID PROCESS.... Medical Dictionary

XYLIA XYLOCARPA

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Roxb.) Taub.

Synonym: X. dolabriformis Benth.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Siddha/Tamil: Irul.

Folk: Jambu, Suriaa.

Action: Bark—anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. Seed oil—an- tirheumatic. Bark and seed oil— antileprotic, used for ulcers and piles. A decoction of the bark powder is given with honey as a vermifuge.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and t-5-hydroxypipecolic acid which was shown to be an inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation.

The bark from South India gave tannin 17.1 and non-tans 11.1%; also contains triterpenes. The leaves contain 2.8% of tannins.

The seed yielded oil with oleic 21.5, linoleic 34.8, behenic 21.3 and ligno- ceric 10.2% fatty acids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Koen.

Synonym: Carapagranatum (Koen.) Alston.

Habitat: Coastal regions of India, especially in Tamil Nadu.

Siddha/Tamil: Somanthiri, Kan- lolanyey.

English: The Puzzle Fruit tree.

Folk: Pussur, Dhundul.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, febrifuge.

The bark and leaves contain friede- lin, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol; te- tranorterpenoids—oxomeliac derivatives. Bark, in addition, contains tri- acontanol. The heartwood contains beta-sitosterol and gedunin. Different parts of the plant contain tannins— fruit pulp 8.57, leaves 7.92, twig bark 14.82, branch bark 20.58, bole bark 23.73, branch wood 4.67 and bole wood 4.94%.

A closely related species X.gange- ticus Prain occurs in West Bengal and the Andamans.... Indian Medicinal Plants