(e.g. HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, and genetic disorders). Insemination is performed at the time of ovulation by introducing the semen into the upper vagina. Semen may be fresh or have been stored frozen in liquid nitrogen. (See ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.)... Medical Dictionary
There are strict regulations about how death should be diagnosed before organs can be removed for transplantation, and potential donors must satisfy the BRAIN-STEM DEATH criteria, performed twice by two doctors who are independent of the transplant team. There is a great shortage of suitable organs for donation – partly because they must be in excellent condition if the operation is to be a success. Some medical conditions or modes of death make people unsuitable as organ donors; this makes it all the more important that people should be encouraged to donate their organs. People who wish to do so can carry a special card indicating their willingness to become donors in the event of their death. These cards can be obtained from various sources, including hospitals, GPs’ surgeries and many public buildings such as libraries. In the UK, informed positive approval from the patient, or relatives, is required.
Information about becoming a blood donor can be obtained by telephoning 0845–7 711
711. Those who wish to bequeath their bodies for dissection purposes should get in touch with HM Inspector of Anatomy. Other would-be organ donors may contact the British Organ Donor Society.... Medical Dictionary
Methadone is valuable as a suppressant for non-productive cough, acting on the medullary ‘cough centre’ in the central nervous system. It is also helpful in weaning addicts o? morphine and heroin, having a slower onset of DEPENDENCE and a less severe withdrawal syndrome. When used for prolonged periods, methadone should not be given more often than twice daily, to avoid the risks of accumulation and opioid overdosage.... Medical Dictionary
Family: Ericaceae.Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Bhutan, extending to Assam.English: Giantblood Rhododendron.Folk: Chimal (Nepal), Kurbak, Guraans.Action: Respiratory depressant, emetic, toxic.The leaves and flowers gave an- dromedotoxin which resembles tertiary amine veratrum alkaloids, particularly protoveratrine, in pharmacological action. Intravenous administration of andromedotoxin to dogs resulted in 20-40% reduction in blood pressure. It also closely resembles protoveratrine in its stimulating effect on the barostatic-pressor-reflex- mechanism, respiratory effects and emetic action. It produces reflex va- sodepressor responses in intact animals; in debuffered dogs, it produced vasopressor responses. It also produced, both direct and indirect, positive ionotropic effects, the latter being more pronounced.The leaves contain ursolic acid, alpha-amyrin, epi-friedelinol, cam- panulin and hyperoside. Chloroform extract of the leaves and shoots showed a depressant action. The honey from flowers is poisonous; contains an- dromedotoxin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Tendon injuries are one of the hazards of sports (see SPORTS MEDICINE). They usually result from indirect violence, or overuse, rather than direct violence.
Rupture usually results from the sudden application of an unbalanced load. Thus, complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is common in taking an awkward step backwards playing squash. There is sudden pain; the victim is often under the impression that he or she has received a blow. This is accompanied by loss of function, and a gap may be felt in the tendon.
Partial Rupture is also accompanied by pain, but there is no breach of continuity or complete loss of function. Treatment of a complete rupture usually means surgical repair followed by immobilisation of the tendon in plaster of Paris for six weeks. Partial rupture usually responds to physiotherapy and immobilisation, but healing is slow.... Medical Dictionary