Rhododendron Campanulatum D.don | Health Dictionary

Rhododendron Campanulatum D.don | Health Dictionary

Keywords of this word: Rhododendron Campanulatum Don


ACHILLES TENDON

Medical Dictionary

A thick tendon that joins the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) and pulls up that bone. The tendon is prone to rupture in middle-aged people playing vigorous sports such as squash or tennis. Named after the classical Greek hero Achilles, who was reputedly vulnerable to his enemies only in his heel.... Medical Dictionary

ADONIA

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish / Greek) Beautiful / feminine form of Adonis; lady Adonna, Adonya, Adoniah, Adonyah, Adonica, Adoncia... Medical Dictionary

ADONIS

Herbal Manual

Adonis vernalis. N.O. Ranunculaceae.

Synonym: False Hellebore, Pheasant's Eye. Habitat: Cornfields and meadows.

Features ? Stem up to one foot high. Leaves alternate, divided pinnately into linear segments. Flowers large, yellow, solitary at termination of stem. Oval head of achenes succeeds flower.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Cardiac, tonic, diuretic.

Highly esteemed in cases where stimulation of heart's action is necessary, heart strain and cardiac dropsy. Diuretic qualities of value in kidney affections. Dose, 1-2 drops of the fluid extract.... Herbal Manual

AEDON

Medical Dictionary

(Greek) In mythology, the queen of Thebes who killed her son and was turned into a nightingale... Medical Dictionary

ALDONSA

Medical Dictionary

(Spanish) One who is kind and gracious

Aldonza, Aldonsia, Aldonzia... Medical Dictionary

ALGODÓN

Medicinal Plants

Cotton, creole cotton (Gossypium barbadense).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, flower, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The leaf is traditionally prepared as a decoction and taken orally for vaginal infections, genitourinary inflammation, excess vaginal discharge and infections in general. The flower is typically prepared as a decoction and administered as a douche for excess vaginal discharge and genitourinary infections.

Safety: No information on the safety of the leaf, root or flower has been identified in the available literature. In human clinical trials the isolated constituent gossypol showed the following adverse effects: hypokalemia, irreversible anti-fertility (in men), fatigue, decreased libido and gastrointestinal disorders.

Contraindications: Insufficient information has been identified in the available literature.

Drug interactions: Insufficient information has been identified in the available literature.

Clinical Data: The isolated constituent gossypol has been investigated in human clinical trials for antifertility effects in men.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In animal studies the leaf aqueous extract has shown hypotensive effects. In vitro, gossypol has shown antifertility effects against sperm cells.

* See entry for Algodón in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

ARUNDO DONAX

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; found in Kashmir, Assam and the Nilgiris, also grown in hedges.

English: Great Reed, Spanish- Bamboo-Reed, Giant-Bamboo- Reed.

Ayurvedic: Nala, Potgala, Shuunya- madhya, Dhamana.

Siddha/Tamil: Korukkai.

Action: Rhizome—sudorific, emollient, diuretic, antilactant, antidropsical; uterine stimulant (stimulates menstrual discharge), hypotensive.

The rhizome yields indole-3-alkyl- amine bases, including bufotenidine and dehydro-bufontenine. The leaves yield sterols and triterpenoids.

Bufotenidine possesses antiacetyl- choline properties, histamine release activity and is a uterine stimulant. Alkaloids from the flowers produced cu- rarimetic effect of the non-polarizing type.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.) 4.5%) with methyl eugenol (an important constituent of A. europaeum), and also aristolochic acid. (Aristolochic acid is carcinogenic and nephrotoxic.) Asarum sp. are not used as a substitute for ginger.... Indian Medicinal Plants

BELLADONNA

Astral Projection, Visions **TOXIC** ...

BELLADONNA POISONING

Medical Dictionary

Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) is a relatively rare plant and severe poisoning is not common. The berries, which are black, ripen from August to October and are the most commonly ingested part of the plant. However, all parts of the plant are toxic. The berries contain ATROPINE and other unidenti?ed ALKALOIDS, the leaves HYOSCINE and atropine, and the roots hyoscine. All these alkaloids have an ANTICHOLINERGIC e?ect which may cause a dry mouth, dilated pupils with blurred vision, TACHYCARDIA, HALLUCINATIONS and PYREXIA. There may also be ATAXIA, agitation, disorientation and confusion. In severe cases there may be CONVULSIONS, COMA, respiratory depression and ARRHYTHMIA. Clinical e?ects may be delayed in onset for up to 12 hours, and prolonged for several days. Treatment is supportive.... Medical Dictionary

BLOOD DONOR

Medical Dictionary

An individual who donates his or her own blood for use in patients of compatible blood group who require transfusion.... Medical Dictionary

CALEDONIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Woman of Scotland Caledoniah, Caledoniya, Caledona, Caledonya, Calydona... Medical Dictionary

CHARDONNAY

Medical Dictionary

(French) Resembling the wine Chardonnaye, Chardonay, Chardonaye, Chardonnae, Chardonae, Chardonnai, Chardonai, Charde, Charday, Charday, Chardae, Chardai... Medical Dictionary

COMEDONES

Medical Dictionary

See ACNE.... Medical Dictionary

CYDONIA OBLONGA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Mill.

Synonym: C. vulgaris Pers.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Kashmir and the Nilgiri hills.

English: Quince Fruit.

Ayurvedic: Amritaphala, Paatalaa, Simbitikaa.

Unani: Bihi, Bihidaanaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Shimaimathala.

Action: Fruit pulp and seeds— soothing and demulcent; used in irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation, and in irritable conditions of the mucous membrane. Leaf, bud and bark—astringent. Fruit— expectorant. Mucilage—used externally for scalds, ulcers and burns.

The seed kernel contains the gly- coside amygdalin, tannin, mucilage (about 22%), ash (1.3%) and fatty oil (l4-19%).

In Greece, a tea prepared by boiling dry seeds in water is given in cystitis. The major water-soluble polysac- charide in the mucilage of seeds contains a high proportion of glucuronic acid residues.

The fruit contains pectin (yield 0.53% fresh weight) and is similar to that of apple. Ionone glycosides, along with octadienoic acid and its diol, have been isolated from the fruit.

Fruit juice contains thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, vitamin B6, inositol, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin.

The essential oil also gave a number of ionone-related compounds. The buds contain a cyanogenetic glycoside. The bark and shoots yield hydrocyanic acid on distillation.... Indian Medicinal Plants

CYNODON DACTYLON

Indian Medicinal Plants

Pers.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to 3,000 m.

English: Bermuda Grass, Bahama Grass, Couch Grass.

Ayurvedic: Duurvaa, Bhaargavi, Shatvalli, Shatparvaa, Tiktaparvaa, Shatviryaa, Sahastravirya, Shitaa, Anantaa, Golomi.

Unani: Duub.

Siddha/Tamil: Arugampallu.

Action: The grass is a reputed as a remedy in epitaxis, haematuria, inflammed tumours, whitlows fleshy excrescences, cuts, wounds, bleeding piles, cystitis, nephritis and in scabies and other skin diseases. It is credited with astringent, diuretic, antidiarrhoeal, anticatarrhal, styptic and antiseptic properties. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommended the dried fibrous root in menorrhagia, metrorrhagia and burning micturation.

Phenolic phytotoxins—ferulic, sy- ringic, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydro- xybenzoic and O-hydroxyphenyl acetic acids, are reported from the plant. The leaves contain tricin, flavone C- glycosides and a flavonoid sulphate.

Dosage: Whole plant—10-20 ml juice (API Vol. IV.); root—5-10 ml juice (API Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

DIODONE

Medical Dictionary

A complex, radio-opaque, organic, iodine-containing preparation, used for contrast radiography of parts of the body – in particular, the urinary tract (see PYELOGRAPHY).... Medical Dictionary

DODONAEA VISCOSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Linn. Jacq.

Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: North-western Himalaya up to 1,350 m, in Punjab, South India, ascending to 2,400 m on Nilgiris. Also planted as a hedge plant in Northern India.

English: Jamacia Switch Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Raasnaa (substitute, used in Andhra Pradesh). (Raasnaa is equated with Pluchea lanceolata C. B. Clarke.)

Siddha/Tamil: Virali, Velari.

Action: Leaves—anti-inflammatory and antibacterial (used in the treatment of swellings, burns, wounds), febrifuge, embrocation of leaves is applied to sprains. Bark— astringent and anti-inflammatory. Aerial parts—hypoglycaemic.

The plant contains bioflavonoids (vitamin P) which are biologically active in improving blood circulation and strengthening capillaries. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant exhibited cardioinhibitory and coronory constricting, also spasmolytic, sedative and hypotensive activity.

The leaves and pods gave iso-rham- netin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O- galactoside and quercetin-3-O-rutino- side. Resin gave a diterpene carboxylic acid (hautriwaic acid). Flowers gave kaempferol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

DONEPEZIL

Medical Dictionary

A drug used for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate DEMENTIA only in ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. Around four in ten patients may bene?t by a reduction in the rate of cognitive and non-cognitive deterioration.... Medical Dictionary

DONNA

Medical Dictionary

(Italian) A titled woman; feminine form of Donald; ruler of the world Dahna, Dahnya, Dona, Donalie, Donella, Donelle, Donetta, Donia, Donica, Donielle, Donisha, Donita, Donnalee, Donnalyn, Donna-Marie, Donnell, Donnella, Donnelle, Donni, Donnica, Donnie, Donnisse, Donny, Donya, Donatella, Donalda, Donaldina, Donata, Doneen... Medical Dictionary

DONOR INSEMINATION

Medical Dictionary

Use of the SEMEN of an anonymous donor to produce fertilisation in cases of INFERTILITY where the male partner has OLIGOSPERMIA or IMPOTENCE. The donor is chosen for ethnic and physiognomic similarity to the male partner and is screened for transmissible diseases

(e.g. HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, and genetic disorders). Insemination is performed at the time of ovulation by introducing the semen into the upper vagina. Semen may be fresh or have been stored frozen in liquid nitrogen. (See ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.)... Medical Dictionary

DONORS

Medical Dictionary

People who donate parts of their bodies for use in other people. Many organs and tissues can be donated – most commonly blood, but skin, corneas, kidneys, livers and hearts can all be used. Combined heart and lung transplants are being increasingly used for patients with severe lung diseases, and, if the recipients have a condition such as CYSTIC FIBROSIS in which the heart is normal, it is sometimes possible for them to receive a heart and lungs from one donor and to donate their own heart to someone else. Recent work has explored the possibility of using pancreatic transplants. Apart from blood, it is unusual for tissue to be taken from living donors. Skin, small pieces of liver, and a kidney can, in theory, be obtained from living donors, but the ETHICS of this are hotly debated and the situations under which it may be done are tightly controlled. Because transplanted organs are seen by the receiving body as ‘foreign bodies’, careful matching before transplantation is necessary to avoid rejection, and immunosuppressive drugs may be required for some time after the operation to prevent this from occurring.

There are strict regulations about how death should be diagnosed before organs can be removed for transplantation, and potential donors must satisfy the BRAIN-STEM DEATH criteria, performed twice by two doctors who are independent of the transplant team. There is a great shortage of suitable organs for donation – partly because they must be in excellent condition if the operation is to be a success. Some medical conditions or modes of death make people unsuitable as organ donors; this makes it all the more important that people should be encouraged to donate their organs. People who wish to do so can carry a special card indicating their willingness to become donors in the event of their death. These cards can be obtained from various sources, including hospitals, GPs’ surgeries and many public buildings such as libraries. In the UK, informed positive approval from the patient, or relatives, is required.

Information about becoming a blood donor can be obtained by telephoning 0845–7 711

711. Those who wish to bequeath their bodies for dissection purposes should get in touch with HM Inspector of Anatomy. Other would-be organ donors may contact the British Organ Donor Society.... Medical Dictionary

DONOVAN BODIES

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Diagnostic stages of granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

DONOVANOSIS

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Also known as granuloma inguinale. A tropical sexually transmitted disease caused byCalymmatobacterium granulomatis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

GLIQUIDONE

Medical Dictionary

See SULPHONYLUREAS.... Medical Dictionary

GORDONIA OBTUSA

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wall.

Family: Theaceae.

Habitat: Konkan and Western Ghats.

Folk: Miyili, Atangi, Ola, Nagette, Thorilla (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Leaves—stomachic, appetizer.

Leaves contain 0.04% alkaloid and tannic acid. The bark contains ellagic acid and coumarin.

English: Tree Cotton, Desi Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasi.

Siddha/Tamil: Sempartthi (Red Cotton), Sivappuparutthi.

Folk: Kapaasa.

Action: Seed—anticatarrhal (used in consumption), antigonorrhoeic (used in gleet and chronic cystitis). Root—febrifuge. Plant (especially leaf)—uterine stimulant.

The glands contain 35-50% gossy- pol, a polyphenolic toxic compound. Seeds contain 18.5-25.4% protein, 0.57-2.38% free gossypol. Gossypol is a male contraceptive. At an initial dose of 20 mg/day orally for 3 months, followed by 50-60 mg weekly maintenance dose, sperm motility is reduced initially as it inhibits important enzymes of metabolic pathways thus affecting availability of enzyme to spermatozoa. Subsequently sperm production is blocked.

Gossypol is reported to cause a transient weakness early in therapy, hy- pokalaemia and changes in ECG among other side effects.

Gossypol also assists menstrual flow and effectively inhibits eggs implantation.

Gossypol and its derivatives have been shown to have significant antimicrobial activity as well as wound healing effect. It is reported to kill herpes virus.... Indian Medicinal Plants

HAKIDONMUYA

Medical Dictionary

(Native American) Born during a period of expectation... Medical Dictionary

IDONA

Medical Dictionary

(Scandinavian) A fresh-faced woman Idonah, Idonna, Idonnah, Idonia, Idoniah, Idonea, Idoneah, Idonya, Idonyah... Medical Dictionary

IDONY

Medical Dictionary

(Scandinavian) One who has been reborn

Idoney, Idonee, Idonea, Idoni, Idonie... Medical Dictionary

KERDONNA

Medical Dictionary

(American) One who is loquacious

Kerdonnah, Kerdona, Kerdonah, Kerdonia, Kerdoniah, Kerdonea, Kerdoneah, Kirdonna, Kirdona, Kyrdonna, Kyrdona... Medical Dictionary

LADONNA

Medical Dictionary

(American) Form of Donna, meaning “ruler of the world” Ladona, Ladonnah, Ladonah, Ledonna, Ledona... Medical Dictionary

LANDON

Medical Dictionary

(English) From the long hill Landan, Lanton, Lantan... Medical Dictionary

LAUDONIA

Medical Dictionary

(Italian) Praises the house Laudonea, Laudoniya, Laudomia, Laudomea, Laudomiya... Medical Dictionary

LEISHMAN-DONOVAN BODIES

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

(LD Bodies) Amastigote stages of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. These stages in a skin biopsy, bone marrow or spleen aspirate are diagnostic of Leishmaniasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

LONDON

Medical Dictionary

(English) From the captial of 0 England... Medical Dictionary

MADONNA

Medical Dictionary

(Italian) My lady; refers to the Virgin Mary

Madonnah, Madona, Madonah... Medical Dictionary

METHADONE HYDROCHLORIDE

Medical Dictionary

Also known as Physeptone®, this is a synthetic drug structurally similar to MORPHINE, one of many opioid drugs used to treat severe pain. Methadone is, however, less sedating and has a longer half-life. Furthermore, it is more reliable when taken orally. Although vomiting is common, this is generally less severe than with morphine.

Methadone is valuable as a suppressant for non-productive cough, acting on the medullary ‘cough centre’ in the central nervous system. It is also helpful in weaning addicts o? morphine and heroin, having a slower onset of DEPENDENCE and a less severe withdrawal syndrome. When used for prolonged periods, methadone should not be given more often than twice daily, to avoid the risks of accumulation and opioid overdosage.... Medical Dictionary

ODONTALGIA

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Toothache... Medicinal Plants Glossary

ODONTOPATHY

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Any disease of the teeth... Medicinal Plants Glossary

ORTHODONTICS

Medical Dictionary

Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention and treatment of dental irregularities and malocclusion.... Medical Dictionary

PERIODONTAL

Medical Dictionary

An adjective that relates to the tissues around the TEETH.... Medical Dictionary

PERIODONTITIS

Herbal Medical

see PYORRHEA... Herbal Medical

PLATYCODON GRANDIFLORUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

(Jacq.) A. DC.

Family: Campanulaceae.

Habitat: East Asia; introduced into India and cultivated in rockeries and borders.

English: Balloon Flower, Chinese Bell Flower.

Action: Expectorant and antitussive. Root—used to treat cough, tonsillitis and asthma, also to treat stomatitis, peptic ulcer and inflammatory diseases. (WHO.)

The major chemical constituents of the root are triterpene saponins. The root exhibits haemolytic action.... Indian Medicinal Plants

PRIMIDONE

Medical Dictionary

A barbiturate-related drug (see BARBITURATES) used to treat all forms of EPILEPSY, except in su?erers who do not have seizures.... Medical Dictionary

RHODODENDRON ANTHOPOGON

Indian Medicinal Plants

D. Don.

Habitat: The alpine Himalayas from Himachal Pradesh to Bhutan, from 3,000 to 5,000 m.

Folk: Taalisri (Punjab), Taalish (Tibet), Tazaktsum, Taalis-faz (Kashmir).

Action: Leaves—stimulant. The plant yields an incense. The leaves of R. anthopogon get mixed up with those of Abies webbiana (used for respiratory diseases).

The leaves contain quercetin, myri- cetin, taxifolin, kaempferol derivatives, ursolic acid and its acetate, epi- friedinol, beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid and rutin.

The leaves of R. lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, known as Taalisfur in Punjab; and R. setosum D. Don, known as Tsalluo in Bhutan, possess properties similar to those of R. anthopogon.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RHODODENDRON ARBOREUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Sm.

Synonym: R. puniceum Roxb.

Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, the Nilgiris, Khasi Hills and Travancore.

English: Tree-Rhododendron, Rose-Tree.

Folk: Burans (Kumaon), Kurbak, Pullaas.

Action: Leaf—anticephalalgic (applied to the forehead). Leaf and stem-bark—spasmolytic. Flowers— used in diarrhoea and dysentery.

The green leaves contain a gluco- side, ericolin. The extracts of leaves, stems and bark cause hypotension in cats and inhibit intestinal movements in rabbits. The acetone and chloroform extracts and a resinous fraction from the alcoholic extract of leaves depress respiration. The petroleum ether extract decreases the rate of heartbeat and contraction in isolated heart of frog.

An alcoholic (50%) extract of the flowers lowered blood pressure in dogs and albino rats.

Cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyani- din-3-arbinoside are present in the pigments of flowers. The leaves of var. nilgiricum and var. cinnamonum contain ursolic acid, friedelin, epifrie- delanol, quercetin. A triterpenoid, campanulin, has been isolated from the leaves of var. nilagaricum.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RHODODENDRON BARBATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Wall. ex G. Don.

Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Bhutan, extending to Assam.

English: Giantblood Rhododendron.

Folk: Chimal (Nepal), Kurbak, Guraans.

Action: Respiratory depressant, emetic, toxic.

The leaves and flowers gave an- dromedotoxin which resembles tertiary amine veratrum alkaloids, particularly protoveratrine, in pharmacological action. Intravenous administration of andromedotoxin to dogs resulted in 20-40% reduction in blood pressure. It also closely resembles protoveratrine in its stimulating effect on the barostatic-pressor-reflex- mechanism, respiratory effects and emetic action. It produces reflex va- sodepressor responses in intact animals; in debuffered dogs, it produced vasopressor responses. It also produced, both direct and indirect, positive ionotropic effects, the latter being more pronounced.

The leaves contain ursolic acid, alpha-amyrin, epi-friedelinol, cam- panulin and hyperoside. Chloroform extract of the leaves and shoots showed a depressant action. The honey from flowers is poisonous; contains an- dromedotoxin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RHODODENDRON CAMPANULATUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

D. Don.

Synonym: R. aeruginosum Hk. f.

Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the Himalayas at altitudes of 2,400-5,200 m.

Folk: Chimal (Kumaon, Nepal), Gagger vurmi, Nichnai (Kashmir). Cherailu, Taalis-far.

Action: Leaves—used in chronic rheumatism and sciatica. As a snuff, in colds and hemicrania.

The leaves gave a toxic substance which resembles andromedotoxin; besides ericolin, ursolic acid, alpha-amy- rin, friedelin, epi-friedelinol, campan- ulin, quercitin. The pigments of flowers contain myricetin and quercetin.

Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of leaves, stems and flowers lower blood pressure in cats and inhibit intestinal movements in rabbits.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RHODODENDRON CINNABARINUM

Indian Medicinal Plants

Hook. f.

Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, extending into the Balipura tract and Aka hills of Assam at altitudes of 2,100-4,000 m.

Folk: Balu, Sanu, Chimal (Nepal).

Action: Plant—vasodepressor.

The plant contains a toxic principle, andromedotoxin. The leaves are reported to contain friedelin, epi- friedelinol, alpha-amyrin, campanulin, ursolic acid, triterpenes and quercetin.

The flowers are reported to be poisonous.

R.falconeri Hook. f., known as Ko- rlinga in Nepal, Kegu and Kalma in Bhutan, is found in the Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan, Aka Hills, Naga Hills and Manipur at altitudes of 2,1004,300 m.

The leaves and stem contain an- dromedotoxin; leaves also contain ur- solic acid, alpha-amyrin, friedelin, campanulin and quercetin. The flowers contain 3-rhamnoside and 3-galacto- side of quercetin. The bark gave taraxe- rol, betulinic acid and quercetin.

Petroleum ether extract of the leaves and stems lowers blood pressure in cats and inhibits intestinal movements in rabbits.... Indian Medicinal Plants

RISUS SARDONICUS

Medical Dictionary

The term used for describing the facial appearance when the muscles of the forehead and the face go into spasm in TETANUS, giving the e?ect of a sardonic grin.... Medical Dictionary

SEDONA

Medical Dictionary

(American) Woman from a city in Arizona

Sedonah, Sedonna, Sedonnah, Sedonia, Sedonea... Medical Dictionary

SIDONIE

Medical Dictionary

(French) Feminine form of Sidonius; woman of Sidon Sidonia, Sidone, Sidoniya, Sidonea, Sidony, Sidoni, Sidoney, Sidonee... Medical Dictionary

TENDON

Medical Dictionary

A tendon – also known as sinew, or leader – is the cord of tissue that attaches the end of a muscle to the bone or other structure upon which the muscle acts when it contracts. Tendons are composed of bundles of white ?brous tissue arranged in a very dense manner, and are of great strength. Some are rounded, some ?attened bands, whilst others are very short – the muscle-?bres being attached almost directly to the bone. Most tendons are surrounded by sheaths lined with membrane similar to the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE lining joint-cavities: in this sheath the tendon glides smoothly over surrounding parts. The ?bres of a tendon pass into the substance of the bone and blend with the ?bres composing it. One of the largest tendons in the body is the Achilles tendon, or tendo calcaneus, which attaches the muscle of the calf to the calcaneus or heel-bone.

Tendon injuries are one of the hazards of sports (see SPORTS MEDICINE). They usually result from indirect violence, or overuse, rather than direct violence.

Rupture usually results from the sudden application of an unbalanced load. Thus, complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is common in taking an awkward step backwards playing squash. There is sudden pain; the victim is often under the impression that he or she has received a blow. This is accompanied by loss of function, and a gap may be felt in the tendon.

Partial Rupture is also accompanied by pain, but there is no breach of continuity or complete loss of function. Treatment of a complete rupture usually means surgical repair followed by immobilisation of the tendon in plaster of Paris for six weeks. Partial rupture usually responds to physiotherapy and immobilisation, but healing is slow.... Medical Dictionary

TENDON TRANSFER

Medical Dictionary

Reconstructive surgery in which the TENDON from an unimportant muscle is removed and used to repair or replace a damaged tendon of a major muscle.... Medical Dictionary

VIDONIA

Medical Dictionary

(Latin) Of the vine branch Vidoniah, Vidonya, Vydonia, Vydonya, Vedonia... Medical Dictionary